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A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical
Tropical
climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year.

Contents

1 Sub types

1.1 Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate 1.2 Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate 1.3 Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate 1.4 Exceptions

2 Intertropical Convergence Zone 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Sub types[edit]

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Within the tropical climate zone there are distinct varieties based on precipitation: Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate[edit] Main article: Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate All 12 months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums low-pressure system all year round, so has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes. Cities featuring a Tropical
Tropical
rainforest climate The Tropical
Tropical
Climate
Climate
zone has an average temperature of 23.5 °C (74.3 °F)

Apia, Samoa
Samoa
(Af) Balikpapan, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) Davao, Philippines
Philippines
(Af) Georgetown, Guyana
Georgetown, Guyana
(Af) Hilo, Hawaii, United States
United States
(Af) Honiara, Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
(Af) Innisfail, Queensland, Australia
Australia
(Af) Kampala, Uganda
Uganda
(Af) Kismu, Kenya
Kenya
(Af) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) Kuching, Malaysia
Malaysia
(Af) Lae, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
(Af) Medan, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af)

Medellín, Colombia
Colombia
(Af) Moroni, Comoros
Moroni, Comoros
(Af) Paramaribo, Suriname
Suriname
(Af) Pontianak, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Af) Quibdó, Colombia
Colombia
(Af) Ratnapura, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Af) Salvador da Bahia, Brazil
Brazil
(Af) Santos, Brazil
Brazil
(Af) Singapore
Singapore
(Af) Suva, Fiji
Fiji
(Af) Toamasina, Madagascar
Madagascar
(Af) Victoria, Seychelles
Victoria, Seychelles
(Af) West Palm Beach, Florida, United States
United States
(Af)

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador
Ecuador
to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia). (Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America
South America
and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter). Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate[edit] Main article: Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation.[1]:200–1:208 Cities featuring a Tropical
Tropical
monsoon climate

Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Australia
(Am)[2] Chittagong, Bangladesh
Chittagong, Bangladesh
(Am) Coatzacoalcos, Mexico
Mexico
(Am) Conakry, Guinea
Guinea
(Am) Douala, Cameroon
Cameroon
(Am) Freetown, Sierre Leone
Sierre Leone
(Am) Guanare, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Am) Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Am) Kochi, India
India
(Am) Libreville, Gabon
Gabon
(Am)

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
(Am) Macapá, Amapá, Brazil
Brazil
(Am) Malé, Maldives
Maldives
(Am) Miami, Florida, United States
United States
(Am) Monrovia, Liberia
Liberia
(Am) Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Am) Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Am) Qionghai City, China
China
(Am) San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico
(Am) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(Am) Yangon, Myanmar
Myanmar
(Am)

Tropical
Tropical
wet and dry or savanna climate[edit] Main article: Tropical
Tropical
savanna climate Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than 1/25 of the total annual precipitation.[1]:208–11 Cities featuring a Tropical
Tropical
savanna climate

Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Abidjan, Ivory Coast
(Aw, bordering on Am) Abuja, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) Accra, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) Asunción, Paraguay
Paraguay
(Aw, bordering on Cfa) Bamako, Mali
Mali
(Aw) Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(Aw) Banjul, The Gambia
The Gambia
(Aw) Barquisimeto, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) Brasília, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
(Aw) Bujumbura, Burundi
Burundi
(Aw) Cali, Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) Cancún, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) Caracas, Venezuela
Venezuela
(Aw) Cartagena, Colombia
Colombia
(Aw) Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
India
(Aw) Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tanzania
(Aw) Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Australia
(Aw) Dhaka, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Aw) Dili, East Timor
East Timor
(Aw) Guatemala City, Guatemala
Guatemala City, Guatemala
(Aw) Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ecuador
(Aw) Havana, Cuba
Havana, Cuba
(Aw, bordering on Am) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
(Aw) Kano, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw)

Katherine, Northern Territory, Australia
Australia
(Aw) Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Taiwan
(Aw) Key West, Florida, United States
United States
(Aw) Kigali, Rwanda
Rwanda
(Aw) Kingston, Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica
(Aw) Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
(Aw) Kolkata, West Bengal, India
India
(Aw) Kumasi, Ghana
Ghana
(Aw) Kupang, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) Lagos, Lagos
Lagos
State, Nigeria
Nigeria
(Aw) Maputo, Mozambique
Mozambique
(Aw) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
India
(Aw) Naples, Florida, United States
United States
(Aw) Panamá
Panamá
City, Panamá
Panamá
(Aw) Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Cambodia
(Aw) Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Haiti
(Aw) Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
(Aw) Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Brazil
(Aw, bordering on Am) Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia
Bolivia
(Aw) Sanya, Hainan, China
China
(Aw) Surabaya, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Aw) Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico
Mexico
(Aw) Vientiane, Laos
Laos
(Aw) Yaoundé, Cameroon
Cameroon
(Aw)

Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá
Gulf of Urabá
on the Colombia– Panamá
Panamá
border to the Orinoco River delta, on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months). This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
and Greater Antilles forming the circum-Caribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon River—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the dry, arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco River's llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name. Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days. This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year. Examples

Monte Cristi, Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
(As) Recife, Brazil
Brazil
(As) Natal, Brazil
Brazil
(As) Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(As) Mombasa, Kenya
Kenya
(As)

Exceptions[edit] Owing to different causes certain places within the tropics do not have a tropical climate, such as some desert areas and alpine regions.

Examples:

Southern part of Arabian Peninsula. The Sahara Desert. Alpine regions of the tropics. Mountaintops within the tropics, e.g. Mount Kenya, can be cold. However, like lowlands in the tropics (and unlike cold winter temperate zone regions), there is little seasonal variation of temperature.

Intertropical Convergence Zone[edit]

Intertropical Convergence Zone
Intertropical Convergence Zone
vertical velocity at 500 hPa, July average in units of pascals per second. Ascent (negative values) is equator; descent (positive values) is more diffuse.

Because of the effect of sun angle on climate most areas within the tropics are hot year-round, with diurnal variations in temperature exceeding seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in tropical climate are dominated by changes in precipitation, which are in turn largely influenced by the tropical rain belt or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a portion of the Hadley cell. The ITCZ is shown, for July average, in the graphic. Areas of ascending air have heavy rainfall; areas of descending air are dry. The ITCZ somewhat follows the solar equator throughout the year, but with geographical variations, and in some areas (India) is heavily influenced by local large-scale monsoons. See also[edit]

Tropical
Tropical
ecology Tropical
Tropical
vegetation Tropics

References[edit]

^ a b McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). " Climate
Climate
Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0.  ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tropical
Tropical
climate.

External links[edit]

v t e

Climate
Climate
types under the Köppen climate classification

Class A

Tropical
Tropical
rainforest (Af) Tropical
Tropical
monsoon (Am) Tropical
Tropical
savanna (Aw, As)

Class B

Desert (BWh, BWk, BWn) Semi-arid (BSh, BSk, BSn)

Class C

Humid subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) Oceanic (Cfb, Cwb, Cfc, Cwc) Mediterranean (Csa, Csb, Csc)

Class D

Humid continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsa, Dsb) Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd, Dsc, Dsd)

Class E

Tundra
Tundra
(ET) Ice cap (EF) Alpine (ET, EF)

v t e

Seasons

Temperate seasons

Spring Summer Autumn Winter

Science portal

Tropical
Tropical
seasons

Wet season Dry season Harmattan
Harmattan
(West Africa)

Specific

Fog season Hurricane season Monsoon
Monsoon
season

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