The TRUCIAL COAST ( Arabic : الساحل المتهادن، _أو المتصالح_ _As-Sāḥil al-Mutahādin/al-Mutaṣāliḥ_; also known as TRUCIAL STATES, TRUCIAL OMAN, TRUCIAL STATES OF THE COAST OF OMAN, and TRUCIAL SHEIKHDOMS) were a group of tribal confederations in the south-eastern Persian Gulf , previously known to the British as the 'Pirate Coast', which were signatories to treaties (hence 'trucial') with the British government. These treaties established an informal protectorate by Great Britain, and the sheikhdoms, or emirates, were a British protectorate from 1820 until 2 December 1971, when the seven principal trucial sheikhdoms became independent. Six (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Al Quwain and Fujairah) were to form the United Arab Emirates on that day; the seventh – Ras Al Khaimah – joined the Federation on 10 February 1972.
* 1 Overview
* 2 The 1820 treaty
* 3 Treaty of 1892
* 4 End of the
The sheikhdoms included:
The sheikhdoms permanently allied themselves with the United Kingdom
by the Perpetual Maritime Truce of 1853, until in 1892 they entered
into "Exclusivity Agreements" with the British - following on from
Two sheikhdoms at various times looked as if they might be granted trucial status, affirming their independence from neighbouring Sharjah, Al Hamriyah and Al Heera , but neither signed treaties with the British. Kalba, granted trucial status in 1936 because it was chosen as the site of a back-up landing strip for the Imperial Airways flights into Sharjah, was re-incorporated into Sharjah in 1951 on the death of its ruler.
The last sheikhdom to be granted recognition was that of Fujairah, which became a trucial state in 1952 after the British government came under pressure from PCL (Petroleum Concessions Limited) to grant status in order that the company could have a free hand to explore for oil along the whole east coast.
In 1952, the
Indian rupee remained the _de facto_ currency of the Trucial
States as well as the other
Persian Gulf states such as
THE 1820 TREATY
The south eastern Persian Gulf coast was called the " Pirate Coast " by the British, who argued that raiders based there - particularly the 'Qawasim' or 'Joasmees' - now known as the Al Qasimi (the Ruling families of Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah), harassed British flagged shipping.
The first in a long series of maritime skirmishes between the Al
Qasimi and British vessels took place in 1797, when the
British-flagged _Bassein Snow_ was seized and released two days later.
The cruiser _Viper_ was subsequently attacked off Bushire. A period of
great instability followed along the coast, with a number of actions
between British and Al Qasimi vessels alongside various changes of
leadership and allegiances between the Rulers of Ras Al Khaimah, Ajman
and Sharjah with
This version has been particularly well articulated by Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi , the current Ruler of Sharjah, in his 1986 book _The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf_.
British expeditions to protect British Indian trade and interests
Ras al-Khaimah , close to the
Strait of Hormuz , led to
campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the
coast, principally in 1809 but then again in 1819. The next year,
1820, a peace treaty was signed to which all the sheikhs of the coast
adhered. The signatories to that treaty included Sultan bin Saqr Al
Qasimi of Sharjah (on 6 January 1820. He signed a 'preliminary
agreement' also on behalf of
Ajman and Umm Al Qawain), and then on 8
January at Ras Al Khaimah, Hasan bin Rahmah Al Qasimi of Ras Al
Khaimah signed as did Hassan Bin Rahma as
As a peace treaty it was not a conspicuous success: skirmishes and conflicts, considered as raids by the British, continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea and Sharjah, Dubai, Ajman and Abu Dhabi signed a renewed treaty banning hostilities during the pearling season and a number of other short treaties were made, culminating with the ten-year truce of June 1843. Feeling the benefit of peaceful pearling and trade, the coastal Sheikhs signed the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace in 1853, a process overseen by the British political agent at Bushire, Captain AB Kemball.
Separate treaties in 1847 and 1856 saw treaties undertaking the abolition of slave trading and, in 1873, a further treaty abolishing slaving was signed by Sharjah and Abu Dhabi.
TREATY OF 1892
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries,
namely France and Russia, the
END OF THE TRUCIAL STATES
In 1968 the
The other 'Trucial States' had long been a
British protectorate with
the British taking care of foreign policy and defence, as well as
arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf. This changed with
Harold Wilson's announcement, on 16 January 1968, that all British
troops were to be withdrawn from 'East of Aden'. The decision pitched
the Trucial Coasters, together with
The principle of union was first agreed between the ruler of Abu
On 2 December 1971, Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates . The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah , joined the UAE on 10 February 1972 following Iran's seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from Ras Al Khaimah.
* Trucial Oman Scouts
* ^ Winder, Bayly (1965). _Saudi Arabia in the Nineteenth Century_. p. 33. * ^ Balfour-Paul, G., _The end of empire in the Middle East: Britain's Relinquishment of Power in her Last Three Arab Dependencies,_ Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 978-0521466363 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bey, Frauke (1996). _From T