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Tripoli
Tripoli
(Arabic: طرابلس‎, Ṭarābulus; Berber:"Oea" or "Wy't" ) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.[1] It is located in the northwest of Libya
Libya
on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean and forming a bay. It includes the port of Tripoli
Tripoli
and the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is also the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is also located in the city. Colonel
Colonel
Gaddafi largely ruled the country from his residence in this barracks. Tripoli
Tripoli
was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea.[2] Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. "Tripoli" may also refer to the shabiyah (top-level administrative division in the current Libyan system), the Tripoli
Tripoli
District. Tripoli
Tripoli
is also known as Tripoli-of-the-West (Arabic: طرابلس الغرب‎ Ṭarābulus al-Gharb), to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, Lebanon
Tripoli, Lebanon
known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham (طرابلس الشام) meaning "Levantine Tripoli". It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean (عروسة البحر ʿArūsat al-Baḥr; lit: "bride of the sea"), describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli English: /ˈtrɪpəli/[3] is a Greek name that means "Three Cities", introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli. In Arabic: طرابلس‎ it is called Ṭarābulus ( pronunciation (help·info), Libyan Arabic: Ṭrābləs  pronunciation (help·info), Berber: Ṭrables, from Ancient Greek: Τρίπολις Trípolis). Compare Sanskrit, "tri" meaning the number 3, and "pura" meaning a fortress, castle, city or town. Hence, in Sanskrit "Tripura" also means "Three Cities".[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 16th to 19th centuries 1.2 Barbary Wars 1.3 Late Ottoman era 1.4 Italian era 1.5 Gaddafi era 1.6 Libyan civil war

2 Law and government 3 Geography and climate 4 Economy 5 Main sights 6 Education 7 Sports 8 International relations 9 Air transport 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References and notes 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Tripoli The city was founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians, who gave it the Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
name Oea
Oea
(or Wy't),[5] The Phoenicians were probably attracted to the site by its natural harbour, flanked on the western shore by the small, easily defensible peninsula, on which they established their colony. The city then passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(a Greek colony on the North African shore, east of Tripoli, halfway to Egypt), although the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
later wrested it from the Greeks. By the latter half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of "Regio Syrtica". Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it became known as the Regio Tripolitana, meaning "region of the three cities", namely Oea
Oea
(i.e., modern Tripoli), Sabratha
Sabratha
and Leptis Magna. It was probably raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius Severus, who was a native of Leptis Magna.

Arch of Marcus Aurelius

In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns and capitals (usually integrated in later buildings), is the Arch of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
from the 2nd century AD. The fact that Tripoli
Tripoli
has been continuously inhabited, unlike e.g., Sabratha
Sabratha
and Leptis Magna, has meant that the inhabitants have either quarried material from older buildings (destroying them in the process), or built on top of them, burying them beneath the streets, where they remain largely unexcavated. There is evidence to suggest that the Tripolitania
Tripolitania
region was in some economic decline during the 5th and 6th centuries, in part due to the political unrest spreading across the Mediterranean world in the wake of the collapse of the Western Roman empire, as well as pressure from the invading Vandals. According to al-Baladhuri, Tripoli
Tripoli
was, unlike Western North Africa, taken by the Muslims very early after Alexandria, in the 22nd year of the Hijra, that is between 30 November 642 and 18 November 643 AD. Following the conquest, Tripoli
Tripoli
was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(first the Fatimids, and later the Mamluks) and Kairouan
Kairouan
in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(the Arab Fihrids, Muhallabids
Muhallabids
and Aghlabid
Aghlabid
dynasties). For some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom.

16th to 19th centuries[edit]

Historic map of Tripoli
Tripoli
by Piri Reis

In 1510, it was taken by Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto
Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto
for Spain, and, in 1530, it was assigned, together with Malta, to the Knights of St. John, who had lately been expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold on the island of Rhodes. Finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the city's walls and other defenses. Though built on top of a number of older buildings (possibly including a Roman public bath), much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli
Tripoli
castle (or "Assaraya al-Hamra", i.e., the "Red Castle") are attributed to the Knights of St John. Having previously combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates[citation needed] it had been prior to the Spanish occupation. The disruption the pirates caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city.

Tripoli, 1675, map by John Seller

The knights kept the city with some trouble until 1551, when they were compelled to surrender to the Ottomans, led by Muslim Turk Turgut Reis.[6] Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
served as pasha of Tripoli, during his rule he adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast.[7] Turgut was also buried in Tripoli
Tripoli
after his death in 1565. His body was taken from Malta, where he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli. The palace has since disappeared (supposedly it was situated between the so-called "Ottoman prison" and the arch of Marcus Aurelius), but the mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr gate. After the capture by the Ottoman Turks, Tripoli
Tripoli
once again became a base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough in 1675, of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived.[8]

