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Tring
Tring
/trɪŋ/ is a small market town and civil parish in the Borough of Dacorum, Hertfordshire, England. Situated in a gap passing through the Chiltern Hills, classed as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, 30 miles (48 km) north-west of London, and linked to London by the old Roman road
Roman road
of Akeman Street, by the modern A41, by the Grand Union Canal and by rail lines to Euston Station. As of 2013 Tring
Tring
has a population of 11,730.[1] Settlements in Tring
Tring
date back to prehistoric times and it was mentioned in the Domesday Book. Tring
Tring
received its market town charter in 1315.[2] Tring
Tring
is now largely a commuter town within the London commuter belt.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Pre-history and medieval 1.3 Early modern 1.4 20th century and contemporary

2 Government 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Economy 5 Transport 6 Education 7 Literature 8 Sport 9 Notable people 10 Gallery 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Toponymy[edit] The name Tring
Tring
is believed to derive from the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
Tredunga or Trehangr. Tre', meaning 'tree' and with the suffix 'ing' implying 'a slope where trees grow'.[3] Pre-history and medieval[edit] There is evidence of Prehistoric settlement with Iron Age
Iron Age
barrows, and defensive embankments adjacent to the Ridgeway Path and also later with Saxon burials.[4] The town straddles the Roman road
Roman road
called Akeman Street, which runs through it as the High Street.

The Church of Saints Peter & Paul, Tring. Viewed from across the High Street

Tring
Tring
was the dominant settlement in the area, being the primary settlement in the Hundred of Tring
Tring
during the Domesday Book.[5] Tring had a very large population and paid a large amount of tax relative to most settlements listed in the Domesday book.[6] The Manor of Treunga is described in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086.[7] It was assigned to Count Eustace II of Boulogne by William the Conqueror. In 1315 the town was granted a market charter by Edward II. This charter gave Faversham Abbey the right to hold weekly markets on Tuesdays, and hold a ten-day fair starting on the 29th of June, the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. It also prevented the creation of any rival markets within a day's travel of the town.[2] The tower of the Church of St Peter and St Paul was built somewhere in between 1360 and 1400.[2] Until 1440, there was a small village east of Tring
Tring
called Pendley (or Penley, Pendele, or Pentlai). The landowner Sir Robert Whittingham received a grant of free warren from King Henry VI. He enclosed 200 acres and tore down the buildings on the land, returning the estate to pasture, and built a manor house, Pendley Manor. This house was variously inhabited by the Verney, Anderson and Harcourt families until the mid-19th century.[8] Early modern[edit] The mansion of Tring Park
Tring Park
was designed by Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
and was built in 1682 for the owner Henry Guy, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Charles II.[9] John Washington, the son of the Reverend Lawrence Washington and Amphyllis Twigden, was born and brought up in Tring. In 1656 he left Tring
Tring
to go on a trading voyage to Virginia, but after a shipwreck on the Potomac River
Potomac River
he remained in Virginia, married and started a family which resulted in the life of his great grandson, George Washington, the first President of the United States.[10]

Tring
Tring
High Street in the 19th century.

The town's prosperity was greatly improved at the start of the 19th century by the construction nearby of the Grand Junction Canal
Grand Junction Canal
and soon after in 1835 by the building of the London and Birmingham Railway. Industries which benefitted included flour milling, brewing, silk weaving, lace-making and straw plaiting.[4] In 1835, the medieval Pendley Manor
Pendley Manor
was destroyed by fire. A local landowner, Joseph Grout Williams, commissioned a new manor house to be built in a Jacobean Revival style, and this building still stands today on Station Road.[11] In 1836 Thomas Butcher, a wholesale seed and corn merchant and his son also Thomas, established a private bank 'Thomas Butcher & Son' in Tring
Tring
High Street. The business was subsequently run by Thomas's grandsons, Frederick and George, and was also known locally as Tring Old Bank. By 1900 it had branches in Aylesbury, Chesham
Chesham
and Berkhamsted. From this time it became the subject of successive bank consolidations which concluded in the formation of the last to be represented in the town, the National Westminster Bank.[12]

Walter Rothschild and his carriage drawn by zebras.

