The Info List - Trier

(German pronunciation: [tʁiːɐ̯] ( listen); Luxembourgish: Tréier [ˈtʀɜɪ̯ɐ]), formerly known in English as Treves (French: Trèves, IPA: [tʁɛv]) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany
on the banks of the Moselle. Trier
lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg
and within the important Moselle wine region. Founded by the Celts
in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was later conquered by the Romans
in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum ( Latin
for "The City of Augustus
among the Treveri"). Trier
may be the oldest city in Germany.[2][3] It is also the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier
was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. The Archbishop-Elector also had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier
is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz, Ludwigshafen, and Koblenz.[4] The nearest major cities are Luxembourg
(50 km or 31 mi to the southwest), Saarbrücken
(80 kilometres or 50 miles southeast), and Koblenz
(100 km or 62 mi northeast). The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD (Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion), which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, and the Academy of European Law
Academy of European Law
(ERA) are all based in Trier. It is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg, Metz
and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux
(Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg), Rhineland-Palatinate, and Wallonia.


1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Neighbouring municipalities 2.2 Organization of city districts

3 Main sights 4 Museums 5 Education 6 Annual events 7 Transportation 8 Sports 9 Notable residents 10 International relations

10.1 Twinning 10.2 Namesakes

11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Trier

The Porta Nigra

The Cathedral
of Trier

Palais Walderdorff

Palace of Trier

The first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri
settled in the area of today's Trier.[5] The city of Trier
derives its name from the later Latin
locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.[citation needed] The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city later became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul; after the Diocletian Reforms, it became the capital of the prefecture of the Gauls, overseeing much of the Western Roman Empire. In the 4th century, Trier
was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
with a population around 75,000 and perhaps as much as 100,000.[6][7][8][9] The Porta Nigra
Porta Nigra
("Black Gate") dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier
was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418, probably in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture about 2000 from the city to Arles. The city continued to be inhabited but was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, and high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans
along a line from north of Cologne
to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens. The Franks
seized Trier
from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias
Saint Matthias
brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier
Archbishopric of Trier
was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier
University of Trier
was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier
relocated their residences to Philippsburg
Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier
in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials
Trier witch trials
were held, perhaps the largest witch trial in European history. It was certainly one of the four largest witch trials in Germany
alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg
witch trial, and the Bamberg
witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier
in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, and was as such perhaps the biggest mass execution in Europe in peace time. This counts only those executed within the city itself, and the real number of executions, counting also those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore even larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established; a total of 1,000 has been suggested but not confirmed. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier
was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France
succeeded in finally claiming Trier
in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
ended in 1815, Trier
passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. The German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier
developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871. In June 1940 over 60,000 British prisoners of war, captured at Dunkirk and Northern France, were marched to Trier, which became a staging post for British soldiers headed for German prisoner-of-war camps. Trier
was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate
after the war. The university, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral
of Trier
was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984. Geography[edit]

View of the city from St. Mary's Column (Mariensäule).

from the east (Petrisberg).

sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück
plateau in the south and the Eifel
in the north. The border with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
is some 15 km (9 mi) away.

Largest groups of foreign residents

Country of birth Population (2013)

 Poland 688

 France 675

 Luxembourg 573

 Ukraine 476

 Russia 444

Neighbouring municipalities[edit] Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg
district Schweich, Kenn and Longuich
(all part of the Verbandsgemeinde Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße), Mertesdorf, Kasel, Waldrach, Morscheid, Korlingen, Gutweiler, Sommerau
and Gusterath
(all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer), Hockweiler, Franzenheim
(both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land), Konz
(Verbandsgemeinde Konz), Igel, Trierweiler, Aach, Newel, Kordel, Zemmer
(all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land) Organization of city districts[edit]

Districts of Trier

The Trier
urban area is divided into 19 city districts. For each district there is an Ortsbeirat (local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an Ortsvorsteher (local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets. The districts of Trier
with area and inhabitants (December 31, 2009):

Official district number District with associated sub-districts Area in km2 Inhabitants

