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The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin
Berlin
Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin
Berlin
on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
and Saburō Kurusu. It was a defensive military alliance that was eventually joined by Hungary (20 November 1940), Romania (23 November 1940), Bulgaria (1 March 1941) and Yugoslavia (25 March 1941), as well as by the German client state of Slovakia (24 November 1940). Yugoslavia's accession provoked a coup d'état in Belgrade two days later, and Italy and Germany responded by invading Yugoslavia (with Bulgarian, Hungarian and Romanian assistance) and partitioning the country. The resulting Italo-German client state known as the Independent State of Croatia joined the pact on 15 June 1941. The Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
was directed primarily at the United States. Its practical effects were limited, since the Italo-German and Japanese operational theatres were on opposite sides of the world and the high contracting powers had disparate strategic interests. Some technical cooperation was carried out, and the Japanese declaration of war on the United States
United States
propelled, although it did not require, a similar declaration of war from all the other signatories of the Tripartite Pact.

Contents

1 Text of the pact 2 Background of the original agreement 3 Later signatories

3.1 Hungary 3.2 Romania 3.3 Slovakia 3.4 Bulgaria 3.5 Yugoslavia 3.6 Croatia

4 Potential signatories

4.1 Soviet Union 4.2 Finland 4.3 Thailand

5 Tripartite relations, 1940–1943 6 "No separate peace" agreement 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Text of the pact[edit]

Japanese version of the Tripartite Pact, 27 September 1940.

The Governments of Japan, Germany, and Italy consider it as the condition precedent of any lasting peace that all nations in the world be given each its own proper place, have decided to stand by and co-operate with one another in their efforts in Greater East Asia and the regions of Europe respectively wherein it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. It is, furthermore, the desire of the three Governments to extend cooperation to nations in other spheres of the world that are inclined to direct their efforts along lines similar to their own for the purpose of realizing their ultimate object, world peace. Accordingly, the Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy have agreed as follows:[1] ARTICLE 1. Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in the establishment of a new order in Europe. ARTICLE 2. Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia. ARTICLE 3. Japan, Germany, and Italy agree to cooperate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all political, economic and military means if one of the Contracting Powers is attacked by a Power at present not involved in the European War or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict. ARTICLE 4. With a view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, to be appointed by the respective Governments of Japan, Germany and Italy, will meet without delay. ARTICLE 5. Japan, Germany and Italy affirm that the above agreement affects in no way the political status existing at present between each of the three Contracting Powers and Soviet Russia. ARTICLE 6. The present pact shall become valid immediately upon signature and shall remain in force ten years from the date on which it becomes effective. In due time, before the expiration of said term, the High Contracting Parties shall, at the request of any one of them, enter into negotiations for its renewal. In faith whereof, the undersigned duly authorized by their respective governments have signed this pact and have affixed hereto their signatures. Done in triplicate at Berlin, the 27th day of September, 1940, in the 19th year of the fascist era, corresponding to the 27th day of the ninth month of the 15th year of Showa (the reign of Emperor Hirohito).

Background of the original agreement[edit] Further information: Germany–Japan relations

The Japanese embassy in Berlin
Berlin
clad in the flags of the three signatories of the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
in September 1940.

The pact supplemented the Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
of 1936 and helped heal the rift that had developed between Japan and Germany following the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
between Germany and the Soviet Union. Later signatories[edit] In a ceremonial speech following the signing of the pact on 27 September, Ribbentrop may have suggested that the signatories were open to accepting new signatories in the future. The Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (DAZ) reported his words as follows:

The purpose of the Pact is, above all things, to help restore peace to the world as quickly as possible. Therefore any other State which wishes to accede to this bloc (der diesem Block beitreten will), with the intention of contributing to the restoration of peaceful conditions, will be sincerely and gratefully made welcome and will participate in the economic and political reorganisation.

