The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a
few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming
the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the
Psittaciformes (parrots). True parrots are
widespread, with species in
* 1 Overview
* 1.1 Distribution and habitat
* 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (January 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
True parrots have a beak with a characteristic curved shape, the jaw with a mobility slightly higher than where it connects with the skull, and a generally upright position. They also have a large cranial capacity and are one of the most intelligent bird groups. They are good fliers and skillful climbers on branches of trees.
Some species can imitate the human voice and other sounds, although they do not have vocal cords — instead possessing a vocal organ at the base of the trachea known as the syrinx .
Like most parrots the
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
The true parrots are distributed throughout the tropical and
subtropical regions of the world, mostly in the
Many species are classified as threatened by the International Union
for the Conservation of Nature (see
IUCN Red List
About 18 species of parrots have gone extinct since 1500 (see List of extinct birds# Psittaciformes ), nearly all in superfamily Psittacoidea.
Phylogeny and relationships of Psittacoidea
The parrot family
The following classification is based on the most recent proposal, which in turn is based on all the relevant recent findings.
* Tribe Arini : 17 genera, and one extinct genus * Tribe Androglossini : seven genera * clade (proposed tribe Amoropsittacini) four genera * clade (proposed tribe Forpini) one genus * (other tribes) five genera
Family Psittrichasiidae , Indian Ocean island parrots
Family Psittaculidae , Asian and Australasian parrots, and lovebirds
* Tribe Pezoporini : ground parrots and allies * Tribe Platycercini : broad-tailed parrots
* Tribe Loriini : lories and lorikeets * Tribe Melopsittacini : one genus with one species, the budgerigar * Tribe Cyclopsittini : fig parrots
* Species list sortable alphabetically by common or scientific name * Species list in taxonomic order
* ^ Snyder, N; McGowan, P; Gilardi, J; McGowan, P; Gilardi, J; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Wright, Timothy F.; Schodde, Richard (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)". Zootaxa. 3205: 26–40. * ^ del Hoyo (1997). Handbook of Birds of the World, Vol.4. Lynx Editions. p. 281. * ^ Nicole E. White; Matthew J. Phillips; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez; Eske Willerslev; Peter R. Mawson; Peter B.S. Spencer; Michael Bunce (2011). "The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 615–622. PMID 21419232 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.011 . * ^ Manuel Schweizer, Ole Seehausen & Stefan T. Hertwig (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38: 2176–2194. doi :10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x .
* ^ Leo Joseph; Alicia Toon; Erin E. Schirtzinger; Timothy F. Wright (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 675–684. PMID 21453777 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017 . * ^ Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E.; Matsumoto T.; Eberhard J. R.; Graves G. R.; Sanchez J. J.; Capelli S.; Muller H.; Scharpegge J.; Chambers G. K.; Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous" . Mol Biol Evol. 25 (10): 2141–2156. PMC 2727385 . PMID 18653733 . doi :10.1093/molbev/msn160 . * ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen O; Güntert M; Hertwig ST (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–94. PMID 19699808 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021 . * ^ de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706–721. PMID 16099384 . doi :10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013 .
* ^ 4 species are ground dwelling: three in genus
Pezoporus and the