Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس, Ṭarābulus; Berber:"Oea" or "Wy't"
) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population
of about 1.1 million people in 2015. It is located in the northwest
Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land
projecting into the Mediterranean and forming a bay. It includes the
Tripoli and the country's largest commercial and manufacturing
centre. It is also the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab
al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar
Gaddafi, is also located in the city.
Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled
the country from his residence in this barracks.
Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who
named it Oea. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites
of archaeological significance in Tripoli. "Tripoli" may also refer to
the shabiyah (top-level administrative division in the current Libyan
Tripoli is also known as Tripoli-of-the-West (Arabic: طرابلس
الغرب Ṭarābulus al-Gharb), to distinguish it from its
Phoenician sister city
Tripoli, Lebanon known in Arabic as
Ṭarābulus al-Sham (طرابلس الشام) meaning "Levantine
Tripoli". It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean
(عروسة البحر ʿArūsat al-Baḥr; lit: "bride of the sea"),
describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings. Tripoli
English: /ˈtrɪpəli/ is a Greek name that means "Three Cities",
introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli.
In Arabic: طرابلس it is called Ṭarābulus
( pronunciation (help·info), Libyan Arabic: Ṭrābləs
pronunciation (help·info), Berber: Ṭrables, from Ancient
Greek: Τρίπολις Trípolis). Compare Sanskrit, "tri" meaning
the number 3, and "pura" meaning a fortress, castle, city or town.
Hence, in Sanskrit "Tripura" also means "Three Cities".
1.1 16th to 19th centuries
1.2 Barbary Wars
1.3 Late Ottoman era
1.4 Italian era
1.5 Gaddafi era
1.6 Libyan civil war
2 Law and government
3 Geography and climate
5 Main sights
8 International relations
9 Air transport
11 See also
12 References and notes
13 Further reading
14 External links
See also: Timeline of Tripoli
The city was founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians, who
gave it the
Oea (or Wy't), The Phoenicians were
probably attracted to the site by its natural harbour, flanked on the
western shore by the small, easily defensible peninsula, on which they
established their colony. The city then passed into the hands of the
Cyrenaica (a Greek colony on the North African shore, east
of Tripoli, halfway to Egypt), although the
wrested it from the Greeks.
By the latter half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans,
who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of
"Regio Syrtica". Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it became
known as the Regio Tripolitana, meaning "region of the three cities",
Oea (i.e., modern Tripoli),
Sabratha and Leptis Magna. It was
probably raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius
Severus, who was a native of Leptis Magna.
Arch of Marcus Aurelius
In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman
remains, apart from scattered columns and capitals (usually integrated
in later buildings), is the Arch of
Marcus Aurelius from the 2nd
century AD. The fact that
Tripoli has been continuously inhabited,
Sabratha and Leptis Magna, has meant that the inhabitants
have either quarried material from older buildings (destroying them in
the process), or built on top of them, burying them beneath the
streets, where they remain largely unexcavated.
There is evidence to suggest that the
Tripolitania region was in some
economic decline during the 5th and 6th centuries, in part due to the
political unrest spreading across the Mediterranean world in the wake
of the collapse of the Western Roman empire, as well as pressure from
the invading Vandals.
According to al-Baladhuri,
Tripoli was, unlike Western North Africa,
taken by the Muslims very early after Alexandria, in the 22nd year of
the Hijra, that is between 30 November 642 and 18 November 643 AD.
Following the conquest,
Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo,
Egypt (first the Fatimids, and later the Mamluks) and
Ifriqiya (the Arab Fihrids,
Aghlabid dynasties). For
some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the
16th to 19th centuries
Historic map of
Tripoli by Piri Reis
In 1510, it was taken by
Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto
Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto for Spain,
and, in 1530, it was assigned, together with Malta, to the Knights of
St. John, who had lately been expelled by the
Ottoman Turks from their
stronghold on the island of Rhodes. Finding themselves in very hostile
territory, the Knights enhanced the city's walls and other defenses.
Though built on top of a number of older buildings (possibly including
a Roman public bath), much of the earliest defensive structures of the
Tripoli castle (or "Assaraya al-Hamra", i.e., the "Red Castle") are
attributed to the Knights of St John.
Having previously combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the
reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent
it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates it
had been prior to the Spanish occupation. The disruption the pirates
caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been
one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city.