The official Deutsches Nachrichtenbüro (DNB), however, as well as most of the press, reported a slightly different version, in which the words "adhere to" (gegenüber tritt) instead of "accede to" were used. It is likely that initially the adherence of other nations was not envisaged, and that Ribbentrop misspoke. The official record in the DNB therefore corrected his words to remove any reference to "adherence" by other states, but produced an awkward wording in the process.[2] The Italian foreign minister, Ciano, was resolutely opposed to the idea of adding smaller states to the pact as late as 20 November 1940, arguing in his diary that they weakened the pact and were useless bits of diplomacy.[2] Hungary[edit] The Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
was the fourth state to sign the pact and the first to join it after 27 September 1940. The Hungarian ambassador in Berlin, Döme Sztójay, telegraphed his foreign minister, István Csáky, immediately after news of the signing and of Ribbentrop's speech had reached him. He urged Csáky to join the pact, even claiming that it was the expectation of Germany and Italy that he would do so. He considered it especially important that Hungary sign the pact before Romania did. In response, Csáky asked Sztójay and the ambassador in Rome, Frigyes Villani, to make enquiries regarding Hungary's accession and its potential obligations under the pact. On 28 September, the German secretary of state for foreign affairs, Ernst von Weizsäcker, informed Hungary that Ribbentrop had meant not a "formal accession" but merely "an attitude in the spirit of the Pact". The Italian answer was similar. Nonetheless, within the week the Hungarian government had sent out formal notice of its "spiritual adherence" to the pact.[2] In the week after Hungary's "spiritual" adherence, the Balkan situation changed. Germany granted a Romanian request to send troops to guard the Ploiești
Ploiești
oil fields, and Hungary granted a German request to allow its troops to transit Hungary to get to Romania. On 7 October 1940, the first German troops arrived in Ploiești. It is probable that Romania's accession to the pact had been delayed until the German troops were in place, lest the Soviets take preemptive action to secure the oil fields for themselves. In turn, Hungary's accession had been delayed until Romania's had been negotiated. On 9 October or thereabouts, Weizsäcker delivered a message from Ribbentrop to Sztójay informing him that Hitler now wanted "friendly states" to join the pact. In a telephone conversation with Ciano on 9 or 10 October, Ribbentrop claimed that Hungary had sent a second request to join the pact. Mussolini reluctantly consented. On 12 October, Ribbentrop informed Sztójay that both Italy and Japan had consented to Hungary's adherence. Since the Hungarian regent, Miklós Horthy, had specifically instructed Sztójay to ask that Hungary be the first new state to adhere to the pact, Ribbentrop granted the request.[2] Romania[edit] The Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
had joined the Allied Powers in World War I
World War I
and had received Transylvania
Transylvania
from Austria–Hungary. After Germany and Italy awarded parts of Transylvania
Transylvania
back to Hungary and Southern Dobruja back to Bulgaria and after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had taken Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, the Fascist
Fascist
Iron Guard
Iron Guard
party came to power and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
on November 23, 1940. This was due to the Romanian desire for protection against the Soviet Union. In Marshal Ion Antonescu's affidavit read out at the IG Farben Trial (1947–48), he stated that the agreement on entering the pact had been concluded before his visit to Berlin
Berlin
on 22 November 1940.[3] Slovakia[edit] On 14 March 1939, the Slovak Republic was declared in the midst of the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Hitler invited Monsignor Jozef Tiso to be the new nation's leader. Soon after it was formed, Slovakia was involved in a war with neighboring Hungary. Although Slovakia had signed a "Protection Treaty" with Nazi Germany, Germany refused to intervene. The war resulted in territorial gains by Hungary at Slovakia's expense. Even so, Slovakia supported the German invasion of Poland in 1939. Shortly after the signing of the Tripartite Pact, following the Hungarian lead, Slovakia sent messages of "spiritual adherence" to Germany and Italy.[2] On 24 November 1940, the day after Romania signed the pact, the Slovak prime minister and foreign minister, Vojtech Tuka, went to Berlin
Berlin
to meet Ribbentrop. There, he signed Slovakia's accession to the Tripartite Pact. The purpose of this was to increase Tuka's standing in Slovakia relative to that of his rival, Tiso, although the Germans had no intention of permitting Tiso to be removed.[4] Bulgaria[edit]

Official protocol of Bulgaria's accession into the Tripartite Pact.

