The TREATY OF UNION is the name given to the agreement that led to
the creation of Great Britain , the political union of the Kingdom
of England (which already included
* 1 Background * 2 Treaty negotiations * 3 Details of the Treaty * 4 Commissioners * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
Queen Elizabeth I of England (and of Ireland) died without issue on 24 March 1603, dissolving the Tudor dynasty . The throne fell immediately and uncontroversially to her double first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland , a member of House of Stuart and son of Mary, Queen of Scots . He assumed the throne of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland as King James I in the Union of the Crowns in 1603. This personal union somewhat assuaged constant English fears of Scottish cooperation with France, especially in a hypothetical French invasion of Britain.
After that personal union , people widely discussed the idea of
Kingdom of Scotland
Company of Scotland
In the face of opposition by English commercial interests, the
Company of Scotland
England was also under pressure from the London-based East India
Company , who were keen to maintain their monopoly over English
foreign trade. It therefore forced the English and Dutch investors to
withdraw. Next, the
East India Company
The Scottish nobility ultimately supported the union despite some popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.
Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne ever since she acceded to the throne in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a union treaty in 1705.
Each country appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations.
Of the 31 Scottish commissioners who were appointed, 29 were members of the government Court Party and one was a member of the Squadron Volante . At the head of the list was Queensberry, and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland , the Earl of Seafield . George Lockhart of Carnwath , a member of the opposition Cavalier Party, was the only commissioner opposed to union. The 31 English commissioners, including government ministers and officers of state, such as the Lord High Treasurer , the Earl of Godolphin , the Lord Keeper , Baron Cowper , and a large number of Whigs who supported union. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners.
Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners began on
16 April 1706 at the Cockpit in
After the negotiations ended on 22 July 1706, the acts had to be ratified by both Parliaments. Scottish proponents of union believed that failure to agree to the treaty would result in the imposition of union under less favourable terms, and English troops were stationed just south of the border and in Ireland as an "encouragement". Months of fierce debate in both capital cities and throughout both kingdoms followed. In Scotland, the debate on occasion dissolved into civil disorder, most notably by the notorious 'Edinburgh Mob'. The prospect of a union of the kingdoms was deeply unpopular among the Scottish population at large, and talk of an uprising was widespread. However the Treaty was signed and the documents were rushed south with a large military escort.
Kingdom of Great Britain was born on 1 May 1707, shortly
after the parliaments of Scotland and England had ratified the Treaty
of Union by each approving Acts of Union combining the two parliaments
and the two royal titles. Scotland's crown, sceptre, and sword of
state remained at Edinburgh Castle. Queen Anne (already Queen of both
England and Scotland) formally became the first occupant of the
unified British throne, with Scotland sending forty-five Members to
House of Commons of Great Britain , as well as representative
peers to the
House of Lords
Significant financial payoffs to Scottish parliamentarians were later
referred to by
DETAILS OF THE TREATY
The Treaty consisted of 25 articles.
Article 1 states "That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN ."
Article 2 provided for the succession of the House of Hanover , and for Protestant succession as set out in the English Act of Settlement .
Article 3 provide for the creation of the one, unified, parliament of Great Britain .
Article 4 gave subjects of Great Britain freedom of trade and navigation within the kingdom and "the Dominions and Plantations thereunto belonging".
Articles 5 to 15, 17 ">
KINGDOM OF ENGLAND
* William Cowper, 1st Baron Cowper ,
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin ,
Lord High Treasurer
Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke , Lord President of the
John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle ,
Lord Privy Seal
* Henry Boyle ,
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Charles Hedges , Secretary of State for the Southern
* Robert Harley ,
Secretary of State for the Northern Department
Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton
Thomas Tenison ,
Archbishop of Canterbury
KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND
* James Ogilvy, 1st Earl of Seafield , Lord Chancellor * James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry , Lord Privy Seal * John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar , Secretary of State * Hugh Campbell, 3rd Earl of Loudoun, Secretary of State * David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow , Treasurer-depute * Lord Archibald Campbell * Daniel Campbell of Shawfield , MP for Inveraray * John Clerk of Penicuik , MP for Whithorn * Adam Cockburn, Lord Ormiston , Lord Justice Clerk * Sir David Dalrymple of Hailes, 1st Baronet , MP for Culross * Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick , Lord President of the Court of Session * Robert Dundas, Lord Arniston , MP for Edinburghshire * Thomas Hay, Viscount Dupplin * Alexander Grant of that Ilk, MP for Inverness-shire * Sir Patrick Johnston, MP for Edinburgh * David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven * George Lockhart of Carnwath , MP for Lanarkshire * Francis Montgomerie of Giffen, MP for Ayrshire * Hugh Montgomerie of Busbie, MP for Glasgow * William Morrison of Prestongrange, MP for Peeblesshire * James Douglas, 11th Earl of Morton * Sir Alexander Ogilvy of Forglen, 1st Baronet, MP for Banff * Archibald Primrose, 1st Earl of Rosebery * William Ross, 12th Lord Ross * William Seton of Pittmedden, MP for Aberdeenshire * Sir James Smollett of Stainflett and Bonhill, MP for Dumbarton * John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair * Dougald Stewart of Blairhill, MP for Rothesay * Robert Stewart of Tillicoultry, MP for Bute * John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland * David Wemyss, 4th Earl of Wemyss
Acts of Union 1707 parliament.uk, accessed 31 December 2010
* ^ Uniting the kingdom? nationalarchives.gov.uk, accessed 31
* ^ Scottish Referendums BBC News, accessed 23 October 2008
* ^ Devine, T. M. (1999). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000. Penguin
Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-14-023004-1 . From that point on anti-union
demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread
to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting
tradition. The Glasgow mob rose against union sympathisers in
disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a month
* ^ "Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder". London: The House
of Lords. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2008.
Retrieved 23 December 2007.
* ^ The commissioners Archived 19 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
., UK Parliament website.
* ^ The course of negotiations Archived 21 July 2009 at the Wayback
Machine ., UK Parliament website.
* ^ Karin Bowie, "Popular Resistance and the Ratification of the
Anglo-Scottish Treaty of Union," Scottish Archives, 2008, Vol. 14, pp
* ^ "The Jacobite relics of Scotland: being the songs, airs, and
legends, of the adherents to the house of Stuart". Printed for W.
Blackwood. 1 January 1819 – via Google Books.
* ^ Allan I. Macinnes, "Treaty Of Union: Voting Patterns and
Political Influence," Historical Social Research, 1989, Vol. 14 Issue
3, pp 53-61
* ^ The Treaty (act) of the Union of Parliament 1706, Scots History
* ^ Daniel Defoe, George Chalmers, The History of the Union Between
England and Scotland, 1923, p.112
Doctor of Law