Dutch ships off Tripoli
Tripoli
by Reinier Nooms, ca.1650

Effective Ottoman rule during this period (1551–1711) was often hampered by the local Janissary
Janissary
corps. Intended to function as enforcers of local administration, the captain of the Janissaries and his cronies were often the de facto rulers. In 1711, Ahmed Karamanli, a Janissary
Janissary
officer of Turkish origin, killed the Ottoman governor, the "Pasha", and established himself as ruler of the Tripolitania
Tripolitania
region. By 1714, he had asserted a sort of semi-independence from the Ottoman Sultan, heralding in the Karamanli dynasty. The Pashas of Tripoli
Tripoli
were expected to pay a regular tributary tax to the Sultan, but were in all other aspects rulers of an independent kingdom. This order of things continued under the rule of his descendants, accompanied by the brazen piracy and blackmailing until 1835, when the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
took advantage of an internal struggle and re-established its authority. The Ottoman province (vilayet) of Tripoli
Tripoli
(including the dependent sanjak of Cyrenaica) lay along the southern shore of the Mediterranean between Tunisia
Tunisia
in the west and Egypt
Egypt
in the east. Besides the city itself, the area included Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(the Barca plateau), the chain of oases in the Aujila depression, Fezzan
Fezzan
and the oases of Ghadames
Ghadames
and Ghat, separated by sandy and stony wastelands. Barbary Wars[edit] Main articles: First Barbary War
First Barbary War
and Second Barbary War

The USS Philadelphia, heavy frigate of the United States Navy, burning at the Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor
Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor
during the First Barbary War
First Barbary War
in 1804

In the early part of the 19th century, the regency at Tripoli, owing to its piratical practices, was twice involved in war with the United States. In May 1801, the pasha demanded an increase in the tribute ($83,000) which the U.S. government had been paying since 1796 for the protection of their commerce from piracy under the 1796 Treaty with Tripoli. The demand was refused by third President Thomas Jefferson, and a naval force was sent from the United States to blockade Tripoli. The First Barbary War
First Barbary War
(1801-1805) dragged on for four years. In 1803, Tripolitan fighters captured the U.S. Navy heavy frigate Philadelphia and took its commander, Captain William Bainbridge, and the entire crew as prisoners. This was after the Philadelphia was run aground when the captain tried to navigate too close to the port of Tripoli. After several hours aground and Tripolitan gun boats firing upon the Philadelphia, though none ever struck the Philadelphia, Captain Bainbridge made the decision to surrender. The Philadelphia was later turned against the Americans and anchored in Tripoli
Tripoli
Harbor as a gun battery while her officers and crew were held prisoners in Tripoli. The following year, U.S. Navy Lieutenant Stephen Decatur
Stephen Decatur
led a successful daring nighttime raid to retake and burn the warship rather than see it remain in enemy hands. Decatur's men set fire to the Philadelphia and escaped. A notable incident in the war was the expedition undertaken by diplomatic Consul William Eaton with the objective of replacing the pasha with an elder brother living in exile, who had promised to accede to all the wishes of the United States. Eaton, at the head of a mixed force of U.S. Marines, American soldiers and sailors, along with Greek, Arab and Turkish mercenaries numbering approximately 500, marched across the Egyptian / Libyan desert from Alexandria, Egypt
Egypt
and with the aid of three American warships, succeeded in capturing Derna. Soon afterward, on 3 June 1805, peace was concluded. The pasha ended his demands and received $60,000 as ransom for the Philadelphia prisoners under the 1805 Treaty with Tripoli. In 1815, in consequence of further outrages and due to the humiliation of the earlier defeat, Captains Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur, at the head of an American squadron, again visited Tripoli
Tripoli
and forced the pasha to comply with the demands of the United States. See Second Barbary War. Late Ottoman era[edit]

Ottoman Clock tower
Clock tower
in Tripoli's old town medina

In 1835, the Ottomans took advantage of a local civil war to reassert their direct authority. After that date, Tripoli
Tripoli
was under the direct control of the Sublime Porte. Rebellions in 1842 and 1844 were unsuccessful. After the French occupation of Tunisia
Tunisia
(1881), the Ottomans increased their garrison in Tripoli considerably.[clarification needed] Italian era[edit] Main article: Tripoli
Tripoli
under Italian rule Italy had long claimed that Tripoli
Tripoli
fell within its zone of influence and that Italy had the right to preserve order within the state.[9] Under the pretext of protecting its own citizens living in Tripoli from the Ottoman government, it declared war against the Ottomans on 29 September 1911, and announced its intention of annexing Tripoli. On 1 October 1911, a naval battle was fought at Prevesa, Greece, and three Ottoman vessels were destroyed. By the Treaty of Lausanne, Italian sovereignty was acknowledged by the Ottomans, although the caliph was permitted to exercise religious authority. Italy officially granted autonomy after the war, but gradually occupied the region. Originally administered as part of a single colony, Tripoli
Tripoli
and its surrounding province were a separate colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when all Italian possessions in North Africa
Africa
were merged into one colony. By 1938, Tripoli[10] had 108,240 inhabitants, including 39,096 Italians.[11] Tripoli
Tripoli
underwent a huge architectural and urbanistic improvement under Italian rule:[12] the first thing the Italians did was to create in the early 1920s a sewage system (that until then lacked) and a modern hospital. In the coast of the province was built in 1937–1938 a section of the Litoranea Balbia, a road that went from Tripoli
Tripoli
and Tunisia's frontier to the border of Egypt. The car tag for the Italian province of Tripoli
Tripoli
was "TL".[13]

