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Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union
The Treaty on
European Union (2007) is one of the primary Treaties of
the European Union, alongside the Treaty on the Functioning of the
European Union (TFEU). The TEU forms the basis of EU law, by setting
out general principles of the EU's purpose, the governance of its
central institutions (such as the Commission, Parliament, and
Council), as well as the rules on external, foreign and security
2.1 Title I: Common Provisions
2.2 Title II: Provisions on democratic principles
2.3 Title III: Provisions on the institutions
2.4 Title IV: Provisions on enhanced co-operation
2.5 Title V: General provisions on the Union's external action
2.6 Title VI: Final provisions
3 See also
5 External links
While the current version of the TEU entered into force in 2009,
Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon (2007), the older form of the same
document was implemented by the
Treaty of Maastricht
Treaty of Maastricht (1992).
After the preamble the treaty text is divided into six parts.
Title I: Common Provisions
The first deals with common provisions. Article 1 establishes the
European Union on the basis of the European Community and lays out the
legal value of the treaties. Article 2 states that the EU is "founded
on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy,
equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the
rights of persons belonging to minorities". The member states share a
"society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice,
solidarity and equality between women and men prevail".
Article 3 then states the aims of the EU in six points. The first is
simply to promote peace, European values and its citizens' well-being.
The second relates to free movement with external border controls are
in place. Point 3 deals with the internal market. Point 4 establishes
the euro. Point 5 states the EU shall promote its values, contribute
to eradicating poverty, observe human rights and respect the charter
of the United Nations. The final sixth point states that the EU shall
pursue these objectives by "appropriate means" according with its
competences given in the treaties.
Article 4 relates to member states' sovereignty and obligations.
Article 5 sets out the principles of conferral, subsidiarity and
proportionality with respect to the limits of its powers. Article 6
binds the EU to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European
Union and the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 7 deals
with the suspension of a member state and article 8 deals with
establishing close relations with neighbouring states.
Title II: Provisions on democratic principles
Article 9 establishes the equality of national citizens and
citizenship of the European Union. Article 10 declares that the EU is
founded in representative democracy and that decisions must be taken
as closely as possible to citizens. It makes reference to European
political parties and how citizens are represented: directly in the
Parliament and by their governments in the Council and European
Council – accountable to national parliaments. Article 11
establishes government transparency, declares that broad consultations
must be made and introduces provision for a petition where at least 1
million citizens may petition the Commission to legislate on a matter.
Article 12 gives national parliaments limited involvement in the
Title III: Provisions on the institutions
Article 13 establishes the institutions in the following order and
under the following names: the European Parliament, the European
Council, the Council, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of
the European Union, the
European Central Bank
European Central Bank and the Court of
Auditors. It obliges co-operation between these and limits their
competencies to the powers within the treaties.
Article 14 deals with the workings of Parliament and its election,
article 15 with the
European Council and its president, article 16
with the Council and its configurations and article 17 with the
Commission and its appointment. Article 18 establishes the High
Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
and article 19 establishes the Court of Justice.
Title IV: Provisions on enhanced co-operation
Title 4 has only one article which allows a limited number of member
states to co-operate within the EU if others are blocking integration
in that field.
Title V: General provisions on the Union's external action
Chapter 1 of this title includes articles 21 and 22. Article 21 deals
with the principles that outline EU foreign policy; including
compliance with the UN charter, promoting global trade, humanitarian
support and global governance. Article 22 gives the European Council,
acting unanimously, control over defining the EU's foreign policy.
Chapter 2 is further divided into sections. The first, common
provisions, details the guidelines and functioning of the EU's foreign
policy, including establishment of the European External Action
Service and member state's responsibilities. Section 2, articles 42 to
46, deal with military co-operation (including mutual defence).
On 17 November 2015, France called other member states for military
assistance, on the basis of the Article 42. This was the first time
the article had ever been applied and all of the member states were
reported to respond in agreement (ibid). However at least one member
state (Finland) made a conclusion that due to conflicting national
law, military assistance was excluded.
Title VI: Final provisions
Article 47 establishes a legal personality for the EU. Article 48
deals with the method of treaty amendment; specifically the ordinary
and simplified revision procedures. Article 49 deals with applications
to join the EU and article 50 with withdrawal. In the aftermath of the
Brexit vote in Britain on June 23, 2016, the
United Kingdom formally
invoked Article 50 in March 2017, giving notice that it would leave
the EU within two years. Article 51 deals with the protocols attached
to the treaties and article 52 with the geographic application of the
treaty. Article 53 states the treaty is in force for an unlimited
period, article 54 deals with ratification and 55 with the different
language versions of the treaties.
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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
^ Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union.
^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "EU backs French appeal for military
assistance as fight ramps up against 'Islamic State' - News - DW -
^ "Pääministeri Sipilä: Suomi auttaa Ranskaa".
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