Treaty of Union
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The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the
treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually made by and between sovereign states, but can include international organizations, individuals, business entities, and other legal ...
which led to the creation of the new state of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about . It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface ...
, stating that the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of a ...
(which already included
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the ...
) and the Kingdom of Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".

: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: ''That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN''.
At the time it was more often referred to as the Articles of Union. The details of the Treaty were agreed on 22 July 1706, and separate Acts of Union were then passed by the parliaments of
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the Europ ...
and
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the ...
to put the agreed Articles into effect. The
political union A political union is a type of political entity which is composed of, or created from, smaller polities, or the process which achieves this. These smaller polities are usually called federated states and federal territories in a federal govern ...
took effect on 1 May 1707.


Background

Queen
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in Northwestern Europe, north-we ...
of England and Ireland, last monarch of the Tudor dynasty, died without issue on 24 March 1603, and the throne fell at once (and uncontroversially) to her first cousin twice removed,
James VI of Scotland James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a heredit ...
, a member of the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally spelt Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. The family name comes from ...
and the only son of
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. The only surviving legitimate child of James V of S ...
. By the Union of the Crowns in 1603 he assumed the throne of the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of a ...
and the Kingdom of Ireland as King James I. This
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–1 ...
lessened the constant English fears of Scottish cooperation with France in a feared French invasion of England. After this personal union, the new monarch, James I and VI, sought to unite the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England into a state which he referred to as "Great Britain". Nevertheless, Acts of Parliament attempting to unite the two countries failed in 1606, 1667, and 1689. Beginning in 1698, the Company of Scotland sponsored the Darien scheme, an ill-fated attempt to establish a Scottish trading colony in the Isthmus of Panama, collecting from Scots investments equal to one-quarter of all the money circulating in Scotland at the time. In the face of opposition by English commercial interests, the Company of Scotland also raised subscriptions in Amsterdam, Hamburg, and London for its scheme. For his part, King William III of England and II of Scotland had given only lukewarm support to the Scottish colonial endeavour. England was at war with France, and hence did not want to offend Spain, which claimed the territory as part of New Granada. England was also under pressure from the London-based
East India Company The East India Company (EIC) was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600 and dissolved in 1874. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent Th ...
, which was anxious to maintain its monopoly over English foreign trade. It therefore forced the English and Dutch investors to withdraw. Next, the East India Company threatened legal action, on the grounds that the Scots had no authority from the king to raise funds outside the king's realm, and obliged the promoters to refund subscriptions to the Hamburg investors. This left no source of finance but Scotland itself. The colonisation ended in a military confrontation with the Spanish in 1700, but most colonists died of tropical diseases. This was an economic disaster for the Scottish ruling class investors and diminished the resistance of the Scottish political establishment to the idea of
political union A political union is a type of political entity which is composed of, or created from, smaller polities, or the process which achieves this. These smaller polities are usually called federated states and federal territories in a federal govern ...
with England. It ultimately supported the union, despite some popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere. Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne ever since she had acceded to the thrones of the three kingdoms in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, in 1705 the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a treaty of union.


Treaty negotiations

It was agreed that England and Scotland would each appoint thirty-one commissioners to conduct the negotiations. The
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...
then began to arrange an election of the commissioners to negotiate on behalf of Scotland, but in September 1705, the leader of the Country Party, the Duke of Hamilton, who had previously attempted to obstruct the negotiation of a treaty, proposed that the Scottish commissioners should be nominated by the Queen, and this was agreed. In practice, the Scottish commissioners were nominated on the advice of the Duke of Queensberry and the Duke of Argyll. Of the Scottish commissioners who were subsequently appointed, twenty-nine were members of the governing Court Party, while one was a member of the Squadron Volante. At the head of the list was Queensberry himself, with the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, the Earl of Seafield.The commissioners
, UK Parliament website.
George Lockhart of Carnwath, a member of the opposition Cavalier Party, was the only commissioner opposed to union. The thirty-one English commissioners included government ministers and officers of state, such as the Lord High Treasurer, the Earl of Godolphin, the Lord Keeper, Lord Cowper, and a large number of Whigs who supported union. Most Tories in the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The At ...
were not in favour of a union, and only one was among the commissioners. Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners began on 16 April 1706 at the Cockpit-in-Court in
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a ma ...
. The sessions opened with speeches from William Cowper, the English Lord Keeper, and from Lord Seafield, the Scottish Lord Chancellor, each describing the significance of the task. The commissioners did not carry out their negotiations face to face, but in separate rooms. They communicated their proposals and counter-proposals to each other in writing, and there was a blackout on news from the negotiations. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, and Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade.The course of negotiations
, UK Parliament website.
After the negotiations ended on 22 July 1706, acts of parliament were drafted by both parliaments to implement the agreed Articles of Union. The Scottish proponents of union believed that failure to agree to the Articles would result in the imposition of a union under less favourable terms, and English troops were stationed just south of the Scottish border and also in northern Ireland as an "encouragement". Months of fierce debate in both capital cities and throughout both kingdoms followed. In Scotland, the debate on occasion dissolved into civil disorder, most notably by the notorious 'Edinburgh Mob'. The prospect of a union of the kingdoms was deeply unpopular among the Scottish population at large, and talk of an uprising was widespread. However, the treaty was signed and the documents were rushed south with a large military escort. The
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
was born on 1 May 1707, shortly after the parliaments of
Scotland Scotland (, ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the ...
and
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the Europ ...
had ratified the Treaty of Union by each approving Acts of Union combining the two parliaments and the powers of the two crowns. Scotland's crown, sceptre, and sword of state remained at Edinburgh Castle. Queen Anne (already Queen of both England and Scotland) formally became the first occupant of the unified throne of Great Britain, with Scotland sending forty-five members to the new House of Commons of Great Britain, as well as representative peers to the
House of Lords The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of ...
. Significant financial payoffs to Scottish parliamentarians were later referred to by
Robert Burns Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the List of national poets, national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best kn ...
when he wrote "We're bought and sold for English gold, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation!" Some recent historians, however, have emphasized the legitimacy of the vote.


