* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics
* 4 Current status
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
Arrival of UN Visiting Mission, Majuro , 1978. The sign reads "Please release us from the bondage of your trusteeship agreement."
Spain initially claimed the islands that later comprised the
territory of the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI).
Subsequently, Germany established competing claims over the islands.
The competing claims were eventually resolved in favor of Germany when
Spain, following its loss of several possessions to the United States
The TTPI entered UN trusteeship pursuant to Security Council
Resolution 21 on July 18, 1947 and was designated a "strategic area"
in its 1947 trusteeship agreement. Article 83 of the UN Charter
provided that, as such, its formal status as a UN trust territory
could be terminated only by the Security Council , and not by the
General Assembly as with other trust territories. The United States
Navy controlled the TTPI from a headquarters in
The Territory contained 100,000 people scattered over a water area the size of continental United States. They represented a variety of cultures and spoke nine languages. The Ponapeans and Kusaieans, Marshallese and Palauans, Truckese, Yapese and Chamorros had little in common, except they were in the same general area of the Pacific Ocean.
The large distances between people, lack of an economy, language and cultural barriers, all worked against the union. The six district centers became upscale slums, containing deteriorated Japanese-built roads, with electricity, modern music and distractions, alienated youth and bewildered elders. The remainder of the islands stayed as they were historically, not progressing, but not regressing.
A Congress of
On October 21, 1986, the U.S. ended its administration of the
Marshall Islands District . The termination of U.S. administration of
the Chuuk , Yap , Kosrae , Pohnpei , and the Mariana Islands districts
of the TTPI soon followed on November 3, 1986. The Security Council
formally ended the trusteeship for the Chuuk, Yap, Kosrae, Pohnpei,
Mariana Islands, and
Marshall Islands districts on December 22, 1990
pursuant to Security Council Resolution 683 . On May 25, 1994, the
Council ended the trusteeship for the
In 1969, the 100 occupied islands comprised 700 square miles (1,800
km2) over an area of 3,000,000 square miles (7,800,000 km2) of sea.
The latter area was comparable in size to the continental United
States. The water area is about 2% of the
The population of the islands was 200,000 in the latter part of the 19th century. The population decreased to 100,000 by 1969 due to emigration, war, and disease. At that time, the population inhabited less than 100 out of 2,141 of the Marshall, Mariana, and Caroline Islands.
The area is now divided into four jurisdictions:
SOVEREIGN STATES IN FREE ASSOCIATION WITH THE UNITED STATES
The following sovereign states have become freely associated with the
* Republic of the
Marshall Islands - Established 1979, COFA
effective October 21, 1986
Federated States of Micronesia
COMMONWEALTH IN POLITICAL UNION WITH THE UNITED STATES
* Commonwealth of the
Northern Mariana Islands
* ^ A B C D E F