Fiera internazionale di Tripoli
Tripoli
( Tripoli
Tripoli
International Fair) in 1939

Furthermore, the Italians – in order to promote Tripoli's economy – founded in 1927 the Tripoli
Tripoli
International Fair, which is considered[by whom?] to be the oldest trade fair in Africa.[14] The so-called Fiera internazionale di Tripoli
Tripoli
was one of the main international "Fairs" in the colonial world in the 1930s, and was internationally promoted together with the Tripoli Grand Prix
Tripoli Grand Prix
as a showcase of Italian Libya.[15] The Italians created the Tripoli
Tripoli
Grand Prix, an international motor racing event first held in 1925 on a racing circuit outside Tripoli (it lasted until 1940).[16] The first airport in Libya, the Mellaha Air Base was built by the Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force
in 1923 near the Tripoli racing circuit (actually is called Mitiga International Airport). Tripoli
Tripoli
even had a railway station with some small railway connections to nearby cities, when in August 1941 the Italians started to build a new 1,040-kilometre (646-mile) railway (with a 1,435 mm (56.5 in) gauge, like the one used in Egypt
Egypt
and Tunisia) between Tripoli
Tripoli
and Benghazi. But the war (with the defeat of the Italian Army) stopped the construction the next year. Tripoli
Tripoli
was controlled by Italy until 1943 when the provinces of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
were captured by Allied forces. The city fell to troops of the British Eighth Army on 23 January 1943. Tripoli was then governed by the British until independence in 1951. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.[17]

Gaddafi era[edit]

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Colonel
Colonel
Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
became leader of Libya
Libya
on September 1, 1969. On 15 April 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, against Tripoli
Tripoli
and Benghazi, killing 45 Libyan military and government personnel as well as 15 civilians. This strike followed US interception of telex messages from Libya's East Berlin embassy suggesting the involvement of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
in a bomb explosion on 5 April in West Berlin's La Belle discothèque, a nightclub frequented by US servicemen. Among the alleged fatalities of the 15 April retaliatory attack by the United States was Gaddafi's adopted daughter, Hannah. United Nations
United Nations
sanctions against Libya
Libya
were lifted in 2003, which increased traffic through the Port of Tripoli
Port of Tripoli
and had a positive impact on the city's economy. Libyan civil war[edit]

Front lines during the Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
(20–28 August 2011)

See also: 2011 Libyan civil war, Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war, and Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
(2011) In February and March 2011, Tripoli
Tripoli
witnessed intense anti-government protests and violent government responses resulting in hundreds killed and wounded. The city's Green Square was the scene of some of the protests. The anti-Gaddafi protests were eventually crushed, and Tripoli
Tripoli
was the site of pro-Gaddafi rallies.[18] The city defenses loyal to Gaddafi included the military headquarters at Bab al-Aziziyah (where Gaddafi's main residence was located) and the Mitiga International Airport. At the latter, on 13 March, Ali Atiyya, a colonel of the Libyan Air Force, defected and joined the revolution.[19] In late February, rebel forces took control of Zawiya, a city approximately 50 km (31 mi) to the west of Tripoli, thus increasing the threat to pro-Gaddafi forces in the capital. During the subsequent battle of Zawiya, loyalist forces besieged the city and eventually recaptured it by 10 March.[citation needed] As the 2011 military intervention in Libya
Libya
commenced on 19 March to enforce a U.N. no-fly zone over the country, the city once again came under air attack. It was the second time that Tripoli
Tripoli
was bombed since the 1986 U.S. airstrikes, and the second time since the 1986 airstrike that bombed Bab al-Azizia, Gaddafi's heavily fortified compound. In July and August, Libyan online revolutionary communities posted tweets and updates on attacks by rebel fighters on pro-government vehicles and checkpoints. In one such attack, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Senussi were targets.[citation needed] The government, however, denied revolutionary activity inside the capital. Several months after the initial uprising, rebel forces in the Nafusa Mountains advanced towards the coast, retaking Zawiya and reaching Tripoli
Tripoli
on 21 August. On 21 August, the symbolic Green Square, immediately renamed Martyrs' Square by the rebels, was taken under rebel control and pro-Gaddafi posters were torn down and burned.[citation needed] During a radio address on 1 September, Gaddafi declared that the capital of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
had been moved from Tripoli
Tripoli
to Sirte, after rebels had taken control of Tripoli. In August and September 2014 Islamist armed groups extended their control of central Tripoli. The Council of Deputies
Council of Deputies
parliament set up operations on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk. A rival New General National Congress parliament continued to operate in Tripoli.[20][21] Law and government[edit] Tripoli
Tripoli
and its surrounding suburbs all lie within the Tripoli sha'biyah (district). In accordance with Libya's former Jamahiriya political system, Tripoli
Tripoli
comprises Local People's Congresses where, in theory, the city's population discuss different matters and elect their own people's committee; at present[when?] there are 29 Local People's Congresses. In reality, the former revolutionary committees severely limited the democratic process by closely supervising committee and congress elections at the branch and district levels of governments, Tripoli
Tripoli
being no exception. Tripoli
Tripoli
is sometimes referred to as "the de jure capital of Libya" because none of the country's ministries are actually located in the capital. Even the former National General People's Congress was held annually in the city of Sirte
Sirte
rather than in Tripoli. As part of a radical decentralization programme undertaken by Gaddafi in September 1988, all General People's Committee secretariats (ministries), except those responsible for foreign liaison (foreign policy and international relations) and information, were moved outside Tripoli. According to diplomatic sources, the former Secretariat for Economy and Trade was moved to Benghazi; the Secretariat for Health to Kufra; and the remainder, excepting one, to Sirte, Muammar Gaddafi's birthplace. In early 1993 it was announced that the Secretariat for Foreign Liaison and International Co-operation was to be moved to Ra's Lanuf. In October 2011, Libya
Libya
fell to The National Transitional Council (N.T.C.), which took full control, abolishing the Gaddafi-era system of national and local government.