The Articles of Union

The Treaty consisted of twenty-five Articles. Article 1 provided that the kingdoms of Scotland and England would, from 1 May 1707, be united into one kingdom named
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about . It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface ...
, with its own royal coat of arms and a flag combining the crosses of St Andrew and St George. Article 2 provided for the succession of the
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a European royal house of German origin that ruled Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the Ge ...
to the throne of Great Britain, and for a Protestant succession, as set out in the English Act of Settlement of 1701. Article 3 provided for the creation of one unified
Parliament of Great Britain The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts ratified the treaty of Union which created a new unified Kin ...
. Article 4 gave the subjects of Great Britain freedom of trade and navigation within the kingdom and the "Dominions and Plantations thereunto belonging". Articles 5 to 15, 17, & 18 dealt with a register of British trading ships, customs and duties on import and export, weights and measures, movement, taxes, regulation of trade, and other matters, to ensure equal treatment for all subjects of the new kingdom. Article 16 required the introduction of a common currency for Great Britain, subsequently effected through the Scottish recoinage of 1707–1710, and the continuation of a Scottish Mint. Article 19 provided for the continuation of the Court of Session, the
High Court of Justiciary The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland Scotland (, ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kin ...
, and the separate Scottish legal system. Article 20 provided for the protection after the union of a number of heritable offices, superiorities, heritable jurisdictions, offices for life, and jurisdictions for life. Article 21 provided for the protection of the rights of the
royal burgh A royal burgh () was a type of Scottish burgh A burgh is an autonomous municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, town ...
s. Article 22 provided for Scotland to be represented in the new Parliament of Great Britain by sixteen representative peers and forty-five members of the House of Commons. Article 23 provided for Scotland's peers to have the same rights as English peers in any trial of peers. Article 24 provided for the creation of a new Great Seal of Great Britain, different from those of
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the Europ ...
and Scotland, but it also provided that the Great Seal of England was to be used until this had been created; a Great Seal of Scotland for use in Scotland; and that the
Honours of Scotland The Honours of Scotland (, gd, Seudan a' Chrùin Albannaich), informally known as the Scottish Crown Jewels, are the regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum word that has different definitions. In one rare definition, it refers to the e ...
, the Records of the
Parliament of Scotland The Parliament of Scotland ( sco, Pairlament o Scotland; gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba) was the legislature A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country A country is a disti ...
and all other records, rolls and registers be kept and remain in Scotland. Article 25 provided that all laws of either kingdom that may be inconsistent with the Articles in the Treaty were declared void.