11 Mitte/Gartenfeld 2.978 11,954

12 Nord (Nells Ländchen, Maximin) 3.769 13,405

13 Süd (St. Barbara, St. Matthias or St. Mattheis) 1.722 9,123

21 Ehrang/Quint 26.134 9,195

22 Pfalzel 2.350 3,514

23 Biewer 5.186 1,949

24 Ruwer/Eitelsbach 9.167 3,091

31 West/Pallien 8.488 7,005

32 Euren (Herresthal) 13.189 4,207

33 Zewen (Oberkirch) 7.496 3,634

41 Olewig 3.100 3,135

42 Kürenz (Alt-Kürenz, Neu-Kürenz) 5.825 8,708

43 Tarforst 4.184 6,605

44 Filsch 1.601 761

45 Irsch 4.082 2,351

46 Kernscheid 3.768 958

51 Feyen/Weismark 5.095 5,689

52 Heiligkreuz (Alt-Heiligkreuz, Neu-Heiligkreuz, St. Maternus) 2.036 6,672

53 Mariahof (St. Michael) 7.040 3,120

Totals 117.210 105,076

Main sights[edit]

Roman Monuments, Cathedral
of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Ruins of the Imperial Baths

Includes Amphitheater, Roman bridge, Barbara Baths, Igel
Column, Porta Nigra, Imperial Baths, Aula Palatina, Cathedral
and Liebfrauenkirche

Criteria Cultural: i, iii, iv, vi

Reference 367

Inscription 1986 (10th Session)

is known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:

the Porta Nigra, the best-preserved Roman city gate north of the Alps; ruins of three Roman baths, among them the largest Roman baths
Roman baths
north of the Alps; including the Barbara Baths
Barbara Baths
and the Trier
Imperial Baths; the huge Constantine Basilica, a basilica in the original Roman sense, was the 67 m (219.82 ft) long throne hall of Roman Emperor Constantine; it is today used as a Protestant church. Trier
(German: Trierer Dom or Dom St. Peter), a Catholic church that dates back to Roman times and is home to the Holy Tunic, a garment with a recorded history back to the 12th century, in Catholic tradition said to be the robe Jesus
was wearing when he died. It is exhibited only every few decades, at irregular intervals. The Liebfrauenkirche (German for Church of Our dear Lady), which is one of the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Germany
and falls into the architectural tradition of the French Gothic cathedrals; the Roman Trier
Amphitheater; the 2nd century AD Roman bridge (Römerbrücke) across the Moselle, the oldest bridge north of the Alps
still crossed by traffic; St. Matthias' Abbey (Abtei St. Matthias), a still-in-use monastery in whose medieval church the only apostle north of the Alps
is held to be buried St. Gangolf's church
St. Gangolf's church
was the city's market church that rivalled the Archbishop's Trier
Cathedral. Saint Paulinus' Church, one of the most important Baroque churches in Rhineland-Palatinate
and designed in part by the architect Balthasar Neumann two old treadwheel cranes, one being the Gothic "Old Crane" (Alte Krahnen) or " Trier
Moselle Crane" (Trierer Moselkrahn) from 1413, and the other the 1774 Baroque crane called the "(Old) Customs Crane" ((Alter) Zollkran) or "Younger Moselle Crane" (Jüngerer Moselkran) (see List of historical harbour cranes)


Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier

Rheinisches Landesmuseum (one of the two most important German archaeological museums for the Roman period, along with the Römisch-Germanisches Museum in Cologne) Stadtmuseum Simeonstift (history of Trier, displaying among other exhibits a model of the medieval city) Bischöfliches Dom- und Diözesanmuseum (Museum of the Diocese of Trier, displays also numerous Roman artefacts) Toy Museum of Trier Ethnological and open-air museum Roscheider Hof, a museum in the neighbouring town of Konz, right at the city limits of Trier, which shows the history of rural culture in the northwest Rhineland Palatinate and in the area where Germany, Luxembourg
and Lorraine meet. Fell Exhibition Slate Mine; site in the municipality of Fell, 20 km (12 mi) from Trier, containing an underground mine, a mine museum, and a slate mining trail. Karl Marx
Karl Marx
House; a museum exhibiting Marx's personal history, volumes of poetry, original letters, and photographs with personal dedications. There is also a collection of rare first editions and international editions of his works, as well as exhibits on the development of socialism in the 19th century.


