Tudela, Navarre
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Tudela is a
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, the second largest city of the
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...
of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
and twice a former Latin bishopric. Its population is around 35,000. The city is sited in the
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
valley. Fast trains running on two-track electrified railways serve the city and two freeways (AP 68 and AP 15) join close to it. Tudela is the capital of the agricultural region of ''Ribera Navarra'', and also the seat of the courts of its judicial district. The poet
Al-Tutili Abu ’l-ʿAbbās (or Abū Dj̲aʿfar) Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Hurayra al-ʿUtbī (or al-Kaysī) () (died 1126), nicknamed al-Aʿmā al-Tuṭīlī or the Blind Poet of Tudela, was an Andalusian '' mūwallad'' poet who composed in Arabic ...
, the 12th-century traveler
Benjamin of Tudela Benjamin of Tudela ( he, בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, ; ar, بنيامين التطيلي ''Binyamin al-Tutayli'';‎ TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudel ...

Benjamin of Tudela
, the 13th century writer
William of Tudela William of Tudela (in Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are ...
and the physician and theologian
Michael de Villanueva
Michael de Villanueva
were from the city. The city hosts an annual festival in honor of Santa Ana (mother of the Virgin Mary) which begins on 24 July at noon and continues for approximately a week. Street music, bullfights and the running of the bulls are typical events of the festival.


History

Archeological excavations have shown that the area of Tudela has been populated since the
lower paleolithic The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, lithos - stone) ...
era. The town of Tudela was founded by the
Romans Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
on
Celt-Iberian The Celtiberians were a group of Celts and Celticisation, Celticized peoples inhabiting an area in the central-northeastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. They were explicitly mentioned as being Celts by several classic authors ...
settlements. Since then the town has been inhabited continuously. The Roman poet
Marcus Valerius Martialis Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial ; March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Unde ...

Marcus Valerius Martialis
(Epigrams Book IV, 55) "recalls in grateful verse" the town of Tutela compared to his native Bilbilis. The city was later taken by the Arabs during the
Umayyad conquest of Hispania The Umayyad The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate wa ...
and became the
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
emirate of
Al-Hakam I Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I () was Umayyad dynasty, Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in Al-Andalus (Moors, Moorish Iberian Peninsula, Iberia). Biography Al-Hakam was the second son of his father, his older brother having d ...
in 802 under
Amrus ibn Yusuf 'Amrus ibn Yusuf al-Muwallad al-Laridi ( ar, عمروس بن يوسف المولد, died 808/9 or 813/4) was a Muwallad (probably of Visigoths, Visigothic origin) general of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Emirate of Córdoba and governor of Zaragoza. ...
al- Muwalad. At the beginning of the 9th century, the strategic importance of Tudela as a site on the river
Ebro , name_etymology = , image = Zaragoza shel.JPG , image_size = , image_caption = The Ebro River in Zaragoza , map = SpainEbroBasin.png , map_size = , map_caption = The Ebro r ...
was enhanced by historical and political circumstances. It became the base of the Muwallad
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
family, local magnates converted to Islam that managed to stay independent of the
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politic ...

emir
s, establishing an on-off alliance and close ties with the Kings of
Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo ...

Pamplona
over the next century. With the power of the Banu Qasi fading at the onset of the 10th century, the town fell under the influence of the rising
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
and had to come up against a more aggressive policy on the part of the new dynasty ruling in Pamplona, the Jiménez dynasty, Ximenes, who had set up close ties with their neighbouring Christian kingdoms. The town was used by Muslims as a bridgehead to fight against the expanding Kingdom of Navarre. When Christians under Alfonso the Battler conquered Tudela in 1119, three different religious communities were living there: * the Muslims, * the Mozarabs * the History of the Jews in Spain, Jews (see Jewish Tudela, Jews in Tudela) In the aftermath of the conquest, community relations appear to have been strained and Muslims were forced to live in a suburb outside the town walls, whereas Jews continued to reside inside the walls . The co-existence of different cultures is reflected in Tudela's reputation for producing important medieval writers such as
Al-Tutili Abu ’l-ʿAbbās (or Abū Dj̲aʿfar) Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Hurayra al-ʿUtbī (or al-Kaysī) () (died 1126), nicknamed al-Aʿmā al-Tuṭīlī or the Blind Poet of Tudela, was an Andalusian '' mūwallad'' poet who composed in Arabic ...
. In 1157 the English scholar Robert of Ketton, first translator of the Koran to a Western tongue (Latin), became a canon (priest), canon of Tudela. The Jews were banished in 1498 (the expulsion from Navarre occurring slightly later than in the rest of Spain). Muslims and Moriscos were expelled in 1516 and 1610 respectively. There are still examples of Islamic-influenced architecture in the city - the style the Spanish call Mudéjar; but the principal mosque was handed over to the Catholic Church in 1121, and by the end of the 12th century construction of the (future) cathedral of Our Lady of Solitude had begun. Later Tudela became an important defensive point for the Kingdom of Navarre in battles with Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon. Tudela was an Agramont party stronghold and actually the last Navarrese one to surrender to Ferdinand II of Aragon's Aragonese troops in the initial Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre, 1512 Spanish invasion of Navarre, only doing so to avoid futile bloodshed, Spanish pillaging and further confiscations to town dwellers, after the Navarrese king failed to send a relief force. At the end of the 17th century, a new public square was built, called ''Plaza Nueva'' or ''Plaza de los Fueros'', which became the main city square. In 1783 the Diocese of Tudela was created, split off from Pamplona. On 23 November 1808, Napoleon Bonaparte's Marshal Jean Lannes, Lannes won the Battle of Tudela in the Peninsular War. The train station was built in 1861, which, together with the agricultural revolution, resulted in a new period of expansion for the city. The bishopric was merged back into 'Pamplona-Tudela' in 1851, restored in 1889 and ultimately suppressed in 1984.


