Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish
belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus,
Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the
Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also
used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion
nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.
Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species
termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish
Oncorhynchus – Pacific salmon and trout,
Salmo – Atlantic salmon
and various trout,
Salvelinus – char and trout).
Most trout such as lake trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers
exclusively, while there are others such as the rainbow trout which as
such live out their lives in fresh water, or spend two or three years
at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn, being called a
steelhead (a habit more typical of salmon).
Arctic char and brook
trout are part of the char family.
Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife including
brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, and other animals. They are
classified as oily fish.
5 As food
6 River fishing
7 Ice fishing
Trout fishing records
8.1 Fishing bait
9 See also
11 External links
The name 'trout' is commonly used for some species in three of the
seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species;
Oncorhynchus, Pacific species; and Salvelinus, which includes fish
also sometimes called char or charr.
Fish referred to as trout
Salmo: marble trout, S. marmoratus
River trout, S. t. morpha fario
Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris
Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta
Marble trout, Soca
River trout or Soča trout –
Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus (extinct), S. lumi, and S.
Oncorhynchus: rainbow trout, O. mykiss
Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus
Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki
Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti
Alvord cutthroat trout
Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis (extinct)
Bonneville cutthroat trout
Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah
Humboldt cutthroat trout
Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis
Lahontan cutthroat trout
Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi
Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout
Paiute cutthroat trout
Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris
Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei
Westslope cutthroat trout
Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi
Yellowfin cutthroat trout
Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi (extinct)
Yellowstone cutthroat trout
Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri
Colorado River cutthroat trout
Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus
Greenback cutthroat trout
Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias
Rio Grande cutthroat trout
Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis
Gila trout, O. g. gilae
Apache trout, O. g. apache
Kamchatkan rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss
Columbia River redband trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri
Coastal rainbow trout
Coastal rainbow trout (steelhead),
Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus
Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei
Great Basin redband trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii
Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita
Kern River rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti
Sacramento golden trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei
Little Kern golden trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei
Kamloops rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops
California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir
Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni
Eagle Lake trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum
McCloud River redband trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei
Sheepheaven Creek redband trout
Mexican golden trout,
Salvelinus: brook trout, S. fontinalis
Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis
Dolly Varden trout,
Silver trout, †
Salvelinus agassizi (extinct)
Salmo trutta X
Salvelinus fontinalis (infertile)
Speckled Lake (Splake) trout,
Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus
Trout that live in different environments can have dramatically
different colorations and patterns. Mostly, these colors and patterns
form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, and will change as the
fish moves to different habitats.
Trout in, or newly returned from the
sea, can look very silvery, while the same fish living in a small
stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more
vivid coloration; it is also possible that in some species this
signifies that they are ready to mate. In general trout that are about
to breed have extremely intense coloration. They can look like an
entirely different fish outside of spawning season. It is virtually
impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a
specific breed; however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have
more vivid colors and patterns.
Trout have fins entirely without spines, and all of them have a small
adipose fin along the back, near the tail. The pelvic fins sit well
back on the body, on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is
connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of
air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome
fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen
uptake, relying solely on their gills.
There are many species, and even more populations, that are isolated
from each other and morphologically different. However, since many of
these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences,
what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much
smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout
found in the eastern
United States are a good example of this. The
brook trout, the aurora trout, and the (extinct) silver trout all have
physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet
genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus
Lake trout (
Salvelinus namaycush), like brook trout, belong to the
Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North
America, and live much longer than rainbow trout, which have an
average maximum lifespan of 7 years.
Lake trout can live many decades,
and can grow to more than 30 kilograms (66 lb).
A trout farm in Sochi, Russia
Trout are usually found in cool (50–60 °F or
10–16 °C), clear streams and lakes, although many of the
species have anadromous strains as well. Young trout are referred to
as troutlet, troutling or fry. They are distributed naturally
throughout North America, northern
Asia and Europe. Several species of
trout were introduced to
New Zealand by amateur fishing
enthusiasts in the 19th century, effectively displacing and
endangering several upland native fish species. The introduced species
included brown trout from England and rainbow trout from California.
The rainbow trout were a steelhead strain, generally accepted as
coming from Sonoma Creek. The rainbow trout of
New Zealand still show
the steelhead tendency to run up rivers in winter to spawn.
Australia the rainbow trout was introduced in 1894 from New Zealand
and is an extremely popular gamefish in recreational angling.
Despite severely impacting the distribution and abundance of native
Australian fish, such as the climbing galaxias, millions of rainbow
and other trout species are released annually from government and
The closest resemblance of seema trout and other trout family can be
found in the Himalayan Region of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and in
Tian Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan.
Trout generally feed on other fish, and soft bodied aquatic
invertebrates, such as flies, mayflies, caddisflies, stoneflies,
mollusks and dragonflies. In lakes, various species of zooplankton
often form a large part of the diet. In general, trout longer than
about 300 millimetres (12 in) prey almost exclusively on fish,
where they are available. Adult trout will devour smaller fish up to
1/3 their length.
Trout may feed on shrimp, mealworms, bloodworms,
insects, small animal parts, and eel.