Geography and climate[edit]

Satellite image of central Tripoli

Astronaut view of Tripoli

Tripoli
Tripoli
lies at the western extremity of Libya
Libya
close to the Tunisian border, on the continent of Africa. Over a thousand kilometres (621 Miles) separates Tripoli
Tripoli
from Libya's second largest city, Benghazi. Coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons along the shores of Tripolitania
Tripolitania
for more than 300 km (190 mi). Until 2007, the "Sha'biyah" included the city, its suburbs and their immediate surroundings. In older administrative systems and throughout history, there existed a province ("muhafazah"), state ("wilayah") or city-state with a much larger area (though not constant boundaries), which is sometimes mistakenly referred to as Tripoli
Tripoli
but more appropriately should be called Tripolitania. As a District, Tripoli
Tripoli
borders the following districts:

Murqub – east Jabal al Gharbi – south Jafara
Jafara
– southwest Zawiya – west

Tripoli
Tripoli
has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh)[22] with hot dry summers and relatively wet mild winters. Its summers are hot with temperatures that often exceed 38 °C (100 °F); average July temperatures are between 22 and 33 °C (72 and 91 °F). In December, temperatures have reached as low as 0 °C (32 °F), but the average remains at between 9 and 18 °C (48 and 64 °F). The average annual rainfall is less than 400 millimetres (16 inches). Snowfall has occurred in past years.[23] The rainfall can be very erratic. Epic floods in 1945 left Tripoli underwater for several days, but two years later an unprecedented drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. Deficiency in rainfall is no doubt reflected in an absence of permanent rivers or streams in the city as is indeed true throughout the entire country. The allocation of limited water is considered of sufficient importance to warrant the existence of the Secretariat of Dams and Water Resources, and damaging a source of water can be penalized by a heavy fine or imprisonment.[citation needed] The Great Manmade River, a network of pipelines that transport water from the desert to the coastal cities, supplies Tripoli
Tripoli
with its water.[24] The grand scheme was initiated by Gaddafi in 1982 and has had a positive impact on the city's inhabitants.[citation needed] Tripoli
Tripoli
is dotted with public spaces, but none fit under the category of large city parks. Martyrs' Square, located near the waterfront is scattered with palm trees, the most abundant plant used for landscaping in the city. The Tripoli
Tripoli
Zoo, located south of the city center, is a large reserve of plants, trees and open green spaces and was the country's biggest zoo.[citation needed] It has, however, been closed since 2009.

Climate data for Tripoli
Tripoli
(1961–1990, extremes 1944–1993)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.2 (90) 35.3 (95.5) 40.0 (104) 42.2 (108) 45.6 (114.1) 47.8 (118) 48.3 (118.9) 48.3 (118.9) 47.2 (117) 42.2 (108) 37.2 (99) 31.1 (88) 48.3 (118.9)

Average high °C (°F) 17.9 (64.2) 19.1 (66.4) 20.7 (69.3) 23.7 (74.7) 27.1 (80.8) 30.4 (86.7) 31.7 (89.1) 32.6 (90.7) 31.0 (87.8) 27.7 (81.9) 23.3 (73.9) 19.3 (66.7) 25.4 (77.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 14.3 (57.7) 16.0 (60.8) 18.7 (65.7) 21.9 (71.4) 25.3 (77.5) 26.7 (80.1) 27.7 (81.9) 26.2 (79.2) 22.9 (73.2) 18.4 (65.1) 14.6 (58.3) 20.5 (68.9)

Average low °C (°F) 8.9 (48) 9.5 (49.1) 11.2 (52.2) 13.7 (56.7) 16.7 (62.1) 20.1 (68.2) 21.7 (71.1) 22.7 (72.9) 21.4 (70.5) 18.0 (64.4) 13.4 (56.1) 9.9 (49.8) 15.6 (60.1)