The Kingdom of Bulgaria
Kingdom of Bulgaria
had been an ally of Germany and on the losing side in World War I. From the beginning, the Germans pressured Bulgaria to join the Tripartite Pact. On 17 November 1940, Tsar Boris III and Foreign Minister Ivan Popov (bg) met with Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in Germany. According to Hermann Neubacher, Germany's special envoy to the Balkans, Bulgaria's relation to the Axis powers was completely settled at this meeting. On 23 November, however, the Bulgarian ambassador in Berlin, Peter Draganov, informed the Germans that while Bulgaria had agreed in principle to join the pact, it wished to delay its signing for the time being.[5] The meeting with Hitler precipitated a visit to Bulgaria by the Soviet diplomat Arkady Sobolev on 25 November. He encouraged the Bulgarians to sign a mutual assistance pact that had first been discussed in October 1939. He offered Soviet recognition of Bulgarian claims in Greece and Turkey. The Bulgarian government, however, was disturbed by the subversive actions of the Bulgarian Communist Party
Bulgarian Communist Party
in response to these talks, apparently at Soviet urging.[6] On 26 December 1940, the far-right politician Alexander Tsankov introduced a motion in the National Assembly urging the government to immediately adhere to the Tripartite Pact. It was voted down.[7] Bulgaria's hand was finally forced by Germany's desire to intervene in the Italo-Greek War. This would require moving troops through Bulgaria. With no possibility of resisting Germany militarily, Prime Minister Bogdan Filov
Bogdan Filov
signed Bulgaria's adherence to the pact in Vienna on 1 March 1941. He announced that this was done partly in gratitude for Germany's assistance to Bulgaria in obtaining the Treaty of Craiova with Romania, and that it would not affect Bulgaria's relations with Turkey or the Soviet Union. Later that day, Ribbentrop promised Filov that after the fall of Greece, Bulgaria would obtain an Aegean coastline between the Struma and Maritsa
Maritsa
rivers.[8] According to Article 17 of the Tarnovo Constitution, treaties had to be ratified by the National Assembly. In the case of the Tripartite Pact, the government sought to have the treaty ratified without debate or discussion. Seventeen opposition deputies submitted an interpellation and one, Ivan Petrov, asked why the Assembly had not been consulted in advance and whether the pact involved Bulgaria in war. They were ignored. The pact was ratified by a vote of 140 to 20.[8] Yugoslavia[edit] Main article: Yugoslav accession to the Tripartite Pact On 25 March 1941 in Vienna, Dragiša Cvetković, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, signed the Tripartite Pact. On March 27, the regime was overthrown in a military coup d'état with British support. Seventeen-year-old King Peter was declared to be of age. The new Yugoslav government under Prime Minister and General Dušan Simović, refused to ratify Yugoslavia's signing of the Tripartite Pact, and started negotiations with Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Soviet Union. The enraged Hitler issued Directive 25 as an answer to the coup, and then simultaneously attacked Yugoslavia and Greece starting on April 6. The German Air Force
German Air Force
bombed Belgrade for three days and nights. German ground troops moved in, and Yugoslavia capitulated on April 17. Croatia[edit] The Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
(Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, or NDH) signed the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
on 15 June 1941.[9] Potential signatories[edit] Soviet Union[edit] Main article: German–Soviet Axis talks Just prior to the formation of the Tripartite Pact, the Soviet Union was informed of its existence, and the potential of its joining.[10] Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
was thus sent to Berlin
Berlin
to discuss the pact and the possibility of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
joining it.[10] The Soviets considered joining the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
to be an update of existing agreements with Germany.[10] During the visit to Berlin, Molotov agreed in principle to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
joining the pact so long as some details, such as Soviet annexation of Finland, could be worked out.[10] The Soviet government sent a revised version of the pact to Germany on 25 November.[10] To demonstrate the benefits of partnership, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
made large economic offerings to Germany.[10] However, the Germans had no intention of allowing the Soviets to join the pact. They were already making preparations for their invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and were committed to doing so regardless of any action the Soviets took.

Political conversations designed to clarify the attitude of Russia in the immediate future have been started. Regardless of the outcome of these conversations, all preparations for the East previously ordered orally are to be continued. [Written] directives on that will follow as soon as the basic elements of the army's plan for the operation have been submitted to me and approved by me. —Adolf Hitler[10]

When they received the Soviet proposal in November, they simply did not reply. They did, however, accept the new economic offerings, and signed an agreement for such on 10 January 1941.[10] Finland[edit] Further information: Military history of Finland during World War II Military co-operation between Finland and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
started in late 1940 after Finland had lost a significant amount of her territory to Soviet aggression in the Winter War. Finland joined Operation Barbarossa on 25 June 1941, starting the Continuation War. In November, Finland signed the Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
(an anti-communist agreement directed against the Soviet Union) with many other countries allied with Germany. Soon after this Germany suggested Finland sign the Tripartite Pact. However, the Finnish government refused, because Finland saw its war as a "separate war" from the Second World War, and it saw its objectives as different from those of Nazi Germany. Finland also wanted to maintain diplomatic relations with the Allied Powers, the United States
United States
in particular. During the Second World War, Germany asked Finland several times to sign the pact, but always the Finnish government declined the offer. Diplomatic relations between Finland and the United States
United States
were maintained until June 1944, although the US ambassador had already been recalled earlier. The United Kingdom, however, declared war on Finland on 6 December 1941 in support of its ally, the Soviet Union. At the request of the German command, the Finns established a winter warfare school in Kankaanpää. It began its first two-month course for German officers and NCOs in December 1941. In the summer of 1942, the German-speaking Finnish instructors taught a course on forest warfare. General Waldemar Erfurth, the German liaison to the Finnish general headquarters, considered the school an outstanding success. It was also attended by some Hungarian officers.[11] Thailand[edit] Further information: Thailand in World War II

