The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a
few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming
the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the
Psittaciformes (parrots). True parrots are
widespread, with species in
* 1 Overview
* 1.1 Distribution and habitat
* 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links
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True parrots have a beak with a characteristic curved shape, the jaw with a mobility slightly higher than where it connects with the skull, and a generally upright position. They also have a large cranial capacity and are one of the most intelligent bird groups. They are good fliers and skillful climbers on branches of trees.
Some species can imitate the human voice and other sounds, although they do not have vocal cords — instead possessing a vocal organ at the base of the trachea known as the syrinx .
Like most parrots the Psittacidae are primarily seed eaters. Some variation is seen in the diet of individual species, with fruits, nuts, leaves, and even insects and other animal prey being taken on occasion by some species. The lorikeets are predominantly nectar feeders; many other parrots drink nectar, as well. Most Psittacidae are cavity-nesting birds which form monogamous pair bonds.
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
The true parrots are distributed throughout the tropical and
subtropical regions of the world, mostly in the
Southern Hemisphere ,
covering many different habitats , from the humid tropical forests to
Many species are classified as threatened by the International Union
for the Conservation of Nature (see
IUCN Red List
About 18 species of parrots have gone extinct since 1500 (see List of extinct birds# Psittaciformes ), nearly all in superfamily Psittacoidea.
Further information: Parrot § Taxonomy
Phylogeny and relationships of Psittacoidea
The parrot family Psittacidae (along with the family Cacatuidae comprising the order Psittaciformes) was traditionally considered to contain two subfamilies , the Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) and the Loriinae (lories and lorikeets ). However, the tree of the parrot family now has been reorganized under the superfamily Psittacoidea: family Psittacidae has been split into three families, tribes Strigopini and Nestorini split out and placed under superfamily Strigopoidea and a new monotypic superfamily Cacatuoidea created containing family Cacatuidae.
The following classification is based on the most recent proposal, which in turn is based on all the relevant recent findings.
Family Psittacidae , New World and African parrots
* Tribe Arini : 17 genera, and one extinct genus * Tribe Androglossini : seven genera * clade (proposed tribe Amoropsittacini) four genera * clade (proposed tribe Forpini) one genus * (other tribes) five genera
Family Psittrichasiidae , Indian Ocean island parrots
* Tribe Pezoporini : ground parrots and allies * Tribe Platycercini : broad-tailed parrots
* Tribe Loriini : lories and lorikeets * Tribe Melopsittacini : one genus with one species, the budgerigar * Tribe Cyclopsittini : fig parrots
* Species list sortable alphabetically by common or scientific name * Species list in taxonomic order
* ^ Snyder, N; McGowan, P; Gilardi, J; McGowan, P; Gilardi, J; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Wright, Timothy F.; Schodde, Richard (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)". Zootaxa. 3205: 26–40. * ^ del Hoyo (1997). Handbook of Birds of the World, Vol.4. Lynx Editions. p. 281. * ^ Nicole E. White; Matthew J. Phillips; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez; Eske Willerslev; Peter R. Mawson; Peter B.S. Spencer; Michael Bunce (2011). "The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 615–622. PMID 21419232 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.011 . * ^ Manuel Schweizer, Ole Seehausen & Stefan T. Hertwig (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38: 2176–2194. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x .
* ^ Leo Joseph; Alicia Toon; Erin E. Schirtzinger; Timothy F.
Wright (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera
Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of
Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 675–684. PMID 21453777 . doi
* ^ Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E.; Matsumoto T.; Eberhard J. R.;
Graves G. R.; Sanchez J. J.; Capelli S.; Muller H.; Scharpegge J.;
Chambers G. K.; Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular
Phylogeny of the