Record low °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) −0.6 (30.9) 0.6 (33.1) 2.8 (37) 5.0 (41) 10.0 (50) 12.2 (54) 13.9 (57) 11.8 (53.2) 6.6 (43.9) 1.1 (34) −1.3 (29.7) −1.3 (29.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 62.1 (2.445) 32.2 (1.268) 29.6 (1.165) 14.3 (0.563) 4.6 (0.181) 1.3 (0.051) 0.7 (0.028) 0.1 (0.004) 16.7 (0.657) 46.6 (1.835) 58.2 (2.291) 67.5 (2.657) 333.9 (13.146)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.4 6.4 5.8 3.3 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.0 2.3 6.8 6.9 9.1 57.4

Average relative humidity (%) 66 61 58 55 53 49 49 51 57 60 61 65 57

Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.5 189.3 226.3 255.0 306.9 297.0 356.5 337.9 258.0 226.3 186.0 164.3 2,974

Mean daily sunshine hours 5.5 6.7 7.3 8.5 9.9 9.9 11.5 10.9 8.6 7.3 6.2 5.3 8.1

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization[23]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(extremes and humidity),[25] Arab Meteorology Book (sun only)[26]

Economy[edit]

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Tripoli's central business district, where many Libyan and international companies have offices.

Tripoli
Tripoli
is one of the main hubs of Libya's economy along with Misrata. It is the leading centre of banking, finance and communication in the country and is one of the leading commercial and manufacturing cities in Libya. Many of the country's largest corporations locate their headquarters and home offices in Tripoli
Tripoli
as well as the majority of international companies.[citation needed] Major manufactured goods include processed food, textiles, construction materials, clothing and tobacco products. Since the lifting of sanctions against Libya
Libya
in 1999 and again in 2003, Tripoli has seen a rise in foreign investment as well as an increase in tourism. Increased traffic has also been recorded in the city's port as well as Libya's main international airport, Tripoli International.[citation needed] The city is home to the Tripoli
Tripoli
International Fair, an international industrial, agricultural and commercial event located on Omar Muktar Avenue. One of the active members of the Global Association of the Exhibition Industry (UFI), located in the French capital Paris, the international fair is organized annually and takes place from 2–12 April. Participation averages around 30 countries as well as more than 2000 companies and organizations.[citation needed]

That El Emad Towers, Tripoli

Since the rise in tourism and influx of foreign visitors, there has been an increased demand for hotels in the city. To cater for these increased demands, the Corinthia Bab Africa
Africa
Hotel located in the central business district was constructed in 2003 and is the largest hotel in Libya. Other high end hotels in Tripoli
Tripoli
include the Al Waddan Intercontinental and the Tripoli
Tripoli
Radisson Blu Hotel as well as others.[27] There is a project under construction which will finish by 2015. It is a part of the Tripoli
Tripoli
business center and it will have towers and hotels, a marketing center, restaurants and above ground and underground parking. The cost is planned to be more than 3.0 billion Libyan dinars (US$2.8 billion) Companies with head offices in Tripoli
Tripoli
include Afriqiyah Airways
Afriqiyah Airways
and Libyan Airlines.[28][29] Buraq Air
Buraq Air
has its head office on the grounds of Mitiga International Airport.[30] By 2017, due to the effects of the Libyan Civil War (2011), rising inflation, Militia infighting, bureaucratic issues, Multiple central banks, fragmented governments, corruption, and other issues, the Economic state of Libya
Libya
is suffering. Locals in Libya
Libya
must purchase dollars on the Black market, rather than receiving dollars on the official rate of 1.37 Dinars to 1 Dollar, due to Central bank(s) refusal to give dollars to the public, the current pricing of Dollars amounts to 10 Dinars to 1 dollar on the black market, driving the Local Libyan economy into ruin and undermining local peoples purchasing power. Militias however have been benefiting from this exploit due to their armed influences and corrupt natures by purchasing dollars on the official rate of 1.30 to 1, and selling it 1 to 10 dinars. Main sights[edit]

Tripoli's Old City (El-Madina El-Kadima), situated in the city centre, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important tourist attraction.

The city's old town, the Medina, is still unspoiled by mass-tourism, though it was increasingly exposed to more and more visitors from abroad, following the lifting of the UN embargo in 2003. However, the walled Medina retains much of its serene old-world ambiance. The Red Castle Museum (Assaraya al-Hamra), a vast palace complex with numerous courtyards, dominates the city skyline and is located on the outskirts of the Medina. There are some classical statues and fountains from the Ottoman period scattered around the castle. An Ottoman saray now houses the Traveler's Library. Three gates provided access to the old town: Bab Zanata in the west, Bab Hawara in the southeast and Bab Al-Bahr in the north wall. The city walls are still standing and can be climbed for good views of the city. The bazaar is also known for its traditional ware; fine jewellery and clothes can be found in the local markets. There are a number of buildings that were constructed by the Italian colonial rulers and later demolished under Gaddafi. They included the Royal Miramare Theatre, next to the Red Castle, and Tripoli
Tripoli
Railway Central Station. Tripoli
Tripoli
Cathedral, constructed by the Italian colonial authorities during the 1920s, was converted into a mosque in the early 1970s. The building was extensively remodelled at this time. Education[edit] The largest university in Tripoli, the University of Tripoli, is a public university providing free education to the city's inhabitants. Private universities and colleges have also begun to crop up in the last few years. International schools:

Lycée Français de Tripoli Deutsche Schule Tripolis Scuola Italiana Al Maziri Russian Embassy School in Tripoli British School Tripoli American School of Tripoli ISM International School Ladybird International School Tripoli
Tripoli
International School Tripoli
Tripoli
World Academy

Sports[edit]

June 11 Stadium
June 11 Stadium
is the home stadium of both Al Ahly and Al Ittihad, and was the venue of the 1982 African Cup of Nations
1982 African Cup of Nations
Final.

