The TRIPARTITE PACT, also known as the BERLIN PACT, was an agreement
between Germany , Japan and Italy signed in
* 1 Text of the pact * 2 Background of the original agreement
* 3 Later signatories
* 3.1 Hungary * 3.2 Romania * 3.3 Slovakia * 3.4 Bulgaria * 3.5 Yugoslavia * 3.6 Croatia
* 4 Potential signatories
* 5 Tripartite relations, 1940–43 * 6 "No separate peace" agreement * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links
TEXT OF THE PACT
Japanese version of the Tripartite Pact, 27 September 1940.
The Governments of Japan, Germany, and Italy consider it as the condition precedent of any lasting peace that all nations in the world be given each its own proper place, have decided to stand by and co-operate with one another in their efforts in Greater East Asia and the regions of Europe respectively wherein it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. It is, furthermore, the desire of the three Governments to extend cooperation to nations in other spheres of the world that are inclined to direct their efforts along lines similar to their own for the purpose of realizing their ultimate object, world peace. Accordingly, the Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE 1. Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe.
ARTICLE 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia.
ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all political, economic and military means if one of the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict.
ARTICLE 4. With a view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, to be appointed by the respective Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy, will meet without delay.
ARTICLE 5. Japan, Germany and Italy affirm that the above agreement affects in no way the political status existing at present between each of the three Contracting Powers and Soviet Russia.
ARTICLE 6. The present pact shall become valid immediately upon signature and shall remain in force ten years from the date on which it becomes effective. In due time, before the expiration of said term, the High Contracting Parties shall, at the request of any one of them, enter into negotiations for its renewal.
In faith whereof, the undersigned duly authorized by their respective governments have signed this pact and have affixed hereto their signatures.
Done in triplicate at Berlin, the 27th day of September, 1940, in the 19th year of the fascist era, corresponding to the 27th day of the ninth month of the 15th year of Showa (the reign of Emperor Hirohito).
BACKGROUND OF THE ORIGINAL AGREEMENT
The pact supplemented the
Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936 and helped heal
the rift that had developed between Japan and Germany following the
In a ceremonial speech following the signing of the pact on 27 September, Ribbentrop may have suggested that the signatories were open to accepting new signatories in the future. The Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (DAZ) reported his words as follows:
The purpose of the Pact is, above all things, to help restore peace to the world as quickly as possible. Therefore any other State which wishes to adhere to this bloc (der diesem Block beitreten will), with the intention of contributing to the restoration of peaceful conditions, will be sincerely and gratefully made welcome and will participate in the economic and political reorganisation.
The official Deutsches Nachrichtenbüro (DNB), however, as well as most of the press, reported a slightly different version, in which the words "behave towards" (gegenüber tritt) replace "adhere to". It is likely that initially the adherence of other nations was not envisaged, and that Ribbentrop misspoke. The official record in the DNB therefore corrected his words to remove any reference to "adherence" by other states, but produced an awkward wording in the process.
The Italian foreign minister, Ciano, was resolutely opposed to the idea of adding smaller states to the pact as late as 20 November 1940, arguing in his diary that they weakened the pact and were useless bits of diplomacy.
The Kingdom of Hungary was the fourth state to sign the pact and the first to adhere to it after 27 September 1940. The Hungarian ambassador in Berlin, Döme Sztójay , telegraphed his foreign minister, István Csáky , immediately after news of the signing and of Ribbentrop's speech had reached him. He urged Csáky to adhere to the pact, even claiming that it was the expectation of Germany and Italy that she would do so. He considered it especially important that Hungary sign the pact before Romania did. In response, Csáky asked Sztójay and the ambassador in Rome, Frigyes Villani , to make enquiries regarding Hungary's adherence and its potential obligations under the pact. On September 28, the German secretary of state for foreign affairs, Ernst von Weizsäcker , informed Hungary that Ribbentrop had meant not a "formal adherence" but merely "an attitude in the spirit of the Pact". The Italian answer was similar. Nonetheless, within the week the Hungarian government had sent out formal notice of its "spiritual adherence" to the pact.
In the week after Hungary's "spiritual" adherence, the Balkan
situation changed. Germany granted a Romanian request to send troops
to guard the
Kingdom of Romania
On 14 March 1939, the Slovak Republic was declared in the midst of the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia . Hitler invited Monsignor Jozef Tiso to be the new nation's leader. Soon after it was formed, Slovakia was involved in a war with neighboring Hungary . Although Slovakia had signed a "Protection Treaty" with Nazi Germany, Germany refused to intervene. The war resulted in territorial gains by Hungary at Slovakia's expense. Even so, Slovakia supported the German invasion of Poland in 1939.
Shortly after the signing of the Tripartite Pact, following the Hungarian lead, Slovakia sent messages of "spiritual adherence" to Germany and Italy.
On 24 November 1940, the day after Romania signed the pact, the
Slovak prime minister and foreign minister,
Vojtech Tuka , went to
Official protocol of Bulgaria's accession into the Tripartite Pact.
Kingdom of Bulgaria had been on the losing side in World War I,
losing territory to Serbia and
Main article: Yugoslav accession to the Tripartite Pact
On March 25, 1941 in Vienna, Dragiša Cvetković , Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , signed the Tripartite Pact. On March 27, the regime was overthrown in a military coup d\'état with British support. The 17-year-old King Peter II of Yugoslavia seized power. General Dušan Simović became Peter's Prime Minister and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia initially tried to dissolve the Pact but later declared adherence to it.