Uni Trier
Campus 1

University of applied sciences, central campus

is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier
University of Applied Sciences. The Academy of European Law
Academy of European Law
(ERA) was established in 1992 and provides training in European law to legal practitioners. In 2010 there were about 40 Kindergärten,[10] 25 primary schools and 23 secondary schools in Trier, such as the Humboldt Gymnasium Trier, Max Planck Gymnasium, Auguste Viktoria Gymnasium and the Nelson-Mandela Realschule Plus, Kurfürst-Balduin Realschule Plus, Realschule Plus Ehrang.[11] Annual events[edit]

Until 2014, Trier
was home to Germany's largest Roman festival, Brot und Spiele (German for Bread and Games - a translation of the famous Latin
phrase panem et circenses from the satires of Juvenal) Trier
has been the base for the German round of the World Rally Championship since 2000, with the rally's presentation held next to the Porta Nigra. Trier
holds a Christmas street festival every year called the Trier Christmas Market on the Hauptmarkt (Main Market Square) and the Domfreihof in front of the Cathedral
of Trier.

Transportation[edit] Trier
station has direct railway connections to many cities in the region. The nearest cities by train are Cologne, Saarbrücken
and Luxembourg. Via the motorways A 1, A 48 and A 64 Trier
is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken
and Luxembourg. The nearest commercial (international) airports are in Luxembourg
(0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn
(1:00 h), Saarbrücken
(1:00 h), Frankfurt
(2:00 h) and Cologne/ Bonn
(2:00 h). The Moselle is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises. A new passenger railway service on the western side of the Mosel is scheduled to open in December 2018.[12] Sports[edit]

Moselstadium Trier

Major sports clubs in Trier

SV Eintracht Trier
05, association football Gladiators Trier, basketball (former TBB Trier) DJK/MJC Trier, women's team handball Trier
Cardinals, baseball PST Trier
Stampers, American Football Renn Center, Trier, Slotcar FSV Trier-Tarforst, intera alia football and rugby

Notable residents[edit] See Heinz Monz: Trierer Biographisches Lexikon. Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, Koblenz
2000. 539 p. ISBN 3-931014-49-5.

Valentinian I

Karl Marx

Kaspar Olevianus

(died ~250), first bishop of Trier Maximian
(ca. 250–310), Roman emperor Valerius (died 320), second bishop of Trier St Athanasius (In exile ca. 335) Helena (ca. 250–330), saint, mother of Constantine the Great[13] Paulinus (died 358), bishop of Trier Valentinian I
Valentinian I
(321–375), Roman emperor Ausonius
(ca. 310–395), Roman consul and poet Ambrose
(ca. 340–397), saint Kaspar Olevianus
Kaspar Olevianus
(1536–1587), theologian Heinrich (1777–1838) and Henriette Marx (1788–1863), parents of Karl Marx Jenny Marx
Jenny Marx
née von Westphalen (1814–1881), revolutionary, drama critic, wife of Karl Marx, mother of Jenny Longuet, Laura Marx
Laura Marx
and Eleanor Marx Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883), German social philosopher and revolutionary August Beer
August Beer
(1825–1863), scientist Frederick A. Schroeder
Frederick A. Schroeder
(1833–1899), American politician, mayor of Brooklyn Ludwig Kaas (1881–1952), Catholic priest and politician of the Zentrum Oswald von Nell-Breuning (1890–1991), German theologian Reinhard Heß
Reinhard Heß
(1904–1998), painter and glass painter Wolf Graf von Baudissin
Wolf Graf von Baudissin
(1907–1993), German general, military planner and peace researcher Peter Thullen
Peter Thullen
(1907–1996), German-Ecuadorian mathematician Gitta Lind (1925–1974), singer (e.g. "White Elder") Ernst Huberty (born 1927), sports reporter ("Mister Sportschau") Günther Steines (1928–1982), athlete Franz Grundheber
Franz Grundheber
(born 1937), baritone Günther Geiermann (1939–2013), actor Otmar Seul
Otmar Seul
(born 1943), lawyer, professor Helga Zepp-LaRouche
Helga Zepp-LaRouche
(born 1948), journalist and politician Xavier Bout de Marnhac (born 1951), French general, former commander of KFOR Robert Zimmer (born 1953), German philosopher and essayist Ernst Ulrich Deuker
Ernst Ulrich Deuker
(born 1954), musician of Ideal François Weigel
François Weigel
(born 1964), French pianist, composer and conductor Eric Jelen (born 1965), tennis player Martin Bambauer
Martin Bambauer
(born 1970), church musician Frank Findeiß (born 1971), poet

International relations[edit] Trier
is a fellow member of the QuattroPole union of cities, along with Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, and Metz
(neighbouring countries: Luxembourg
and France). Twinning[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Trier
is twinned with:

Metz, France
since 1957 Gloucester, United Kingdom, since 1957 Ascoli Piceno, Italy, since 1958

's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, since 1968 Pula, Croatia, since 1971[14] Fort Worth, Texas, United States
United States
since 1987[15]

Weimar, Germany
since 1990 Nagaoka, Japan, since 2006 Xiamen, China, since 2010


New Trier
Township, Illinois, USA, originally settled by people from Trier. New Trier, Minnesota, USA, settled by people from Trier
about 1856. New Trier
High School, an Illinois school named after Trier.