Tripoli, 1675, map by John Seller
The knights kept the city with some trouble until 1551, when they were
compelled to surrender to the Ottomans, led by Muslim Turk Turgut
Turgut Reis served as pasha of Tripoli, during his rule he
adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive
cities along the North African Coast. Turgut was also buried in
Tripoli after his death in 1565. His body was taken from Malta, where
he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the
mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli. The palace
has since disappeared (supposedly it was situated between the
so-called "Ottoman prison" and the arch of Marcus Aurelius), but the
mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr
After the capture by the Ottoman Turks,
Tripoli once again became a
base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts
to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough
in 1675, of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived.
Dutch ships off
Tripoli by Reinier Nooms, ca.1650
Effective Ottoman rule during this period (1551–1711) was often
hampered by the local
Janissary corps. Intended to function as
enforcers of local administration, the captain of the Janissaries and
his cronies were often the de facto rulers.
In 1711, Ahmed Karamanli, a
Janissary officer of Turkish origin,
killed the Ottoman governor, the "Pasha", and established himself as
ruler of the
Tripolitania region. By 1714, he had asserted a sort of
semi-independence from the Ottoman Sultan, heralding in the Karamanli
dynasty. The Pashas of
Tripoli were expected to pay a regular
tributary tax to the Sultan, but were in all other aspects rulers of
an independent kingdom. This order of things continued under the rule
of his descendants, accompanied by the brazen piracy and blackmailing
until 1835, when the
Ottoman Empire took advantage of an internal
struggle and re-established its authority.
The Ottoman province (vilayet) of
Tripoli (including the dependent
sanjak of Cyrenaica) lay along the southern shore of the Mediterranean
Tunisia in the west and
Egypt in the east. Besides the city
itself, the area included
Cyrenaica (the Barca plateau), the chain of
oases in the Aujila depression,
Fezzan and the oases of
Ghat, separated by sandy and stony wastelands.
First Barbary War
First Barbary War and Second Barbary War
The USS Philadelphia, heavy frigate of the United States Navy, burning
Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor
Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor during the
First Barbary War
First Barbary War in
In the early part of the 19th century, the regency at Tripoli, owing
to its piratical practices, was twice involved in war with the United
States. In May 1801, the pasha demanded an increase in the tribute
($83,000) which the U.S. government had been paying since 1796 for the
protection of their commerce from piracy under the 1796 Treaty with
Tripoli. The demand was refused by third President Thomas Jefferson,
and a naval force was sent from the United States to blockade Tripoli.
First Barbary War
First Barbary War (1801-1805) dragged on for four years. In 1803,
Tripolitan fighters captured the U.S. Navy heavy frigate Philadelphia
and took its commander, Captain William Bainbridge, and the entire
crew as prisoners. This was after the Philadelphia was run aground
when the captain tried to navigate too close to the port of Tripoli.
After several hours aground and Tripolitan gun boats firing upon the
Philadelphia, though none ever struck the Philadelphia, Captain
Bainbridge made the decision to surrender. The Philadelphia was later
turned against the Americans and anchored in
Tripoli Harbor as a gun
battery while her officers and crew were held prisoners in Tripoli.
The following year, U.S. Navy Lieutenant
Stephen Decatur led a
successful daring nighttime raid to retake and burn the warship rather
than see it remain in enemy hands. Decatur's men set fire to the
Philadelphia and escaped.
A notable incident in the war was the expedition undertaken by
diplomatic Consul William Eaton with the objective of replacing the
pasha with an elder brother living in exile, who had promised to
accede to all the wishes of the United States. Eaton, at the head of a
mixed force of U.S. Marines, American soldiers and sailors, along with
Greek, Arab and Turkish mercenaries numbering approximately 500,
marched across the Egyptian / Libyan desert from Alexandria,
with the aid of three American warships, succeeded in capturing Derna.
Soon afterward, on 3 June 1805, peace was concluded. The pasha ended
his demands and received $60,000 as ransom for the Philadelphia
prisoners under the 1805 Treaty with Tripoli.