Football is the most popular sport in the Libyan capital. Tripoli
Tripoli
is home of the most prominent football clubs in Libya
Libya
including Al Madina, Al Ahly Tripoli
Al Ahly Tripoli
and Al Ittihad Tripoli. Other sports clubs based in Tripoli
Tripoli
include Al Wahda Tripoli
Tripoli
and Addahra. The city also played host to the Italian Super Cup in 2002. The Africa Cup of Nations were to be played in Libya, three of the venues were supposed to be in Tripoli, but it was cancelled due to the ongoing conflict of the Second Libyan Civil War. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Libya Air transport[edit]

Tripoli
Tripoli
International Airport

Tripoli International Airport
Tripoli International Airport
is the largest airport in Tripoli
Tripoli
and Libya. Tripoli
Tripoli
also has another airport, the smaller Mitiga International Airport. Tripoli
Tripoli
is the interim destination of a railway from Sirte
Sirte
under construction in 2007.[31] In July 2014, The Tripoli
Tripoli
international Airport was destroyed following the Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
Airport, when Zintani militias in charge of security were attacked by Islamist militias of the GNC, code naming the operation ' Libya
Libya
Dawn' also known as " Libya
Libya
Dawn Militias", lead by Misurati militia general Salah Badi. The event happened after secular Zintani militias were accused with claims of smuggling drugs, alcohol and illegal items, known to have past ties with the Gaddafi Regime. Libya's Mufti Sadiq al Ghariani has praised the Libya
Libya
Dawn Operation. The result of the Battle for Tripoli's central airport was its complete destruction with 90% of the facilities incapacitated, or burned down with an unknown estimate Millions of dollars in Damage, 10 Jet planes are reporting Missing, with another 10 or so planes destroyed. The airport was shelled with Grad rockets with reports of the Air Traffic control tower completely destroyed, including the main reception building completely wrecked. Surrounding civilian residential areas and infrastructure, of which include Bridges, Electricity equipment, water equipment, and roads were also damaged in the fighting. Oil storage tankers containing large reserves of Kerosene fuels, gases and related chemicals were burnt and large plumes of smoke rose into the air. Reconstruction efforts are currently underway with the GNA giving a contract amounting to $78 Million to an Italian firm ( 'Emaco Group' or "Aeneas Consorzio" - ( Unknown )), to rebuild the destroyed facilities. - All flights have been diverted to ex-military base known as Mitiga International Airport as of 2017. Gallery[edit]

The old Tripoli Cathedral
Tripoli Cathedral
(now a mosque) and the former FIAT
FIAT
centre ( Algeria
Algeria
Square) during the 1960s

A corridor in Old Tripoli

A view of the Tripoli
Tripoli
skyline from the Corinthia Hotel Tripoli

Red Castle and entrance to National Museum

Istiqlal Street in central Tripoli

See also[edit]

Libya
Libya
portal

1986 Berlin discotheque bombing Libyan Civil War Barbary treaties First Barbary War Second Barbary War Gran Premio di Tripoli

References and notes[edit]

^ "MAJOR URBAN AREAS - POPULATION". CIA World Factbook.  ^ Hopkins, Daniel J. (1997). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Index). Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-546-0.  ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Sanskrit and Tamil Dictionaries".  ^ Anthony R. Birley, Septimus Severus Routledge 2002 ISBN 978-1-134-70746-1), p. 2 ^ Reynolds, Clark G. (1974). Command of the Sea – The History and Strategy of Maritime Empires. Morrow. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-688-00267-1. Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa
Africa
under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546.  ^ Braudel, Fernand (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, Volume 2. University of California Press. pp. 908–909. ISBN 978-0-520-20330-3. Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys.  ^ The Diary of Henry Teonge Chaplain on Board HM's Ships Assistance, Bristol and Royal Oak 1675–1679. The Broadway Travellers. Edited by Sir E. Denison Ross and Eileen Power. London: Routledge, [1927] 2005. ISBN 978-0-415-34477-7. ^ Charles Wellington Furlong (December 1911). "The Taking Of Tripoli: What Italy Is Acquiring". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXIII: 165–176. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  ^ Map of Italian Tripoli
Tripoli
in 1930 ^ The Statesman's Yearbook 1948. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1040. ^ McLaren, Brian (29 January 2017). "Architecture and Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya: An Ambivalent Modernism". University of Washington Press – via Google Books.  ^ Berionne, Michele. "Targhe a Roma".  ^ "Tif History". gbf.com.ly. 2008. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009.  ^ "MUSULMANI - 1937 - L'ITALIA IN MEDIO ORIENTE".  ^ Video of Tripoli Grand Prix
Tripoli Grand Prix
on YouTube ^ Hagos, Tecola W. (20 November 2004). "Treaty Of Peace With Italy (1947), Evaluation And Conclusion" Archived 7 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Tecola Hagos. Retrieved 18 July 2006. ^ "Pro-Gaddafi demonstrations in Tripoli
Tripoli
- Libya
Libya
February 17th – Archive site".  ^ "Breaking: Body of Al Jazeera Cameraman Ali Al Jabir Arrives in Doha". Libyafeb17.com. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011.  ^ "Libya's Islamist militias claim control of capital". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ Chris Stephen (9 September 2014). "Libyan parliament takes refuge in Greek car ferry". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2014.  ^ http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pdf/kottek_et_al_2006_A4.pdf ^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Tripoli". World Meteorological Organization. May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2013.  ^ Watkins, John (18 March 2006). "Libya's Thirst for 'Fossil Water'". BBC News. Retrieved 10 September 2006.  ^ "Klimatafel von Tripolis (Flugh.) / Libyen" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 28 March 2016.  ^ "Appendix I: Meteorological Data" (PDF). Springer. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ Libya
Libya
Opportunities for British goods and services exporters. Retrieved 18 February 2010 ^ "Contact Us Archived 12 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.." Afriqiyah Airways. Retrieved on 9 November 2009. ^ "Libyan Airlines." Arab Air Carriers Organization. Retrieved on 9 November 2009. Archived 7 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Company Profile." Buraq Air. Retrieved on 14 May 2010. ^ Briginshaw, David (1 January 2001). "Libya's First Two Railway Lines Start To Take Shape". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 30 December 2007. Archived 11 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.

