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Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
(Latin: Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus;[1][2] 206 – August 253), also known as Gallus, was Roman Emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Rise to power 3 Death 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Early life[edit] Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry of Etruscan senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: Gaius Vibius Volusianus, later Emperor, and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was a typical cursus honorum, with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia
Moesia
Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of Emperor Trajan
Trajan
Decius
Decius
in him. Rise to power[edit] In June 251, Decius
Decius
and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus
Herennius Etruscus
died in the Battle of Abrittus
Battle of Abrittus
at the hands of the Goths
Goths
they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. According to rumours supported by Dexippus (a contemporary Greek historian) and the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle, Decius' failure was largely owing to Gallus, who had conspired with the invaders. In any case, when the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. This action of the army, and the fact that Gallus seems to have been on good terms with Decius' family, makes Dexippus' allegation improbable.[3] Gallus did not back down from his intention to become emperor, but accepted Hostilian
Hostilian
as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war.

Bronze of Gallus dating from the time of his reign as Roman Emperor, the only surviving near-complete full-size 3rd-century Roman bronze (Metropolitan Museum of Art)[4]

Anxious to secure his position at Rome and stabilize the situation on the Danube frontier, Gallus made peace with the Goths. Peace terms allowed the Goths
Goths
to leave the Roman territory while keeping their captives and plunder. In addition, it was agreed that they would be paid an annual subsidy.[5] Reaching Rome, Gallus' proclamation was formally confirmed by the Senate, with his son Volusianus
Volusianus
being appointed Caesar. On June 24, 251, Decius
Decius
was deified, but by July 15 Hostilian
Hostilian
disappears from history—he may have died in an outbreak of plague.[6] Gallus may have also ordered a localized and uncoordinated persecution of Christians.[7] However, only two incidents are known to us: the exile of Pope Cornelius
Pope Cornelius
to Centumcellae, where he died in 253 and the exile of his successor, Pope Lucius, right after his election. The latter was recalled to Rome during the reign of Valerian.[8]

Radiate of Trebonianus Gallus

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, an Antiochene nobleman, Mariades, revolted and began ravaging Syria and Cappadocia, then fled to the Persians. Gallus ordered his troops to attack the Persians, but Persian Emperor Shapur I
Shapur I
invaded Armenia and destroyed a large Roman army, taking it by surprise at Barbalissos in 253. Shapur I
Shapur I
then invaded the defenseless Syrian provinces, captured all of its legionary posts and ravaged its cities, including Antioch, without any response.[9] Persian invasions were repeated in the following year, but now Uranius
Uranius
Antoninus (a priest originally called Sampsiceramus), a descendant of the royal house of Emesa, confronted Shapur and forced him to retreat. He proclaimed himself emperor,[7] however, and minted coins with his image upon them.[10] On the Danube, Scythian
Scythian
tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. They invaded Asia Minor by sea, burned the great Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
at Ephesus, and returned home with plunder. Lower Moesia
Moesia
was also invaded in early 253.[11] Aemilianus, governor of Moesia
Moesia
Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the invaders. Death[edit]

Trebonianus Gallus

Since the army was no longer pleased with the Emperor, the soldiers proclaimed Aemilianus
Aemilianus
emperor. With a usurper, supported by Pauloctus, threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from Gaul under the command of the future emperor Publius Licinius
Licinius
Valerianus. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus
Aemilianus
marched onto Italy
Italy
ready to fight for his claim and caught Gallus at Interamna (modern Terni) before the arrival of Valerianus. What exactly happened there is not clear.[12] Later sources claim that after an initial defeat, Gallus and Volusianus
Volusianus
were murdered by their own troops;[11] or Gallus did not have the chance to face Aemilianus
Aemilianus
at all because his army went over to the usurper.[13] In any case, both Gallus and Volusianus
Volusianus
were killed in August 253.[14] Notes[edit]

^ Southern, Pat, The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
From Severus To Constantine, Routledge, 2004, p. 75 ^ In Classical Latin, Gallus' name would be inscribed as CAIVS VIBIVS AFINIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS. ^ Potter (2004), pp. 247–248. ^ Bronze portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, 05.30 ^ Cambridge Ancient History, pp. 39–40. ^ Potter (2004), p. 248. ^ a b Cambridge Ancient History, p. 40. ^ Cambridge Ancient History, p. 636. ^ Potter (2004), pp. 248–249. ^ Potter (2004), pp. 249–250. ^ a b Potter (2004), p. 252. ^ See Bray (1997), p. 38, for both versions of the story and their sources. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, p. 41. ^ Bray (1997), p. 38.

References[edit]

Bray, John. Gallienus: A Study in Reformist and Sexual Politics, Wakefield Press, 1997. ISBN 1-86254-337-2 Bowman Alan K., Garnsey Peter, Cameron Averil (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire, A.D. 193–337, Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8. Potter, David S. The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5.

External links[edit]

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Bronze of Trebonianus Gallus

Media related to Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal titles

Preceded by Decius Roman Emperor 251–253 Served alongside: Hostilian
Hostilian
(251) and Volusianus
Volusianus
(251–253) Succeeded by Aemilianus

Political offices

Preceded by Decius, Herennius Etruscus Consul of the Roman Empire 252 with Volusianus Succeeded by Volusianus, Lucius Valerius Poplicola Balbinus
Balbinus
Maximus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77390962 GND: 12934496

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