In 1815, in consequence of further outrages and due to the humiliation
of the earlier defeat, Captains Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur, at the
head of an American squadron, again visited
Tripoli and forced the
pasha to comply with the demands of the United States. See Second
Late Ottoman era
Clock tower in Tripoli's old town medina
In 1835, the Ottomans took advantage of a local civil war to reassert
their direct authority. After that date,
Tripoli was under the direct
control of the Sublime Porte. Rebellions in 1842 and 1844 were
unsuccessful. After the French occupation of
Tunisia (1881), the
Ottomans increased their garrison in Tripoli
Tripoli under Italian rule
Italy had long claimed that
Tripoli fell within its zone of influence
and that Italy had the right to preserve order within the state.
Under the pretext of protecting its own citizens living in Tripoli
from the Ottoman government, it declared war against the Ottomans on
29 September 1911, and announced its intention of annexing Tripoli. On
1 October 1911, a naval battle was fought at Prevesa, Greece, and
three Ottoman vessels were destroyed.
By the Treaty of Lausanne, Italian sovereignty was acknowledged by the
Ottomans, although the caliph was permitted to exercise religious
authority. Italy officially granted autonomy after the war, but
gradually occupied the region. Originally administered as part of a
Tripoli and its surrounding province were a separate
colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when all Italian
possessions in North
Africa were merged into one colony. By 1938,
Tripoli had 108,240 inhabitants, including 39,096 Italians.
Tripoli underwent a huge architectural and urbanistic improvement
under Italian rule: the first thing the Italians did was to create
in the early 1920s a sewage system (that until then lacked) and a
In the coast of the province was built in 1937–1938 a section of the
Litoranea Balbia, a road that went from
Tripoli and Tunisia's frontier
to the border of Egypt. The car tag for the Italian province of
Tripoli was "TL".
Fiera internazionale di
Tripoli International Fair) in 1939
Furthermore, the Italians – in order to promote Tripoli's economy
– founded in 1927 the
Tripoli International Fair, which is
considered[by whom?] to be the oldest trade fair in Africa. The
so-called Fiera internazionale di
Tripoli was one of the main
international "Fairs" in the colonial world in the 1930s, and was
internationally promoted together with the
Tripoli Grand Prix
Tripoli Grand Prix as a
showcase of Italian Libya.
The Italians created the
Tripoli Grand Prix, an international motor
racing event first held in 1925 on a racing circuit outside Tripoli
(it lasted until 1940). The first airport in Libya, the Mellaha
Air Base was built by the
Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force in 1923 near the Tripoli
racing circuit (actually is called Mitiga International Airport).
Tripoli even had a railway station with some small railway connections
to nearby cities, when in August 1941 the Italians started to build a
new 1,040-kilometre (646-mile) railway (with a 1,435 mm
(56.5 in) gauge, like the one used in
Egypt and Tunisia) between
Tripoli and Benghazi. But the war (with the defeat of the Italian
Army) stopped the construction the next year.
Tripoli was controlled by Italy until 1943 when the provinces of
Cyrenaica were captured by Allied forces. The city
fell to troops of the British Eighth Army on 23 January 1943. Tripoli
was then governed by the British until independence in 1951. Under the
terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all
claims to Libya.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February
Muammar Gaddafi became leader of
Libya on September 1, 1969.
On 15 April 1986, U.S. President
Ronald Reagan ordered major bombing
raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, against
Benghazi, killing 45 Libyan military and government personnel as well
as 15 civilians. This strike followed US interception of telex
messages from Libya's East Berlin embassy suggesting the involvement
of Libyan leader
Muammar Gaddafi in a bomb explosion on 5 April in
West Berlin's La Belle discothèque, a nightclub frequented by US
servicemen. Among the alleged fatalities of the 15 April retaliatory
attack by the United States was Gaddafi's adopted daughter, Hannah.
United Nations sanctions against
Libya were lifted in 2003, which
increased traffic through the
Port of Tripoli
Port of Tripoli and had a positive
impact on the city's economy.
Libyan civil war
Front lines during the Battle of
Tripoli (20–28 August 2011)
See also: 2011 Libyan civil war, Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil
war, and Battle of
In February and March 2011,
Tripoli witnessed intense anti-government
protests and violent government responses resulting in hundreds killed
and wounded. The city's Green Square was the scene of some of the
protests. The anti-Gaddafi protests were eventually crushed, and
Tripoli was the site of pro-Gaddafi rallies.