As a group, trout are somewhat bony, but the flesh is generally
considered to be tasty. The flavor of the flesh is heavily influenced
by the diet of the fish. For example, trout that have been feeding on
crustaceans tend to be more flavorful than those feeding primarily on
insect life. Additionally, they provide a good fight when caught with
a hook and line, and are sought after recreationally. Because of their
popularity, trout are often raised on fish farms and planted into
heavily fished waters, in an effort to mask the effects of
overfishing. Farmed trout and char are also sold commercially as food
Trout is sometimes prepared by smoking.
According to the British Nutrition Foundation, trout contain one of
the lowest amounts of dioxins (a type of environmental contaminant) of
all oily fishes.
1 fillet of trout (79 g) contains:
Energy : 490 kJ (117 kcal)
Fat (g): 5.22
Carbohydrates (g): 0
Fibers (g): 0
Protein (g): 16.41
Cholesterol (mg): 46
While trout can be caught with a normal rod and reel, fly fishing is a
distinctive method developed primarily for trout, and now extended to
other species. Understanding how moving water shapes the stream
channel makes it easier to find trout. In most streams, the current
creates a riffle-run-pool pattern that repeats itself over and over. A
deep pool may hold a big brown trout, but rainbows and smaller browns
are likely found in runs. Riffles are where you will find small trout,
called troutlet, during the day and larger trout crowding in during
morning and evening feeding periods.
Riffles have a fast current and shallow water. This gives way to a
bottom of gravel, rubble or boulder. Riffles are morning and evening
Trout usually spawn just above or below riffles, but
may spawn right in them.
Runs are deeper than riffles with a moderate current and are found
between riffles and pools. The bottom is made up of small gravel or
rubble. These hot spots hold trout almost anytime, if there is
Pools are smoother and look darker than the other areas of the stream.
The deep, slow-moving water generally has a bottom of silt, sand, or
small gravel. Pools make good midday resting spots for medium to large
It is recommended that when fishing for trout, that the fisher(s)
should use line in the 4–8 lb test for streamfish, and stronger
line with the same diameter for trout from the sea or from a large
lake, such as Lake Michigan. It is also recommended to use a hook size
8-5 for trout of all kind. Trout, especially farm-raised ones, tend to
like salmon roes, worms, minnows, cut bait, corn, or marshmallows.
Fishing for trout under the ice generally occurs in depths of 4 to 8
feet. Because trout are cold water fish, during the winter they move
from up-deep to the shallows, replacing the small fish that inhabit
the area during the summer.
Trout in winter constantly cruise in
shallow depths looking for food, usually traveling in groups, although
bigger fish may travel alone and in water that's somewhat deeper,
around 12 feet. Rainbow, Brown, and
Brook trout are the most common
trout species caught through the ice.
Trout fishing records
By information from International Game
IGFA the most
Brook trout caught by Dr. W. Cook in the Nipigon River. Canada on July
1, 1916 that weighed 6.57 kg (14 lbs. 8 oz.)
Cutthroat trout caught by John Skimmerhorn in Pyramid Lake located in
Nevada. USA on December 1, 1925 that weighed 18.59 kg
(41 lbs. 0 oz.)
Bull trout caught by N. Higgins in Lake Pend Oreille located in Idaho.
USA on October 27, 1949 that weighed 14.51 kg (32 lbs. 0
Golden trout caught by Chas Reed in Cooks Lake located in Wyoming. USA
on August 5, 1948 that weighed 4.98 kg (11 lbs. 0 oz.)
Rainbow trout caught by Sean Konrad in Lake Diefenbaker. Canada on
September 5, 2009 that weighed 21.77 kg (48 lbs. 0 oz.)
Lake trout caught by Llyod Bull in Great Bear Lake. Canada on August
19, 1995 that weighed 32.65 kg (72 lbs. 0 oz.)
Waxworms are used as live-bait for trout fishing.
Corn worms are also excellent live-bait when trout fishing.
Nymph of a golden stonefly are used as live-bait for trout fishing.
salmon roe (Red caviar)
Worms are cheap and a great bait to use for trout and most types of
Fly Fishing Flies
Wooly buggers can be tied in every color imaginable
Egg patterns work great for steelhead and trout in rivers
List of smoked foods
^ "How To: Fly Fishing
Trout For The First Time (GUIDE)". Outdoor
Survivors. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
^ "What are oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. June 23, 2004.
^ Peter Landergren, Spawning of anadromous rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss (Walbaum): a threat to sea trout,
Salmo trutta L.,
populations?, Fisheries Research 40(1), 1999, pp. 55–63.
^ a b Gomon, Martin; Bray, Dianne. "Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus
mykiss". Fishes of Australia. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
Trout - S. G. B. Tennant, Jr., Arie De Zanger. p. 27.
^ "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference".
Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
^ Troutlet.com: How to Read a River when
^ Straw, Matt (December 5, 2012) "Ice Fishing Trout" In-Fisherman
IGFA World Records". International Game
Fish Association. Retrieved
November 1, 2015.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2008) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Robert J. Behnke,
Salmon of North America. Illustrated by
Joseph R. Tomelleri. New York: The Free Press, 2002.
Jen Corrinne Brown,
Trout Culture: How Fly Fishing Forever Changed the
Rocky Mountain West. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trout.
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Trout at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Trout.co.uk – Website focused purely on fishing for trout
TU.ORG – Conserving, protecting and restoring North America's
coldwater fisheries and their watersheds
Trout Science," www.troutlet.com, 2000.
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