Includes text from Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921).

Further reading[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Tripoli

London, Joshua E. (2005). Victory in Tripoli – How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. Nora Lafi (2002). Une ville du Maghreb entre Ancien Régime et réformes ottomanes. Genèse des institutions municipales à Tripoli de Barbarie (1795–1911). Paris: L'Harmattan. 305 p. Amamzon.fr. Miss Tully (1816) Letters written during a ten year’s residence at the Court of Tripoli, 1783–1795, with a new Introduction by Caroline Stone. (Hardinge Simpole, 2008). [1]. Journal of Libyan Studies 3, 1 (2002) p. 59-68: "Local Elites and Italian Town Planning Procedures in Early Colonial Tripoli (1911–1912)" by Denis Bocquet and Nora Lafi http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/12/82/40/PDF/lafi-bocquet_local_elites.pdf

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tripoli.

Tripoli
Tripoli
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Links to related articles

v t e

Tripoli, Libya

Buildings and structures

Airports

Mitiga International Airport Tripoli
Tripoli
International Airport

Hotels

Bab el Bahr Hotel Corinthia Hotel Tripoli Four Points by Sheraton Tripoli Al Ghazala InterContinental Tripoli
Tripoli
Hotel Grand Hotel Tripoli Al Waddan Hotel JW Marriott Tripoli Radisson Blu Al Mahary Hotel Tripoli Rixos Al Nasr Sheraton Hotel Tripoli

Mosques

Gurgi Mosque Tripoli
Tripoli
Cathedral

Museums

Epigraphy Museum of Tripoli Ethnographic Museum of Tripoli Islamic Museum of Tripoli Karamanly House Museum Natural History Museum of Tripoli Prehistory Museum of Tripoli Red Castle Museum

Stadiums

7 October Stadium Ali Alsgozy Stadium GMR Stadium June 11 Stadium

Other

Nessco Building Abu Salim prison University of Tripoli Bab al-Azizia Darghouth Turkish Bath Fist Crushing a U.S. Fighter Plane Sculpture Martyrs' Square, Tripoli Libyan Studies Center People's Hall Tarabulus Zoo Park Tripoli
Tripoli
Central Hospital Tripoli
Tripoli
Zoo

History

Timeline Siege of Tripoli
Tripoli
(1551) Treaty of Tripoli Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
Harbor Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
(1825) Italian Tripoli 2011 Tripoli
Tripoli
clashes Battle of Tripoli
Tripoli
(2011)

Sport

Al Jamarek Tripoli Al-Ittihad Club Alahly Tripoli
Tripoli
S.C. Almadina S.C. Alwahda Aschat S.C. Tripoli
Tripoli
Grand Prix

Other

Apostolic Vicariate of Tripoli Seal of Tripoli Tripoli
Tripoli
International Fair

v t e

Neighborhoods of Tripoli

Al Hanshir Bab Akkarah Bin Ashur Fashloom Garden City Martyrs' Square Old Medina Port of Tripoli bab bin Ghashir Tarabulus Zoo Park Zawiyat al-Dahmani

 

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Largest cities or towns in Libya [2][3][4]

Rank Name District Pop.