The city defenses loyal to Gaddafi included the military headquarters
at Bab al-Aziziyah (where Gaddafi's main residence was located) and
the Mitiga International Airport. At the latter, on 13 March, Ali
Atiyya, a colonel of the Libyan Air Force, defected and joined the
In late February, rebel forces took control of Zawiya, a city
approximately 50 km (31 mi) to the west of Tripoli, thus
increasing the threat to pro-Gaddafi forces in the capital. During the
subsequent battle of Zawiya, loyalist forces besieged the city and
eventually recaptured it by 10 March.
As the 2011 military intervention in
Libya commenced on 19 March to
enforce a U.N. no-fly zone over the country, the city once again came
under air attack. It was the second time that
Tripoli was bombed since
the 1986 U.S. airstrikes, and the second time since the 1986 airstrike
that bombed Bab al-Azizia, Gaddafi's heavily fortified compound.
In July and August, Libyan online revolutionary communities posted
tweets and updates on attacks by rebel fighters on pro-government
vehicles and checkpoints. In one such attack, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
Abdullah Senussi were targets. The government,
however, denied revolutionary activity inside the capital.
Several months after the initial uprising, rebel forces in the Nafusa
Mountains advanced towards the coast, retaking Zawiya and reaching
Tripoli on 21 August. On 21 August, the symbolic Green Square,
immediately renamed Martyrs' Square by the rebels, was taken under
rebel control and pro-Gaddafi posters were torn down and
During a radio address on 1 September, Gaddafi declared that the
capital of the
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya had
been moved from
Tripoli to Sirte, after rebels had taken control of
In August and September 2014 Islamist armed groups extended their
control of central Tripoli. The
Council of Deputies
Council of Deputies parliament set up
operations on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk. A rival New General
National Congress parliament continued to operate in Tripoli.
Law and government
Tripoli and its surrounding suburbs all lie within the Tripoli
sha'biyah (district). In accordance with Libya's former Jamahiriya
Tripoli comprises Local People's Congresses where,
in theory, the city's population discuss different matters and elect
their own people's committee; at present[when?] there are 29 Local
People's Congresses. In reality, the former revolutionary committees
severely limited the democratic process by closely supervising
committee and congress elections at the branch and district levels of
Tripoli being no exception.
Tripoli is sometimes referred to as "the de jure capital of Libya"
because none of the country's ministries are actually located in the
capital. Even the former National General People's Congress was held
annually in the city of
Sirte rather than in Tripoli. As part of a
radical decentralization programme undertaken by Gaddafi in September
1988, all General People's Committee secretariats (ministries), except
those responsible for foreign liaison (foreign policy and
international relations) and information, were moved outside Tripoli.
According to diplomatic sources, the former Secretariat for Economy
and Trade was moved to Benghazi; the Secretariat for Health to Kufra;
and the remainder, excepting one, to Sirte, Muammar Gaddafi's
birthplace. In early 1993 it was announced that the Secretariat for
Foreign Liaison and International Co-operation was to be moved to Ra's
Lanuf. In October 2011,
Libya fell to The National Transitional
Council (N.T.C.), which took full control, abolishing the Gaddafi-era
system of national and local government.
Geography and climate
Satellite image of central Tripoli
Astronaut view of Tripoli
Tripoli lies at the western extremity of
Libya close to the Tunisian
border, on the continent of Africa. Over a thousand kilometres (621
Tripoli from Libya's second largest city, Benghazi.
Coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons along the shores
Tripolitania for more than 300 km (190 mi).
Until 2007, the "Sha'biyah" included the city, its suburbs and their
immediate surroundings. In older administrative systems and throughout
history, there existed a province ("muhafazah"), state ("wilayah") or
city-state with a much larger area (though not constant boundaries),
which is sometimes mistakenly referred to as
Tripoli but more
appropriately should be called Tripolitania.
As a District,
Tripoli borders the following districts:
Murqub – east
Jabal al Gharbi – south
Jafara – southwest
Zawiya – west
Tripoli has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
BSh) with hot dry summers and relatively wet mild winters. Its
summers are hot with temperatures that often exceed 38 °C
(100 °F); average July temperatures are between 22 and
33 °C (72 and 91 °F). In December, temperatures have
reached as low as 0 °C (32 °F), but the average remains at
between 9 and 18 °C (48 and 64 °F). The average annual
rainfall is less than 400 millimetres (16 inches). Snowfall has
occurred in past years.