In the late 19th century the estate became the home of the Rothschild family, whose influence on the town was considerable. Nathan Mayer Rothschild's son Lionel Walter Rothschild
Lionel Walter Rothschild
(2nd Lord Rothschild, 1868–1937) built a private zoological museum in Tring. This housed perhaps the largest collection of stuffed animals worldwide. As the Natural History Museum at Tring, it has been part of the Natural History Museum since 1937. In April 2007 the museum changed its name to the Natural History Museum at Tring
Natural History Museum at Tring
in order to make people more aware of the museum's link to London's Natural History Museum. The 2nd Lord Rothschild also released the edible dormouse into Tring
Tring
Park. He used to ride around the town in a carriage drawn by zebras.[13] 20th century and contemporary[edit] The former livestock market in Tring, redeveloped in 2005, was believed to be the last remaining example of its type in the UK.[citation needed] It is now the home of weekly Friday market and fortnightly Saturday farmers' market. Some of the former livestock pens have been retained. The old livestock market office is now the home of the Tring
Tring
Local History Museum, which opened in September 2010.[14] In 2008 Tring
Tring
became a Transition Town with the support of Tring
Tring
Town Council. Government[edit] Tring
Tring
is run by Tring
Tring
Town Council. The current composition of the Council is: 8 Liberal Democrats, 3 Conservatives, and 1 Independent.[15] Tring
Tring
contains three wards: Tring
Tring
Central, Tring
Tring
East and Tring
Tring
West and Rural. For elections to Dacorum
Dacorum
Borough Council Tring
Tring
Central elects three members and Tring
Tring
East and Tring
Tring
West and Rural each elect one member. On Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council Tring
Tring
is represented with one seat, currently held by the Liberal Democrats.[16] Tring
Tring
is part of the South West Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Parliament constituency, currently represented by the Conservative David Gauke. Tring
Tring
is part of the East of England
East of England
constituency, which elects seven Members of the European Parliament. Geography[edit]

View over Tring, looking north

Tring
Tring
is in west Hertfordshire, adjacent to the Buckinghamshire border, at a low point in the Chiltern Hills
Chiltern Hills
known as the ' Tring
Tring
Gap'. This has been used as a crossing point since ancient times, being at the junction of the Icknield Way
Icknield Way
and under the Romans Akeman Street, the major Roman road
Roman road
linking London to Cirencester. It is transected east and west by the ancient earthwork called Grim's Dyke.[7] It is located at the summit level of the Grand Union Canal
Grand Union Canal
and both the canal and railway pass through in deep cuttings. Tring
Tring
railway cutting is 2.5 mi (4.0 km) long and an average of 39 ft (12 m) deep and is celebrated in a series of coloured lithographs by John Cooke Bourne
John Cooke Bourne
showing its construction in the 1830s.[17] The four Tring Reservoirs
Tring Reservoirs
– Wilstone, Tringford, Startops End and Marsworth
Marsworth
– were built to supply water for the canal. These have been a national nature reserve since 1955, and identified as a Site of Special
Special
Scientific Interest since 1987.[18] Nearby, within the Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty[19] that almost surrounds the town, is the Ashridge
Ashridge
Estate, part of the National Trust and home to Ashridge
Ashridge
Business School. Climate[edit] Tring
Tring
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.

Climate data for Tring

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6 (43) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 16 (61) 19 (66) 21 (70) 22 (72) 18 (64) 14 (57) 9 (48) 6 (43) 13 (55)

Average low °C (°F) 3 (37) 3 (37) 4 (39) 5 (41) 8 (46) 10 (50) 12 (54) 13 (55) 11 (52) 8 (46) 5 (41) 3 (37) 7 (45)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.3 (2.728) 59.4 (2.339) 46.5 (1.831) 70.1 (2.76) 58.1 (2.287) 58.9 (2.319) 46.0 (1.811) 68.9 (2.713) 51.7 (2.035) 84.3 (3.319) 93.9 (3.697) 80.9 (3.185) 788.0 (31.024)

Source: [20]

Economy[edit] There is a Tesco
Tesco
on London Road, a Co-op on Silk
Silk
Mill Way[21] and a Marks & Spencer food store in Dolphin Square that opened on 9 October 2007. Tring Brewery
Tring Brewery
has been operating in Tring
Tring
since 1992. Heygates Mill is a flour mill. Originally it was a windmill, and the company was run by William Mead. The windmill was demolished in 1910 to make way for a wheat storage silo. In those days, Mead lived on site, in a house next to the yard, and owned half the area taken by the mill of today. The remaining space was occupied by boat-builders, Bushell Brothers, who built narrowboats for the canal. The Heygate family took over Mead’s business in 1945, and today mills 100,000 tons of wheat a year, resulting in 76,000 tons of flour. This is mainly bakers' flour, but there is also a commitment to wholemeal digestive for biscuits, bulk outlets and a large output of 1.5 kg bags from the pre-packed flour plant. As in the days of Tring
Tring
windmill, only two men operate the system – but in those days they milled half a ton per hour, and now, with a computerised installation, more than 12 tons an hour are produced. Heygate’s Tring
Tring
mill has 80 employees and 16 trucks delivering throughout the south of England.