The initial agreement of the document also regarded Yugoslavia's
acceptance of the free movement of German troops around the country;
this was unsatisfactory to the
Operation Barbarossa , the Germans simultaneously attacked
Main article: German–Soviet Axis talks
Just prior to the formation of the Tripartite Pact, the Soviet Union
was informed of its existence, and the potential of its joining.
Vyacheslav Molotov was thus sent to
Regardless of the talks however, the Germans had no intention of
allowing the Soviets to join the pact. They were already in the
preparation stages for their invasion of the
Political conversations designed to clarify the attitude of Russia in
the immediate future have been started. Regardless of the outcome of
these conversations, all preparations for the East previously ordered
orally are to be continued. directives on that will follow as soon as
the basic elements of the army's plan for the operation have been
submitted to me and approved by me. —
When they received the Soviet offer in November, they simply did not reply. They did, however, accept the new economic offerings, and signed an agreement for such on January 10, 1941.
Further information: Military history of Finland during World War II
Military co-operation between Finland and
At the request of the German command, the Finns established a winter warfare school in Kankaanpää . It began its first two-month course for German officers and NCOs in December 1941. In the summer of 1942, the German-speaking Finnish instructors taught a course on forest warfare. General Waldemar Erfurth , the German liaison to the Finnish general headquarters, considered the school an outstanding success. It was also attended by some Hungarian officers.
Further information: Thailand in World War II
Japan attacked Thailand at 02:00 local time on 8 December 1941. The
Japanese ambassador, Teiji Tsubokami, told the Thai foreign minister,
Direk Jayanama , that Japan only wanted permission for its troops to
pass through Thailand to attack the British in Malaya and Burma . At
07:00, Prime Minister
According to the post-war memoires of Direk Jayanama, Phibun planned to later sign the pact, but Direk's opposition prevented this.
TRIPARTITE RELATIONS, 1940–43
China's declaration of war against Germany and Italy (9 December
1941) was made on the grounds that the
The "joint technical commissions" required by the pact were
established by an agreement of 20 December 1940. They were to consist
of a general commission in each capital, consisting of the host
foreign minister and the other two partners' ambassadors. Under the
general commission were to be military and economic commissions. On 15
December 1941 the first meeting of all three commissions in one
capital, Berlin, took place, labelled a "
On 18 January 1942, the German and Italian governments signed two secret operational agreements, one with the Imperial Japanese Army and another with the Imperial Japanese Navy . These agreements divided the world along longitude 70° east into two major operational zones, but it had almost no military significance. Chiefly, it committed the powers to cooperation in matters of commerce, intelligence and communication.
On 24 February 1942 the Permanent Council met under the chairmanship
of Ribbentrop, who announced that "the propaganda effect is one of the
main reasons for our meetings". The representatives set up a
propaganda commission and then adjourned indefinitely. The military
The economic relationship between the Tripartite powers was fraught
with difficulty. Japan would not grant economic concessions to Germany
in 1941, lest they ruin its negotiations with the
"NO SEPARATE PEACE" AGREEMENT
Japan first pressed Germany to join the war with the
ARTICLE I. Italy, Germany and Japan will henceforth conduct in common and jointly a war which has been imposed on them by the United States of America and England, by all means at their disposal and until the end of hostilities.
ARTICLE II. Italy, Germany and Japan undertake each for himself that
none of the parties to the present accord will conclude either
armistice or peace, be it with the
ARTICLE III. Italy, Germany and Japan, even after the victorious conclusion of this war, will collaborate closely in the spirit of the Tripartite Pact, concluded Sept. 21, 1940, in order to realize and establish an equitable new order in the world.
ARTICLE IV. The present accord is effective immediately on its signature and remains in force for the duration of the Tripartite Pact, signed Sept. 27, 1940. The high contracting parties of this accord will at an opportune moment agree among themselves the means of implementing Article III above of this accord.
* ^ "Three-Power Pact Between Germany, Italy, and Japan, Signed at
Berlin, September 27, 1940". Avalon Law Project. Retrieved 23 November
* ^ A B C D E Macartney 1956 , pp. 439–42.
* ^ Macartney 1956 , p. 441, n. 3.
* ^ Jelínek 1971 , p. 255.
* ^ Kolanović 2006 , p. 473.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Weinberg 1994 , pp. 199–202.
* ^ DiNardo 1996 , p. 713.
* ^ Chinvanno 1992 , p. 13.
* ^ Flood 1970 , p. 989.
* ^ China\'s Declaration of War Against Japan, Germany and Italy at
the Jewish Virtual Library.
* ^ A B C D E Boog et al. 2001 .
* ^ "Pact Between the Axis Powers Barring a Separate Peace with the
* Bán, András D. (2004). Hungarian–British Diplomacy, 1938–1941: The Attempt to Maintain Relations. Translated by Tim Wilkinson. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0714656607 . * Chinvanno, Anuson (1992). Thailand’s Policies towards China, 1949–54. Macmillan. * Flood, E. Thadeus (1970). "Review of Thailand and the Second World War by Direk Chayanam". The Journal of Asian Studies. 29 (4): 988–90. doi :10.2307/2943163 . * Boog, Horst; Rahn, Werner; Stumpf, Reinhard; et al., eds. (2001). Germany and the Second World War, Volume