The rainfall can be very erratic. Epic floods in 1945 left Tripoli
underwater for several days, but two years later an unprecedented
drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. Deficiency in
rainfall is no doubt reflected in an absence of permanent rivers or
streams in the city as is indeed true throughout the entire country.
The allocation of limited water is considered of sufficient importance
to warrant the existence of the Secretariat of Dams and Water
Resources, and damaging a source of water can be penalized by a heavy
fine or imprisonment.
The Great Manmade River, a network of pipelines that transport water
from the desert to the coastal cities, supplies
Tripoli with its
water. The grand scheme was initiated by Gaddafi in 1982 and has
had a positive impact on the city's inhabitants.
Tripoli is dotted with public spaces, but none fit under the category
of large city parks. Martyrs' Square, located near the waterfront is
scattered with palm trees, the most abundant plant used for
landscaping in the city. The
Tripoli Zoo, located south of the city
center, is a large reserve of plants, trees and open green spaces and
was the country's biggest zoo. It has, however, been
closed since 2009.
Climate data for
Tripoli (1961–1990, extremes 1944–1993)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Mean daily sunshine hours
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity), Arab
Meteorology Book (sun only)
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Tripoli's central business district, where many Libyan and
international companies have offices.
Tripoli is one of the main hubs of Libya's economy along with Misrata.
It is the leading centre of banking, finance and communication in the
country and is one of the leading commercial and manufacturing cities
in Libya. Many of the country's largest corporations locate their
headquarters and home offices in
Tripoli as well as the majority of
international companies.
Major manufactured goods include processed food, textiles,
construction materials, clothing and tobacco products. Since the
lifting of sanctions against
Libya in 1999 and again in 2003, Tripoli
has seen a rise in foreign investment as well as an increase in
tourism. Increased traffic has also been recorded in the city's port
as well as Libya's main international airport, Tripoli
The city is home to the
Tripoli International Fair, an international
industrial, agricultural and commercial event located on Omar Muktar
Avenue. One of the active members of the Global Association of the
Exhibition Industry (UFI), located in the French capital Paris, the
international fair is organized annually and takes place from 2–12
April. Participation averages around 30 countries as well as more than
2000 companies and organizations.
That El Emad Towers, Tripoli
Since the rise in tourism and influx of foreign visitors, there has
been an increased demand for hotels in the city. To cater for these
increased demands, the Corinthia Bab
Africa Hotel located in the
central business district was constructed in 2003 and is the largest
hotel in Libya. Other high end hotels in
Tripoli include the Al Waddan
Intercontinental and the
Tripoli Radisson Blu Hotel as well as
There is a project under construction which will finish by 2015. It is
a part of the
Tripoli business center and it will have towers and
hotels, a marketing center, restaurants and above ground and
underground parking. The cost is planned to be more than 3.0 billion
Libyan dinars (US$2.8 billion)
Companies with head offices in
Afriqiyah Airways and
Buraq Air has its head office on the grounds
of Mitiga International Airport.
By 2017, due to the effects of the Libyan Civil War (2011), rising
inflation, Militia infighting, bureaucratic issues, Multiple central
banks, fragmented governments, corruption, and other issues, the
Economic state of
Libya is suffering. Locals in
Libya must purchase
dollars on the Black market, rather than receiving dollars on the
official rate of 1.37 Dinars to 1 Dollar, due to Central bank(s)
refusal to give dollars to the public, the current pricing of Dollars
amounts to 10 Dinars to 1 dollar on the black market, driving the
Local Libyan economy into ruin and undermining local peoples
purchasing power. Militias however have been benefiting from this
exploit due to their armed influences and corrupt natures by
purchasing dollars on the official rate of 1.30 to 1, and selling it 1
to 10 dinars.
Tripoli's Old City (El-Madina El-Kadima), situated in the city centre,
is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important
The city's old town, the Medina, is still unspoiled by mass-tourism,
though it was increasingly exposed to more and more visitors from
abroad, following the lifting of the UN embargo in 2003. However, the
walled Medina retains much of its serene old-world ambiance. The Red
Castle Museum (Assaraya al-Hamra), a vast palace complex with numerous
courtyards, dominates the city skyline and is located on the outskirts
of the Medina. There are some classical statues and fountains from the
Ottoman period scattered around the castle. An Ottoman saray now
houses the Traveler's Library.