Pendley Manor, hotel and conference centre.

Pendley Manor
Pendley Manor
a hotel, conference and arts centre is situated about 1 mi (2 km) south of the town, near the railway station. Tring
Tring
is the home of the Tringe Festival. A preview festival in July featuring many well-known comedy acts previewing their new shows before they then perform their shows in Edinburgh. The name Tringe is derived from the host town and the word Fringe. At three weeks long, it refers to itself as the 7th Longest Comedy Festival in the World. Tring
Tring
is part of the Dacorum
Dacorum
Local Food Initiative. Transport[edit]

Lithograph of entitled ' Tring
Tring
Cutting' made by John C. Bourne, 1839 showing the excavation to make Tring's segment of the London and Birmingham Railway.

Tring railway station
Tring railway station
is about 2 mi (3 km) from the town and is served by London Midland
London Midland
services from Milton Keynes Central to London Euston, and Southern operates the cross-London service to South Croydon via Clapham Junction. The station is served by slow and semi-fast trains. The station was originally opened in 1837 by the London and Birmingham Railway
London and Birmingham Railway
(L&BR) under the direction of the railway engineer Robert Stephenson.[22] The remote location of Tring railway station
Tring railway station
was due to changes to the route of the railway imposed on Stephenson by local landowners such as Lord Brownlow who wished to protect his Ashridge
Ashridge
Estate.[23] The location is sometimes wrongly attributed to objections which were said to have been made by Lord Rothschild to protect his land in Tring; in fact, Lord Rothschild was not born until 1840, three years after the railway had opened and the Tring
Tring
lands were only acquired by his father Lionel in 1872. He did, however, object to a much later plan to build a steam tramway between Tring
Tring
Station and Aylesbury.[24]

London Midland
London Midland
train at Tring
Tring
railway station

Tring railway station
Tring railway station
was once considered as the terminus of an extension to the Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
(today's London Underground Metropolitan line) from Chesham
Chesham
but this project was not realised.[25] Tring
Tring
was identified in 2011 as the possible terminus of an extension to the Crossrail
Crossrail
lines currently under construction in London, but this proposal has not been approved or funded. If this extension were to go ahead, Tring
Tring
would be on a direct railway route to central London stations such as Tottenham Court Road.[26] In 1973 the A41 bypass was opened. The route of this new road runs through Tring
Tring
Park.[27] The bypass was originally conceived as the first stretch of a new motorway, the A41(M), which was planned to run from the M25 at Watford
Watford
to Aylesbury, but the project was not realised and the bypass was downgraded to trunk road status. In 1993 the bypass was extended with a further 12 mi (19 km) of grade-separated dual carriageway, linking the short Tring
Tring
Bypass to the M25.[28] Education[edit] See also: Primary schools in Dacorum
Dacorum
§ Tring Tring School is a state secondary school and sixth form with approximately 1,500 pupils (ages 11–18). It is located on Mortimer Hill on the east side of the town. It is now designated a Specialist Humanities College with History, Geography and English as its lead subjects. It has had Academy status since September 2012. Tring Park
Tring Park
School for the Performing Arts (formerly known as the Arts Educational School, Tring
Tring
Park) is an independent specialist performing arts and academic school. It is located in Tring
Tring
Mansion, and has 300 pupils. Tring
Tring
has four state junior schools: Bishop Wood CE Junior School, Dundale Primary and Nursery School, Goldfield Infants and Nursery School and Grove Road Primary School. Tring
Tring
has a youth club – The Tring
Tring
Youth Project – for those between 11 and 18 at the Temperance Hall in Christchurch Road. Tring
Tring
also has a theatre youth group, Court Youth Theatre which is connected to the Court Theatre, Pendley Manor. This has three sections to it: juniors, intermediates and seniors. There is also an air cadet squadron in Tring
Tring
(2457 Squadron) on New Road Literature[edit] Edward Lear
Edward Lear
makes reference to Tring
Tring
in A Book of Nonsense:

There was an Old Person of Tring, Who embellished his nose with a ring; He gazed at the moon, Every evening in June, That ecstatic Old Person of Tring.[29]

