Truck Classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck (typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR)), and can vary among jurisdictions.
In the United States, commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). The classes range from 1–8. Trucks are also classified more broadly by the Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which groups classes 1–3 as light duty, 4–6 as medium duty, and 7–8 as heavy duty. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has a separate system of emissions classifications for trucks. The United States Census Bureau also assigned classifications in its now-discontinued Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) (formerly Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS)).
|US truck class||Duty classification||Weight limit ||Examples|
|Class 1||Light truck||0–6,000 pounds (0–2,722 kg)||Dodge Dakota, Chevrolet Colorado/GMC Canyon, Toyota Tacoma, Nissan Frontier, Ford Ranger|
|Class 2||Light truck||6,001–10,000 pounds (2,722–4,536 kg)||Ram 1500, Chevrolet Silverado 1500, Ford F-150|
|Class 3||Light truck||10,001–14,000 pounds (4,536–6,350 kg)||Ram 3500, GMC Sierra 3500, Ford E-350, Ford F-350, Hummer H1|
|Class 4||Medium truck||14,001–16,000 pounds (6,351–7,257 kg)||Ram 4500, GMC 4500, Ford E-450, Ford F-450 |
|Class 5||Medium truck||16,001–19,500 pounds (7,258–8,845 kg)||Ram 5500, GMC 5500, Ford F-550, International TerraStar |
|Class 6||Medium truck||19,501–26,000 pounds (8,846–11,793 kg)||Chevrolet Kodiak C6500, Ford F-650, International Durastar |
|Class 7||Heavy truck||26,001–33,000 pounds (11,794–14,969 kg)||Autocar ACMD, GMC C7500, Ford F-750 |
|Class 8||Heavy truck||33,001 pounds (14,969 kg)+||Autocar ACX, International WorkStar, Kenworth T600, Kenworth T660, Kenworth T680 Peterbilt 389 - Semi-trailer trucks fall into this category|
|Class 9||Super-heavy / special duty truck||33,001 pounds (14,969 kg)+||Usually class 8 truck with special duty characteristics, e.g. - Autocar ACX 12x6, International WorkStar, Western Star 6900 (6900XD or 6900TS).|
Class 2 is subdivided into Class 2a (½-ton) and Class 2b (¾-ton), with class 2a being 6,001–8,500 pounds (2,722–3,856 kg), and class 2b being 8,501–10,000 pounds (3,856–4,536 kg). Examples of vehicles in Class 2b include the Ram 2500, Chevrolet Silverado 2500, and the Ford F-250. SUVs in Class 2b include the Ford Excursion and the Chevrolet Suburban 2500. Class 2a is commonly referred to as a light duty truck, with class 2b being the lowest heavy-duty class, also called the light heavy-duty class.
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When light-duty trucks were first produced in the United States, they were rated by their payload capacity in tons (e.g., ½-, ¾- and 1-ton). Over time, payload capacities for most domestic pickup trucks have increased while the ton titles have stayed the same. The now-imprecise ton rating is presently used to compare standard sizes, rather than actual capacities.
This has led to categorizing trucks similarly, even if their payload is different. Therefore, the Toyota Tacoma, Dodge Dakota, Ford Ranger, Honda Ridgeline, Chevrolet S-10, GMC S-15 and Nissan Frontier are called quarter-tons (¼-ton). The Ford F-150, Chevrolet C10/K10, Chevrolet/GMC 1500, Dodge 1500, Toyota Tundra, and Nissan Titan are half-tons (½-ton). The Ford F-250, Chevrolet C20/K20, Chevrolet/GMC 2500, and Dodge 2500 are three-quarter-tons (¾-ton). Chevrolet/GMC's ¾-ton suspension systems were further divided into light and heavy-duty, differentiated by 5-lug and 6 or 8-lug wheel hubs depending on year, respectively. The Ford F-350, Chevrolet C30/K30, Chevrolet/GMC 3500, and Dodge 3500 are one tons (1-ton).
Similar schemes exist for vans and SUVs (e.g. a 1-ton Dodge Van or a ½-ton GMC Suburban), medium duty trucks (e.g. the Ford 1½-ton F-450) and some military vehicles, like the ubiquitous deuce-and-a-half.
Vehicles in Class 7 and above require a Class-B commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate in the United States.
The Class 8 truck gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) is a vehicle with a GVWR exceeding 33000 lb (14969 kg). These include tractor trailer tractors as well as single-unit dump trucks of a GVWR over 33,000 lb; such trucks typically have 3 or more axles. The typical 5-axle tractor-trailer combination, also called a "semi" or "18-wheeler", is a Class 8 vehicle. Standard trailers vary in length from 8' containers to 57' van trailers, with the most common length being the 53' trailer. Specialized trailers for oversized loads can be considerably longer. Commercial operation of a Class 8 vehicle in the United States requires either a Class-B CDL for non-combination vehicles, or a Class-A CDL for combination vehicles (tractor-trailers).
The practical gross vehicle weight limit in the USA for Class 8 trucks is determined by per-axle weight limits set by the Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula on interstate highways. Longer 18-wheelers can weigh up to 80,000 lbs. In most states, exceptions to these limits can be made for an Oversize load but they require special permits and handling on a designated route.
Vehicle classifications vary among provinces in Canada, due to "differences in size and weight regulations, economic activity, physical environment, and other issues".:3 While several provinces use their own classification schemes for traffic monitoring, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan have adopted the 13-class system from the United States' Federal Highway Administration—sometimes with modifications, or in Ontario's case, for limited purposes.:3–4[needs update] British Columbia and Ontario also distinguish between short- and long-combination trucks.:3–4[needs update] In accident reporting, eight jurisdictions subdivide trucks by GVWR into light and heavy classes at approximately 4500 kg 9921 lb.:6
In the European scheme the licenses are (among others) B for cars, C for trucks (lorries), D for buses, and are limited by the GVWR.
Divides into two types:
Class 1 Light duty Toyota Tacoma
Class 8 Kenworth W900 tractor with spread-axle 48 feet (15 m) refrigerated trailer.
Class 9 Western Star 6900XD tractor.
Furthermore, the fleet characteristics vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction across the country because of differences in size and weight regulations, economic activity, physical environment, and other issues. This has led to a wide variety of vehicle classification systems used by highway agencies and municipal authorities in their traffic monitoring programs.