Three gates provided access to the old town: Bab Zanata in the west,
Bab Hawara in the southeast and Bab Al-Bahr in the north wall. The
city walls are still standing and can be climbed for good views of the
city. The bazaar is also known for its traditional ware; fine
jewellery and clothes can be found in the local markets.
There are a number of buildings that were constructed by the Italian
colonial rulers and later demolished under Gaddafi. They included the
Royal Miramare Theatre, next to the Red Castle, and
Tripoli Cathedral, constructed by the Italian
colonial authorities during the 1920s, was converted into a mosque in
the early 1970s. The building was extensively remodelled at this time.
The largest university in Tripoli, the University of Tripoli, is a
public university providing free education to the city's inhabitants.
Private universities and colleges have also begun to crop up in the
last few years.
Lycée Français de Tripoli
Deutsche Schule Tripolis
Scuola Italiana Al Maziri
Russian Embassy School in Tripoli
British School Tripoli
American School of Tripoli
ISM International School
Ladybird International School
Tripoli International School
Tripoli World Academy
June 11 Stadium
June 11 Stadium is the home stadium of both Al Ahly and Al Ittihad,
and was the venue of the
1982 African Cup of Nations
1982 African Cup of Nations Final.
Football is the most popular sport in the Libyan capital.
home of the most prominent football clubs in
Libya including Al
Al Ahly Tripoli
Al Ahly Tripoli and Al Ittihad Tripoli. Other sports clubs
Tripoli include Al Wahda
Tripoli and Addahra.
The city also played host to the Italian Super Cup in 2002. The Africa
Cup of Nations were to be played in Libya, three of the venues were
supposed to be in Tripoli, but it was cancelled due to the ongoing
conflict of the Second Libyan Civil War.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Libya
Tripoli International Airport
Tripoli International Airport
Tripoli International Airport is the largest airport in
Tripoli also has another airport, the smaller Mitiga
Tripoli is the interim destination of a railway from
construction in 2007.
In July 2014, The
Tripoli international Airport was destroyed
following the Battle of
Tripoli Airport, when Zintani militias in
charge of security were attacked by Islamist militias of the GNC, code
naming the operation '
Libya Dawn' also known as "
Libya Dawn Militias",
lead by Misurati militia general Salah Badi. The event happened after
secular Zintani militias were accused with claims of smuggling drugs,
alcohol and illegal items, known to have past ties with the Gaddafi
Regime. Libya's Mufti Sadiq al Ghariani has praised the
The result of the Battle for Tripoli's central airport was its
complete destruction with 90% of the facilities incapacitated, or
burned down with an unknown estimate Millions of dollars in Damage, 10
Jet planes are reporting Missing, with another 10 or so planes
destroyed. The airport was shelled with Grad rockets with reports of
the Air Traffic control tower completely destroyed, including the main
reception building completely wrecked. Surrounding civilian
residential areas and infrastructure, of which include Bridges,
Electricity equipment, water equipment, and roads were also damaged in
the fighting. Oil storage tankers containing large reserves of
Kerosene fuels, gases and related chemicals were burnt and large
plumes of smoke rose into the air.
Reconstruction efforts are currently underway with the GNA giving a
contract amounting to $78 Million to an Italian firm ( 'Emaco Group'
or "Aeneas Consorzio" - ( Unknown )), to rebuild the destroyed
- All flights have been diverted to ex-military base known as Mitiga
International Airport as of 2017.
Tripoli Cathedral (now a mosque) and the former
Algeria Square) during the 1960s
A corridor in Old Tripoli
A view of the
Tripoli skyline from the Corinthia Hotel Tripoli
Red Castle and entrance to National Museum
Istiqlal Street in central Tripoli
1986 Berlin discotheque bombing
Libyan Civil War
First Barbary War
Second Barbary War
Gran Premio di Tripoli
References and notes
^ "MAJOR URBAN AREAS - POPULATION". CIA World Factbook.
^ Hopkins, Daniel J. (1997). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary
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de Barbarie (1795–1911). Paris: L'Harmattan. 305 p. Amamzon.fr.
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Italian Town Planning Procedures in Early Colonial Tripoli
(1911–1912)" by Denis Bocquet and Nora Lafi
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tripoli.
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