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Trout
Trout
is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo
Salmo
and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae
Salmoninae
of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout
Trout
are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish ( Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
– Pacific salmon and trout, Salmo
Salmo
– Atlantic salmon and various trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
– char and trout). Most trout such as lake trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers exclusively, while there are others such as the rainbow trout which as such live out their lives in fresh water, or spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn, being called a steelhead (a habit more typical of salmon). Arctic char
Arctic char
and brook trout are part of the char family.[1] Trout
Trout
are an important food source for humans and wildlife including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, and other animals. They are classified as oily fish.[2]

Contents

1 Species 2 Anatomy 3 Habitat 4 Diet 5 As food 6 River fishing 7 Ice fishing 8 Trout
Trout
fishing records

8.1 Fishing bait

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Species[edit] The name 'trout' is commonly used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species; Oncorhynchus, Pacific species; and Salvelinus, which includes fish also sometimes called char or charr. Fish
Fish
referred to as trout include:

Salmo: marble trout, S. marmoratus

Genus
Genus
Salmo

Adriatic trout, Salmo
Salmo
obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo
Salmo
trutta

River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta

Flathead trout, Salmo
Salmo
platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout
River trout
or Soča trout – Salmo
Salmo
marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo
Salmo
letnica, S. balcanicus (extinct), S. lumi, and S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo
Salmo
ischchan

Oncorhynchus: rainbow trout, O. mykiss

Genus
Genus
Oncorhynchus

Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
clarki

Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki

Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti

Alvord cutthroat trout
Alvord cutthroat trout
O. c. alvordensis (extinct) Bonneville cutthroat trout
Bonneville cutthroat trout
O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout
Humboldt cutthroat trout
O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout
Lahontan cutthroat trout
O. c. henshawi

Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout

Paiute cutthroat trout
Paiute cutthroat trout
O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout
Westslope cutthroat trout
O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout
Yellowfin cutthroat trout
O. c. macdonaldi (extinct) Yellowstone cutthroat trout
Yellowstone cutthroat trout
O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout
Colorado River cutthroat trout
O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout
Greenback cutthroat trout
O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout
Rio Grande cutthroat trout
O. c. virginalis

Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
gilae

Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache

Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss

Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout
Coastal rainbow trout
(steelhead), Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss irideus

Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss irideus var. beardsleei

Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss aguabonita

Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss aguabonita var. whitei

Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss kamloops Baja California
California
rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss nelsoni Eagle
Eagle
Lake trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout

Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
chrysogaster

Salvelinus: brook trout, S. fontinalis

Genus
Genus
Salvelinus
Salvelinus
(Char)

Brook trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
fontinalis

Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis

Bull trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
malma Lake trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus
Salvelinus
agassizi (extinct)

Hybrids

Tiger trout, Salmo
Salmo
trutta X Salvelinus
Salvelinus
fontinalis (infertile) Speckled Lake (Splake) trout, Salvelinus
Salvelinus
namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis (fertile)

Anatomy[edit] Trout
Trout
that live in different environments can have dramatically different colorations and patterns. Mostly, these colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, and will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout
Trout
in, or newly returned from the sea, can look very silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration; it is also possible that in some species this signifies that they are ready to mate. In general trout that are about to breed have extremely intense coloration. They can look like an entirely different fish outside of spawning season. It is virtually impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed; however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have more vivid colors and patterns. Trout
Trout
have fins entirely without spines, and all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail. The pelvic fins sit well back on the body, on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying solely on their gills. There are many species, and even more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different. However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States
United States
are a good example of this. The brook trout, the aurora trout, and the (extinct) silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout
Lake trout
( Salvelinus
Salvelinus
namaycush), like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout
Lake trout
inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, and live much longer than rainbow trout, which have an average maximum lifespan of 7 years. Lake trout
Lake trout
can live many decades, and can grow to more than 30 kilograms (66 lb). Habitat[edit]