Sport[edit] Tring
Tring
Sports Centre is in the grounds of Tring
Tring
School. Tring
Tring
is the former home town of Premiership referee and 2003 FA Cup Final referee Graham Barber, now retired in Spain. It is also home to the retired FA and World Cup referee Graham Poll. Tring
Tring
is home to three football clubs, Tring
Tring
Athletic, Tring
Tring
Town and Tring
Tring
Corinthians, all of which play in the Spartan South Midlands Football League, and to a youth football club, Tring
Tring
Tornadoes, which field sides for boys and girls up to 16. It is also home to a rugby club, Tring
Tring
R.U.F.C., which won promotion to London Division One in 2008, Tring
Tring
Hockey Club, with three men's and two ladies' sides, and Tring Park
Tring Park
Cricket Club, in the Home Counties Premier Cricket League. Notable people[edit]

Sir Francis Verney
Francis Verney
(1584-1615), English adventurer and pirate. John Washington
John Washington
(1631-1677) great-grandfather of George Washington, the first President of the United States.[10] Sir William Gore (1643–1707), merchant and Lord Mayor of London. Subject of an impressive monument in the parish church. John Brown (1795–1890), brewer in Tring; he built and owned several public houses in the area. Gerald Massey
Gerald Massey
(1828–1907) – poet, literary critic, Egyptologist and Spiritualist
Spiritualist
– was born nearby at Gamnel Wharf, New Mill, on the Wendover
Wendover
Branch of the Grand Union Canal. Goldfield Mill is a converted windmill in Tring.[30] Lord Rothschild (1868–1937), banker, politician and zoologist. Edward Barber
Edward Barber
(10 June 1893 – 12 March 1915) was born and lived in Tring
Tring
and was posthumously awarded a Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
for his bravery during the Battle of Neuve Chapelle
Battle of Neuve Chapelle
during the First World War.[4] Roger Moorhouse, British historian and author Julian James, former professional footballer. Graham Poll, an English former football referee for the Premier League

Gallery[edit]

High Street, Tring, Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Architecture by William Huckvale (1848-1936).

Church of St Peter and St Paul

Tring Reservoirs
Tring Reservoirs
at sunset

Sign to the Zoological Museum

Tring
Tring
Park

References[edit]

^ a b " Tring
Tring
Geo-type". Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Local Information System. Retrieved 5 April 2015.  ^ a b c Tring
Tring
Charter 700. Tring
Tring
Town Crier, April 2015 ^ Eilert Ekwall The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames Publisher: Clarenden Press, Oxford 1977 ISBN 0198691033 ^ a b c This is Tring, Accessed, 30 Match 2012 ^ "Hundred: Tring". Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ "Place: Tring". Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ a b Tring
Tring
with Long Marston', A History of the County of Hertford: volume 2 (1908), pp. 281–294. Date Retrieved 11 March 2010 ^ "Pendley Manor". Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Genealogy. July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 3rd ed. 1995, s.v. "Wren, Sir Christopher": "probably c. 1680". Remodelled 1872 onwards. A surviving obelisk and temple portico in the park are presumably by James Gibbs, for William Gore (Colvin, s.v. "Gibbs, James"). ^ a b Murray Neil. "The Washingtons of Tring". Hertfordshire Genealogy. Retrieved 3 April 2015.  ^ "Our Story". Pendley Manor
Pendley Manor
(hotel website). Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ Thomas Butcher & Sons, Tring, c.1836-1900, Accessed 29 March 2013[dead link] ^ Zebra-drawn carriage driven by Lord Lionel Walter Rothschild
Lionel Walter Rothschild
Tring National History Museum Retrieved 11 June 2009 ^ Tring
Tring
Local History Museum website Accessed, 9 October 2010 ^ " Tring
Tring
Town Councillers". Tring
Tring
Town Council. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ "Your Councillors". Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ " Tring
Tring
Cutting". Engineering-timelines.com. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ Tring Reservoirs
Tring Reservoirs
Archived 12 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Chilterns Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty". Chilternsaonb.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18.  ^ "Averages for Tring".  ^ "A silk-mill was set up in Brook Street in 1824" (A History of the County of Hertford, loc.cit.) ^ "' Tring
Tring
Cutting', Hertfordshire, 17 June 1837". Science & Society Picture Library. Retrieved 5 April 2015.  ^ Birtchnell, Percy (1960). "Our Communications". A Short History of Berkhamsted. ISBN 9781871372007.  ^ Austin, Wendy; Petticrew, Ian (November 2013). "THE RAILWAY COMES TO TRING: 1835-1846". Retrieved 20 January 2014.  ^ Clive Foxell (1996). Chesham
Chesham
Shuttle (2 ed.). Chesham: Clive Foxell. p. 32. ISBN 0-9529184-0-4.  ^ "8. Potential new lines". London and South East Route Utilisation Strategy. Network Rail. 28 July 2011. pp. 149–153. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.  ^ Prince, Hugh (2008). Parks in Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
since 1500. Hatfield: Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Publications. p. 270. ISBN 9780954218997.  ^ "A41". Motorway Database. Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ Lear, Edward (1846). A Book of Nonsense. London: Thomas McLean.  ^ "Gerald Massey". Information-britain.co.uk. 