Main sites

* Tudela Cathedral, The Cathedral of Our Lady of Solitude (12th-13th centuries). It includes examples of Romanesque architecture, such as the ''Puerta del Juicio'', or Door of the Last Judgement, (Last) Judgement, some gothic architecture, Gothic influences and Baroque additions to the building. * Church of Magdalene, Tudela, Church of Magdalene (12th century), in Romanesque style * Church of ''San Nicolás ''(12th century) * Church of ''San Jorge '' (17th century), in Baroque style


Gastronomy

The ''Casa Salinas'' bakery in Tudela, known for its excellent mantecadas, closed in January 2011 after 138 years in business. Another traditional dessert is manjar blanco. The Days of Exaltation and Festivals of the Vegetable are celebrated in the Navarra de Tudela locality during ten days, generally in the first fortnight of May or from the end of April. Although the central acts are developed in those ten days, before and after there are acts related to the days. In 2019 they will be from April 12 to May 5. Its origin is in the "Week of the Vegetable" that began to be organized in the 80s. In the current format it has been developed since 1994 (this year the twentieth edition is celebrated). They were declared Fiestas of National Tourist Interest in the year 2011. There are hundreds of events that take place before, during and after the Days of Exaltation and Festivals of the Vegetable since Tudela and its fertile orchard allow to enjoy different seasonal products. From the firing of the announcing rocket until the last day of celebration are hundreds of acts that can be enjoyed: from gastronomic routes with pinchos and menus where the vegetable is the protagonist until popular dinners, contests of stews with vegetables, workshops, talks and even a tweeter encounter called "vegetables & tweets". The main events are the weekend with the "General Chapter of the Order of Volatín" which includes the proclamation of the festivities, the appointment of the Knight of Honor and the Prize Exaltation of the Vegetable. All these acts are completed with the Great Concert of the Days of the Vegetables where a renowned musical group animates the Saturday night.


Education

* Universidad Nacional de Educación a distancia * Universidad Pública de Navarra
IES Benjamín de Tudela
* IES Valle del Ebro * Colegio San Francisco Javier * CP Virgen de la Cabeza * CP Monte de San Julián * CP Elvira España * CP Griseras * Colegio Anunciata * Colegio Compañía de María * Escuela Técnico Industrial ETI


Transport

The town is served by the Tudela de Navarra railway station on the Casetas–Bilbao railway.


Notable locals

* Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia, Abraham Abulafia, founder of the school of Prophetic Kabbalah. He lived his childhood and some of his youth in Tudela * Abraham ibn Ezra, scholar * Yehuda Halevi, poet and philosopher *
Benjamin of Tudela Benjamin of Tudela ( he, בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה, ; ar, بنيامين التطيلي ''Binyamin al-Tutayli'';‎ TudelaTudela may refer to: *Tudela, Navarre, a town and municipality in northern Spain ** Benjamin of Tudel ...

Benjamin of Tudela
, traveler * Shem-Tob ben Isaac Shaprut of Tudela, Shem-Tob ibn Shaprut, philosopher, physician, and polemicist * Robert d'Aguiló (c.1100–c.1159), governor of Tudela * Robert of Ketton (c.1110–c.1160), canon of Tudela and Arabist * Berengaria of Navarre, wife of Richard the Lionheart *
Michael de Villanueva
Michael de Villanueva
, known by the pseudonym ''Servetus'', Christian reformer, physician, astronomer, and humanist *
William of Tudela William of Tudela (in Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are ...
, writer
Abraham Yom-Tob of Tudela
commentator
Hasdai ben Solomon
rabbi
Ibn Shaprut
philosopher
Joel ibn Shu'aib
author of sermons and Exegesis, biblical commentary * José Castel (1737–1807), composer of zarzuelas * Fernando Remacha (1898–1984), composer * Rafael Moneo (b. 1937), architect * Ismael Urzaiz (b. 1971), Spanish footballer


Twin towns

* Mauleon-Soule, France, since 1965 * Tiberias, Israel, since 1984 * Mont-de-Marsan, France, since 1986


References


Sources and external links

*
Ayuntamiento de Tudela
(Spanish)

Spanish)
City of Tudela
(Spanish)




Town Festivals
(Spanish)
Tudela
euskomedia.org; accessed 23 November 2016. {{authority control Municipalities in Navarre