Luang Wichitwathakan (centre, standing) and German diplomats, 1943

Japan attacked Thailand at 02:00 local time on 8 December 1941. The Japanese ambassador, Teiji Tsubokami, told the Thai foreign minister, Direk Jayanama, that Japan only wanted permission for its troops to pass through Thailand to attack the British in Malaya and Burma. At 07:00, Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram
Plaek Phibunsongkhram
(Phibun) held an emergency cabinet meeting in Bangkok
Bangkok
and soon after a ceasefire was ordered. Phibun then met with Tsubokami, who offered him four options: to conclude a defensive–offensive alliance with Japan, to join the Tripartite Pact, to cooperate in Japanese military operations, or to agree to the joint defence of Thailand. Military cooperation was chosen, the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
rejected.[12] According to the post-war memoires of Direk Jayanama, Phibun planned to later sign the pact, but Direk's opposition prevented this.[13] Tripartite relations, 1940–1943[edit]

China's declaration of war against Germany and Italy (9 December 1941) was made on the grounds that the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
banded the allies together "into a block of aggressor states working closely together to carry out their common program of world conquest and domination".[14]

The "joint technical commissions" required by the pact were established by an agreement of 20 December 1940. They were to consist of a general commission in each capital, consisting of the host foreign minister and the other two partners' ambassadors. Under the general commission were to be military and economic commissions. On 15 December 1941 the first meeting of all three commissions in one capital, Berlin, took place, labelled a " Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
Conference". It was decided there to form a "Permanent Council of the Tripartite Pact Powers", but nothing happened for two months. Only the Italians, whom the Japanese mistrusted, pushed for greater collaboration.[15] On 18 January 1942, the German and Italian governments signed two secret operational agreements, one with the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
and another with the Imperial Japanese Navy. These agreements divided the world along longitude 70° east into two major operational zones, but it had almost no military significance. Chiefly, it committed the powers to cooperation in matters of commerce, intelligence and communication.[15] On 24 February 1942 the Permanent Council met under the chairmanship of Ribbentrop, who announced that "the propaganda effect is one of the main reasons for our meetings". The representatives set up a propaganda commission and then adjourned indefinitely. The military commission in Berlin
Berlin
met only two or three times by 1943, and there were no trilateral naval talks at all. Germany and Japan conducted separate naval discussions, and Italy consulted the Japanese independently for its planned assault on Malta in 1942.[15] The economic relationship between the Tripartite powers was fraught with difficulty. Japan would not grant economic concessions to Germany in 1941, lest they ruin its negotiations with the United States. In January 1942 negotiations on economic cooperation began, but an agreement was not signed until 20 January 1943 in Berlin. Italy was invited to sign a similar agreement in Rome at the same time, for propaganda purposes, but none of the supplementary Berlin
Berlin
protocols applied to Italo-Japanese relations.[15] "No separate peace" agreement[edit] Japan first pressed Germany to join the war with the United States
United States
on 2 December 1941, only two days after notifying Berlin
Berlin
of its intention to go to war. Receiving no response, Japan approached Italy. At 04:00 on the morning of 5 December, Ribbentrop gave the Japanese ambassador a proposal—which had already been approved by Italy—to join the war and prosecute it jointly. On 11 December 1941, the same day as the German declaration of war against the United States
United States
and the Italian declaration, the three powers signed an agreement—already hammered out on 8 December—barring any separate peace with the United States or Britain. It was "intended as a propaganda accompaniment to the declaration of war".[15]

ARTICLE I. Italy, Germany and Japan will henceforth conduct in common and jointly a war which has been imposed on them by the United States of America and England, by all means at their disposal and until the end of hostilities. ARTICLE II. Italy, Germany and Japan undertake each for himself that none of the parties to the present accord will conclude either armistice or peace, be it with the United States
United States
or with England without complete and reciprocal agreement [of the three signatories to this pact]. ARTICLE III. Italy, Germany and Japan, even after the victorious conclusion of this war, will collaborate closely in the spirit of the Tripartite Pact, concluded Sept. 21, 1940, in order to realize and establish an equitable new order in the world. ARTICLE IV. The present accord is effective immediately on its signature and remains in force for the duration of the Tripartite Pact, signed Sept. 27, 1940. The high contracting parties of this accord will at an opportune moment agree among themselves the means of implementing Article III above of this accord.[16]