External links[edit]

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Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Tring
Tring
Town Council

Neighbouring areas

Long Marston, Wilstone Cheddington, Marsworth, Leighton Buzzard Ivinghoe, Edlesborough

Aylesbury, Aston Clinton

Tring

Tring
Tring
railway station, Aldbury

Wendover, Halton Wigginton, Great Missenden, Chesham Northchurch, Berkhamsted

v t e

Ceremonial county of Hertfordshire

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
Portal

Boroughs or districts

Borough of Broxbourne Borough of Dacorum District of East Hertfordshire Borough of Hertsmere District of North Hertfordshire City and District of St Albans Borough of Stevenage District of Three Rivers Borough of Watford Borough of Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield

Major settlements

Baldock Berkhamsted Bishop's Stortford Borehamwood Broxbourne Buntingford Bushey Cheshunt Harpenden Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Hertford Hitchin Hoddesdon Letchworth Potters Bar Rickmansworth Royston Sawbridgeworth St Albans Stevenage Tring Waltham Cross Ware Watford Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City See also: List of civil parishes in Hertfordshire

Topics

Hertfordshire
Hertfordshire
County Council

Elections

Flag Parliamentary constituencies European Parliament constituency Boundary changes Places Settlements by population Lost settlements SSSIs Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Schools Museums Windmills King George V Playing Fields

v t e

Civil parishes of Hertfordshire

Broxbourne

Unparished areas

Cheshunt Hoddesdon

Dacorum

Parishes

Aldbury Berkhamsted Bovingdon Chipperfield Flamstead Flaunden Great Gaddesden Kings Langley Little Gaddesden Markyate Nash Mills Nettleden
Nettleden
with Potten End Northchurch Tring Tring
Tring
Rural Wigginton

Unparished areas

Hemel Hempstead

East Hertfordshire

Albury Anstey Ardeley Aspenden Aston Bayford Bengeo Rural Benington Bishop's Stortford Bramfield Braughing Brent Pelham
Brent Pelham
and Meesden Brickendon
Brickendon
Liberty Buckland and Chipping Buntingford Cottered Datchworth Eastwick and Gilston Furneux Pelham Great Amwell Great Munden Hertford Hertford
Hertford
Heath Hertingfordbury High Wych Hormead Hunsdon Little Berkhamsted Little Hadham Little Munden Much Hadham Sawbridgeworth Standon Stanstead Abbots Stanstead St Margarets Stapleford Stocking Pelham Tewin Thorley Thundridge Walkern Ware Wareside Watton-at-Stone Westmill Widford Wyddial

Hertsmere

Parishes

Aldenham Elstree and Borehamwood Ridge Shenley South Mimms

Unparished areas

Bushey Potters Bar

North Hertfordshire

Parishes

Ashwell Barkway Barley Bygrave Caldecote and Newnham Clothall
Clothall
and Luffenhall Codicote Graveley Great Ashby Hexton Hinxworth Holwell Ickleford Kelshall Kimpton King's Walden Knebworth Langley Lilley Nuthampstead Offley Pirton Preston Radwell Reed Royston Rushden and Wallington Sandon St Ippolyts St Paul's Walden Therfield Weston Wymondley

Unparished areas

Baldock Hitchin Letchworth
Letchworth
Garden City

St Albans

Parishes

Colney Heath Harpenden Harpenden
Harpenden
Rural London Colney Redbourn Sandridge St Michael St Stephen Wheathampstead

Unparished areas

St Albans

Three Rivers

Parishes

Abbots Langley Chorleywood Croxley Green Sarratt Watford
Watford
Rural

Unparished areas

Rickmansworth

Welwyn
Welwyn
Hatfield

Parishes

Ayot St Lawrence Ayot St Peter Essendon Hatfield North Mymms Northaw and Cuffley Welwyn Woolmer Green

Unparished areas

Welwyn
Welwyn
Garden City

Unparished boroughs

Stevenage Watford

See also

List of places in Hertfordshire

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150393

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