Commissioners

The following commissioners were appointed to negotiate the Treaty of Union:Daniel Defoe, George Chalmers, ''The History of the Union Between England and Scotland'', 1923, p. 112 Kingdom of England * William Cowper, 1st Baron Cowper, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal * Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, Lord High Treasurer * Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke,
Lord President of the Council The lord president of the Council is the presiding officer of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and the fourth of the Great Officers of State (United Kingdom), Great Officers of State, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the ...
* John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Lord Privy Seal * Henry Boyle,
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and head of HM Treasury, His Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Great Offices of State, the Ch ...
* Sir Charles Hedges, Secretary of State for the Southern Department * Robert Harley, Secretary of State for the Northern Department * Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton * Thomas Tenison,
Archbishop of Canterbury The archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and a principal leader of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Co ...
* Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle * Sir John Cooke, Advocate-General * John Manners, Marquess of Granby * Sir Simon Harcourt, Solicitor General * Charles Montagu, 1st Baron Halifax * William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington * Sir John Holt, Lord Chief Justice * Evelyn Pierrepont, 5th Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull * Sir Edward Northey,
Attorney General In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent, judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions."The common law is not ...
* Ralph Grey, 4th Baron Grey of Werke * Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford * Lord William Powlett,
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative in parliament of the people who live in their electoral district. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this term refers only to members of the lower house since upper house members o ...
for
Winchester Winchester is a cathedral city in Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in western South East England on the coast of the English Channel The English Channel, "The Sleeve"; ...
* John Smith, Speaker of the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In both of these countries, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliamen ...
* John Somers, 1st Baron Somers * Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset * Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland * Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend * Sir Thomas Trevor, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas *Dr. Stephen Waller,
Doctor of Law A Doctor of Law is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Juris Doctor (J.D.), Doctor of Philosophy A Doctor of Philosoph ...
* Thomas Wharton, 5th Baron Wharton * Charles Powlett, Marquess of Winchester * John Sharp,
Archbishop of York The archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to ...
Kingdom of Scotland * James Ogilvy, 1st Earl of Seafield,
Lord Chancellor The lord chancellor, formally the lord high chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking traditional minister among the Great Officers of State (United Kingdom), Great Officers of State in Scotland and England in the United Kingdom, no ...
* James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, Lord Privy Seal * John Erskine, Earl of Mar, Secretary of State *Hugh Campbell, 3rd Earl of Loudoun, Secretary of State * David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow, Treasurer-depute * Lord Archibald Campbell * Daniel Campbell of Shawfield,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Inveraray * John Clerk of Penicuik,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Whithorn * Adam Cockburn, Lord Ormiston, Lord Justice Clerk * Sir David Dalrymple of Hailes, 1st Baronet,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Culross * Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick, Lord President of the Court of Session and
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for
North Berwick North Berwick (; gd, Bearaig a Tuath) is a seaside town and former royal burgh in East Lothian, Scotland Scotland (, ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelan ...
* Robert Dundas, Lord Arniston,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Edinburghshire *Thomas Hay, Viscount Dupplin *Alexander Grant of that Ilk,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Inverness-shire *Sir Patrick Johnston,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for
Edinburgh Edinburgh ( ; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is located in Lothian ...
* David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven * George Lockhart of Carnwath,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Lanarkshire * Francis Montgomerie of Giffen, Commissioner for the Treasury and
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Ayrshire *Hugh Montgomerie of Busbie,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) is the most populous city in Scotland Scotland (, ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as ...
*William Morrison of Prestongrange,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Peeblesshire *James Douglas, 11th Earl of Morton *Sir Alexander Ogilvy of Forglen, 1st Baronet,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Banff * Archibald Primrose, 1st Earl of Rosebery * William Ross, 12th Lord Ross, Commissioner for the Treasury *William Seton of Pittmedden,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for
Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 Subdivisions of Scotland#council areas of Scotland, council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has substantially differe ...
*Sir James Smollett of Stainflett and Bonhill,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Dumbarton * John Dalrymple, 1st Earl of Stair *Dougald Stewart of Blairhill,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Rothesay *Robert Stewart of Tillicoultry,
Commissioner A commissioner (commonly abbreviated as Comm'r) is, in principle, a member of a commission or an individual who has been given a commission (official charge or authority to do something). In practice, the title of commissioner has evolved to in ...
for Bute * John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland * David Wemyss, 4th Earl of Wemyss


References

{{reflist


Further reading

* Ferguson, William. ''Scotland's Relations with England: a survey to 1707'' (1994) * Fry, Michael. ''The Union: England, Scotland and the Treaty of 1707'' (2006) * Harris, Bob. "The Anglo Scottish Treaty of Union, 1707 in 2007: Defending the Revolution, Defeating the Jacobites," ''Journal of British Studies'' Jan. 2010, Vol. 49, No. 1: 28–46
in JSTOR
Historiography * Macinnes, Allan I. "Treaty of Union: Voting Patterns and Political Influence," ''Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung'' (1989) 14#3 pp. 53–6
in JSTOR
statistical analysis


External links



the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; sco, Scots Pairlament) is the devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyrood area of the capital ...

Text of Union with England ActText of Union with Scotland Act
* From
Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (; born Daniel Foe; – 24 April 1731) was an English writer, trader, journalist, pamphleteer and spy. He is most famous for his novel ''Robinson Crusoe'', published in 1719, which is claimed to be second only to the Bible in its ...
's ''Collection of Original Papers and Material Transactions Concerning the late Great Affair of the Union between England and Scotland'' (1711): *
Text of the "Articles of Union"
(the Treaty) *
Text of the Scottish Ratifying Act
*
Text of the English Ratifying Act
1706 treaties 1706 in England 1706 in Scotland Treaties of England Treaties of Scotland 1707 treaties England–Scotland relations History of Great Britain