^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland mit Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2015" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ Rathaus der Stadt Trier. "Stadt Trier
- City of Trier
- La Ville de Trèves Website of the Municipality of Trier". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-08-08. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ The honor is disputed among Trier, Worms, Kempten, and Cologne. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden am 31.12.2010" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz (in German). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31.  ^ See: Heinen, pp. 1-12. ^ "TRIER THE CENTER OF ANTIQUITY IN GERMANY" (PDF). 8 March 2012. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ LaVerne, F.K. (1991). Europe by Eurail 2010: Touring Europe by Train. Globe Pequot Press. p. 337. ISBN 9780762761630. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ 2. ^ "The Fall and Decline of the Roman Urban Mind Svante Fischer and Helena Victor - Academia.edu". academia.edu. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ "Stadt Trier
- Startseite Kindergärten in Trier". cms.trier.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ "Stadt Trier
- Startseite – Schulen in Trier". cms.trier.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ Fender, Keith (12 February 2014). "Plans approved for Trier
suburban line Written by". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 2014-02-25.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia - St. Helena - Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon". heiligenlexikon.de. Retrieved 2015-08-26.  ^ "Međunarodna suradnja Grada Pule". Grad Pula
(in Croatian and Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2013-07-28.  ^ "Fort Worth". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trier.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Trier.

Official website (in German)  "Treves". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   Gough, Alfred Bradley (1911). "Trier". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). pp. 268–269. 

v t e

Cities in Germany
by population


Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich


Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart


Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal


Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
in Germany

Urban districts

Frankenthal Kaiserslautern Koblenz Landau Ludwigshafen Mainz Neustadt Pirmasens Speyer Trier Worms Zweibrücken

Rural districts

Ahrweiler Altenkirchen Alzey-Worms Bad Dürkheim Bad Kreuznach Bernkastel-Wittlich Birkenfeld Bitburg-Prüm Cochem-Zell Donnersbergkreis Germersheim Kaiserslautern Kusel Mainz-Bingen Mayen-Koblenz Neuwied Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhein-Lahn-Kreis Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis Südliche Weinstraße Südwestpfalz Trier-Saarburg Vulkaneifel Westerwaldkreis

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Germany

For official site names, see each article or the List of World Heritage Sites in Germany.


Fagus Factory
Fagus Factory
in Alfeld Berlin
Modernism Housing Estates Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin Palaces and Parks of Potsdam
and Berlin Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar
and Upper Harz Water Management System Speicherstadt
and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus
in Hamburg St. Mary's Cathedral
and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim Hanseatic City of Lübeck Historic Centres of Stralsund
and Wismar


and its Sites in Weimar
and Dessau Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz Dresden
Elbe Valley (delisted in 2009) Luther Memorials in Eisleben
and Wittenberg Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski1 Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg Wartburg
Castle Classical Weimar


Cathedral Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey Cologne
Cathedral Upper Middle Rhine
Valley Speyer
Cathedral Roman Monuments, Cathedral
of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier Völklingen Ironworks Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex
in Essen


Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
(Weissenhof Estate) Town of Bamberg Frontiers of the Roman Empire:2 Upper Germanic & Rhaetian Limes Maulbronn Monastery
Maulbronn Monastery
Complex Margravial Opera House Old Town of Regensburg
with Stadtamhof Monastic Island of Reichenau Pilgrimage Church of Wies Würzburg
Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura


Ancient Beech Forests4 Messel Pit Fossil Site Wadden Sea5

1 Shared with Poland 2 Shared with the United Kingdom 3 Shared with Austria, France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland 4 Shared with Slovakia and Ukraine 5 Shared with the Netherlands
and Denmark

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135701727 LCCN: n80104771 ISNI: 0000 0001 2163 5513 GND: 4060877-3 SUDOC: 028860365 BNF: cb1206