References[edit]

^ "Three-Power Pact Between Germany, Italy, and Japan, Signed at Berlin, September 27, 1940". Avalon Law Project. Retrieved 23 November 2013.  ^ a b c d e Macartney 1956, pp. 439–42. ^ Macartney 1956, p. 441, n. 3. ^ Jelínek 1971, p. 255. ^ Miller 1975, p. 33. ^ Miller 1975, p. 34. ^ Miller 1975, p. 38. ^ a b Miller 1975, p. 45. ^ Kolanović 2006, p. 473. ^ a b c d e f g h Weinberg 1994, pp. 199–202. ^ DiNardo 1996, p. 713. ^ Chinvanno 1992, p. 13. ^ Flood 1970, p. 989. ^ China's Declaration of War Against Japan, Germany and Italy at the Jewish Virtual Library. ^ a b c d e Boog et al. 2001. ^ "Pact Between the Axis Powers Barring a Separate Peace with the United States
United States
or Great Britain; December 11, 1941". Avalon Law Project. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 

Sources[edit]

Bán, András D. (2004). Hungarian–British Diplomacy, 1938–1941: The Attempt to Maintain Relations. Translated by Tim Wilkinson. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0714656607.  Chinvanno, Anuson (1992). Thailand’s Policies towards China, 1949–54. Macmillan.  Flood, E. Thadeus (1970). "Review of Thailand and the Second World War by Direk Chayanam". The Journal of Asian Studies. 29 (4): 988–90. doi:10.2307/2943163.  Boog, Horst; Rahn, Werner; Stumpf, Reinhard; et al., eds. (2001). Germany and the Second World War, Volume 6: The Global War. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  DiNardo, R. L. (1996). "The Dysfunctional Coalition: The Axis Powers and the Eastern Front in World War II". The Journal of Military History. 60 (4): 711–30. doi:10.2307/2944662.  Giurescu, Dinu C. (2000). Romania in the Second World War (1939–1945). Boulder, CO: East European Monographs.  Jelínek, Yeshayahu (1971). "Slovakia's Internal Policy and the Third Reich, August 1940 – February 1941". Central European History. 4 (3): 242–70. doi:10.1017/s0008938900015363.  Kolanović, Nada Kisić (2006). "The NDH's Relations with Southeast European Countries, Turkey and Japan, 1941–45". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 7 (4): 473–92. doi:10.1080/14690760600963248.  Macartney, C. A. (1956). October Fifteenth: A History of Modern Hungary, 1929–1945. vol. 1. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.  Miller, Marshall Lee (1975). Bulgaria during the Second World War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.  Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-61826-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tripartite Pact.

Signing of the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
on YouTube

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Treaty of Szatmár
(1711)

1526-1848 ( Royal Hungary
Royal Hungary
to Independence)

Truce of Adrianople (1547) Treaty of Adrianople (1568) Treaty of Vienna (1606) Peace of Zsitvatorok
Peace of Zsitvatorok
(1606) Peace of Vasvár
Peace of Vasvár
(1664) Holy League (1684) Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
(1699) Treaty of Passarowitz
Treaty of Passarowitz
(1718) Pragmatic Sanction (1723) Treaty of Belgrade
Treaty of Belgrade
(1739) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) First Partition of Poland
First Partition of Poland
(1772) Treaty of Sistova
Treaty of Sistova
(1791) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(1797) Treaty of Schönbrunn
Treaty of Schönbrunn
(1809) Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1815)

(1570–1711) (Principality of Transylvania)

Peace of Nikolsburg
Peace of Nikolsburg
(1621) Treaty of Pressburg (1626) Treaty of Nymwegen (1679)

Austria-Hungary to the end of World War I
World War I
(1848–1922)

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
(1868) League of the Three Emperors
League of the Three Emperors
(1873) Treaty of Bern (1874) Reichstadt Agreement
Reichstadt Agreement
(1876) Budapest Convention of 1877 (1877) Treaty of Berlin
Berlin
(1878) Dual Alliance (1879) Triple Alliance (1882) Boxer Protocol
Boxer Protocol
(1901) Treaty of London (1913) Armistice of Focșani (1917) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Ukraine (1918) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Treaty of Bucharest (1918) Armistice of Villa Giusti
Armistice of Villa Giusti
(1918) Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
(1920) Armistice with Romania (1920) Bill of dethronement (1921) U.S.–Hungarian Peace Treaty (1921) Covenant of the League of Nations
Covenant of the League of Nations
(1922)

Modern age (1922–)

Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(1922–46) Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic (1949–89) Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary (1989–)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18519

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