Tripoli

Benghazi 1 Tripoli Tripoli 1,250,000

Misurata

Bayda

2 Benghazi Benghazi 700,000

3 Misurata Misurata 350,000

4 Bayda Jabal al Akhdar 250,000

5 Al Khums Murqub 201,000

6 Zawiya Zawiya 200,000

7 Ajdabiya Al Wahat 134,000

8 Sabha Sabha 130,000

9 Sirte Sirte 128,000

10 Tobruk Butnan 120,000

v t e

Districts of Libya
Libya
since 2007

Benghazi Butnan Derna Ghat Jabal al Akhdar Jabal al Gharbi Jafara Jufra Kufra Marj Misrata Murqub Murzuq Nalut Nuqat al Khams Sabha Sirte Tripoli Wadi al Hayaa Wadi al Shatii Al Wahat Zawiya

v t e

Districts of Libya
Libya
2001–2007

Ajdabiya Bani Walid Benghazi Butnan Derna Ghat Ghadames Gharyan Hizam al Akhdar Jabal al Akhdar Jafara Jufra Kufra Marj Misrata Mizda Murqub Murzuq Nalut Nuqat al Khams Quba Sabha Sabratha
Sabratha
& Sorman Sirte Tajura & Arba‘ Tarhuna & Msalata Tripoli Wadi al Hayaa Wadi al Shatii Al Wahat Yafran Zawiya

v t e

Administrative seats of the districts of Libya

Ajdabiya Al Jawf ‘Aziziya Bayda Benghazi Brak Derna Gharyan Ghat Hun Khoms Marj Misrata Murzuk Nalut Sabha Sirte Tripoli Tobruk Ubari Zawiya Zuwara

v t e

Capitals of Arab countries

Africa Asia

Algiers, Algeria Cairo, Egypt Djibouti, Djibouti

El Aaiun
El Aaiun
(proclaimed)   Tifariti
Tifariti
(de facto), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1

Khartoum, Sudan Mogadishu, Somalia Moroni, Comoros Nouakchott, Mauritania Rabat, Morocco Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Baghdad, Iraq Beirut, Lebanon Damascus, Syria Doha, Qatar

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(proclaimed)   Ramallah
Ramallah
(de facto), Palestine1

Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Romano-Berber cities in Roman North Africa

Morocco

Anfa Iulia Constantia Zilil Iulia Valentia Banasa Iulia Campestris Babba Lixus 2 Mogador Sala 1 Tamuda
Tamuda
1 Thamusida Tingi Volubilis
Volubilis
1

Algeria

Aquae Calidae Albulae Altava Auzia Calama Caesarea Cartennas Castellum Dimmidi Castellum Tingitanum Castra Nova Cirta Civitas Popthensis Collo Cohors Breucorum Cuicul
Cuicul
1 Diana Veteranorum Gemellae Gunugus Hippo Regius Icosium
Icosium
1 Igilgili Iomnium Lamasba Lambaesis Madauros Mascula Mesarfelta Milevum Numerus Syrorum Oppidum Novum Parthenia Pomaria Portus Divinus Portus Magnus Quiza Xenitana Rapidum Rusazu Rusguniae Rusucurru Saldae Setifis Siga Thagaste Thamugadi
Thamugadi
1 Theveste Thibilis Thubursicum Tiddis Tingartia Tipasa
Tipasa
1 Tubusuctu Tubunae Unica Colonia Uzinaza Vescera Zaraï Zuccabar

Tunisia

Althiburos Bulla Regia Capsa Carthago 1 Cillium Dougga
Dougga
1 Gightis Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
1 Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Leptis Parva Mactaris Pheradi Majus Pupput Rucuma Ruspae Scillium Sicca Simitthus Sufetula Tacapae Taparura Sufes Thabraca Thanae Thapsus Thuburbo Majus Thuburnica Thysdrus Turris Tamalleni Utica Uthina Vaga Zama Regia

Libya

Cydamus
Cydamus
1 Gerisa Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
1 Oea Sabratha
Sabratha
1

Spain

Septem Rusadir

Kingdoms and Provinces

Mauretania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Numidia Roman Africa Creta et Cyrenaica Roman Egypt Diocese of Africa Zeugitana Byzacena Vandal Kingdom Praetorian prefecture of Africa Exarchate of Africa

Related articles

North Africa
Africa
during Antiquity African Romance Limes Tripolitanus Christianity in Roman Africa

1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites 2 Proposed

v t e

Arab Capital of Culture

Cairo
Cairo
1996 (Egypt) Tunis
Tunis
1997 (Tunisia) Sharjah
Sharjah
1998 (United Arab Emirates) Beirut
Beirut
1999 (Lebanon) Riyadh
Riyadh
2000 (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait City
Kuwait City
2001 (Kuwait) Amman
Amman
2002 (Jordan) Rabat
Rabat
2003 (Morocco) San'a
San'a
2004 (Yemen) Khartoum
Khartoum
2005 (Sudan) Muscat
Muscat
2006 (Oman) Algiers
Algiers
2007 (Algeria) Damascus
Damascus
2008 (Syria) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009 (State of Palestine) Doha
Doha
2010 (Qatar) Sirte
Sirte
2011 (Libya) Manama
Manama
2012 (Bahrain) Baghdad
Baghdad
2013 (Iraq) Tripoli
Tripoli
2014 (Libya) Constantine 2015 (Algeria) Sfax
Sfax
2016 (Tunisia)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125504622 LCCN: n81146957 GND: 4106962-6 BNF:

.