A trout farm in Sochi, Russia

Trout
Trout
are usually found in cool (50–60 °F or 10–16 °C), clear streams and lakes, although many of the species have anadromous strains as well. Young trout are referred to as troutlet, troutling or fry. They are distributed naturally throughout North America, northern Asia
Asia
and Europe. Several species of trout were introduced to Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
by amateur fishing enthusiasts in the 19th century, effectively displacing and endangering several upland native fish species. The introduced species included brown trout from England and rainbow trout from California. The rainbow trout were a steelhead strain, generally accepted as coming from Sonoma Creek. The rainbow trout of New Zealand
New Zealand
still show the steelhead tendency to run up rivers in winter to spawn.[3] In Australia
Australia
the rainbow trout was introduced in 1894 from New Zealand and is an extremely popular gamefish in recreational angling.[4] Despite severely impacting the distribution and abundance of native Australian fish, such as the climbing galaxias, millions of rainbow and other trout species are released annually from government and private hatcheries.[4] The closest resemblance of seema trout and other trout family can be found in the Himalayan Region of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and in Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains of Kyrgyzstan. Diet[edit]

Golden trout, Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
aguabonita

Trout
Trout
generally feed on other fish, and soft bodied aquatic invertebrates, such as flies, mayflies, caddisflies, stoneflies, mollusks and dragonflies. In lakes, various species of zooplankton often form a large part of the diet. In general, trout longer than about 300 millimetres (12 in) prey almost exclusively on fish, where they are available. Adult trout will devour smaller fish up to 1/3 their length. Trout
Trout
may feed on shrimp, mealworms, bloodworms, insects, small animal parts, and eel. As food[edit]

Baked trout

As a group, trout are somewhat bony, but the flesh is generally considered to be tasty. The flavor of the flesh is heavily influenced by the diet of the fish. For example, trout that have been feeding on crustaceans tend to be more flavorful than those feeding primarily on insect life. Additionally, they provide a good fight when caught with a hook and line, and are sought after recreationally. Because of their popularity, trout are often raised on fish farms and planted into heavily fished waters, in an effort to mask the effects of overfishing. Farmed trout and char are also sold commercially as food fish. Trout
Trout
is sometimes prepared by smoking.[5] According to the British Nutrition Foundation, trout contain one of the lowest amounts of dioxins (a type of environmental contaminant) of all oily fishes. 1 fillet of trout (79 g) contains:[6]

Energy : 490 kJ (117 kcal) Fat (g): 5.22 Carbohydrates (g): 0 Fibers (g): 0 Protein (g): 16.41 Cholesterol (mg): 46

River fishing[edit] While trout can be caught with a normal rod and reel, fly fishing is a distinctive method developed primarily for trout, and now extended to other species. Understanding how moving water shapes the stream channel makes it easier to find trout. In most streams, the current creates a riffle-run-pool pattern that repeats itself over and over. A deep pool may hold a big brown trout, but rainbows and smaller browns are likely found in runs. Riffles are where you will find small trout, called troutlet, during the day and larger trout crowding in during morning and evening feeding periods.

Riffles have a fast current and shallow water. This gives way to a bottom of gravel, rubble or boulder. Riffles are morning and evening feeding areas. Trout
Trout
usually spawn just above or below riffles, but may spawn right in them. Runs are deeper than riffles with a moderate current and are found between riffles and pools. The bottom is made up of small gravel or rubble. These hot spots hold trout almost anytime, if there is sufficient cover. Pools are smoother and look darker than the other areas of the stream. The deep, slow-moving water generally has a bottom of silt, sand, or small gravel. Pools make good midday resting spots for medium to large trout.[7] It is recommended that when fishing for trout, that the fisher(s) should use line in the 4–8 lb test for streamfish, and stronger line with the same diameter for trout from the sea or from a large lake, such as Lake Michigan. It is also recommended to use a hook size 8-5 for trout of all kind. Trout, especially farm-raised ones, tend to like salmon roes, worms, minnows, cut bait, corn, or marshmallows.

Ice fishing[edit] Fishing for trout under the ice generally occurs in depths of 4 to 8 feet. Because trout are cold water fish, during the winter they move from up-deep to the shallows, replacing the small fish that inhabit the area during the summer. Trout
Trout
in winter constantly cruise in shallow depths looking for food, usually traveling in groups, although bigger fish may travel alone and in water that's somewhat deeper, around 12 feet. Rainbow, Brown, and Brook trout
Brook trout
are the most common trout species caught through the ice.[8] Trout
Trout
fishing records[edit] By information from International Game Fish
Fish
Association IGFA
IGFA
the most outstanding records:[9]

Brook trout
Brook trout
caught by Dr. W. Cook in the Nipigon River. Canada on July 1, 1916 that weighed 6.57 kg (14 lbs. 8 oz.) Cutthroat trout
Cutthroat trout
caught by John Skimmerhorn in Pyramid Lake located in Nevada. USA on December 1, 1925 that weighed 18.59 kg (41 lbs. 0 oz.) Bull trout
Bull trout
caught by N. Higgins in Lake Pend Oreille located in Idaho. USA on October 27, 1949 that weighed 14.51 kg (32 lbs. 0 oz.) Golden trout
Golden trout
caught by Chas Reed in Cooks Lake located in Wyoming. USA on August 5, 1948 that weighed 4.98 kg (11 lbs. 0 oz.) Rainbow trout
Rainbow trout
caught by Sean Konrad in Lake Diefenbaker. Canada on September 5, 2009 that weighed 21.77 kg (48 lbs. 0 oz.) Lake trout
Lake trout
caught by Llyod Bull in Great Bear Lake. Canada on August 19, 1995 that weighed 32.65 kg (72 lbs. 0 oz.)

Fishing bait[edit]

Waxworms are used as live-bait for trout fishing.

Corn
Corn
worms are also excellent live-bait when trout fishing.

Nymph of a golden stonefly are used as live-bait for trout fishing.

Nymph mayfly

salmon roe (Red caviar)

Worms are cheap and a great bait to use for trout and most types of fish

Fly Fishing Flies

Wooly buggers can be tied in every color imaginable

Egg patterns work great for steelhead and trout in rivers

Muddler minnow

See also[edit]

Food portal

Trout
Trout
tickling List of smoked foods

References[edit] Notes

^ "How To: Fly Fishing Trout
Trout
For The First Time (GUIDE)". Outdoor Survivors. Retrieved March 11, 2016.  ^ "What are oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. June 23, 2004.  ^ Peter Landergren, Spawning of anadromous rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): a threat to sea trout, Salmo
Salmo
trutta L., populations?, Fisheries Research 40(1), 1999, pp. 55–63. ^ a b Gomon, Martin; Bray, Dianne. "Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved August 30, 2014.  ^ Trout
Trout
- S. G. B. Tennant, Jr., Arie De Zanger. p. 27. ^ "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved December 26, 2011.  ^ Troutlet.com: How to Read a River when Trout
Trout
Fishing ^ Straw, Matt (December 5, 2012) "Ice Fishing Trout" In-Fisherman ^ " IGFA
IGFA
World Records". International Game Fish
Fish
Association. Retrieved November 1, 2015. 

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Further reading

Robert J. Behnke, Trout
Trout
and Salmon
Salmon
of North America. Illustrated by Joseph R. Tomelleri. New York: The Free Press, 2002. Jen Corrinne Brown, Trout
Trout
Culture: How Fly Fishing Forever Changed the Rocky Mountain West. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2015.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trout.

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Trout

Trout
Trout
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Trout
Trout
Species Trout.co.uk – Website focused purely on fishing for trout TU.ORG – Conserving, protecting and restoring North America's coldwater fisheries and their watersheds " Trout
Trout
Science," www.troutlet.com, 2000.

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