The TREATY OF NANKING or NANJING was a peace treaty which ended the
First Opium War
In the wake of China's military defeat, with British warships poised
to attack Nanking , representatives from the British and Qing Empires
negotiated on board HMS Cornwallis anchored at the city. On 29 August
1842, British representative Sir
Henry Pottinger and Qing
representatives Qiying ,
Yilibu , and Niu Jian signed the treaty. It
consisted of thirteen articles and was ratified by
* 1 Terms
* 1.1 Foreign trade * 1.2 Reparations and demobilisation * 1.3 Cession of Hong Kong
* 2 Aftermath and legacy * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links
The fundamental purpose of the treaty was to change the framework of
foreign trade imposed by the
Canton System , which had been in force
since 1760. Under Article V, the treaty abolished the former monopoly
Cohong and their
Thirteen Factories in Canton. Four additional
"treaty ports " opened for foreign trade alongside Canton (Shameen
Island from 1859 until 1943): Amoy (
REPARATIONS AND DEMOBILISATION
The Qing government was obliged to pay the British government six million silver dollars for the opium that had been confiscated by Lin Zexu in 1839 (Article IV), 3 million dollars in compensation for debts that the Hong merchants in Canton owed British merchants (Article V), and a further 12 million dollars in war reparations for the cost of the war (VI). The total sum of 21 million dollars was to be paid in installments over three years and the Qing government would be charged an annual interest rate of 5 percent for the money that was not paid in a timely manner (Article VII).
The Qing government undertook to release all British prisoners of war (Article VIII) and to give a general amnesty to all Chinese subjects who had cooperated with the British during the war (Article IX).
The British on their part, undertook to withdraw all of their troops
from Nanking, the Grand Canal and the military post at Zhenhai , as
well as not to interfere with China trade generally, after the emperor
had given his assent to the treaty and the first installment of money
had been received (Article XII). British troops would remain in
CESSION OF HONG KONG
In 1841, a rough outline for a treaty was sent for the guidance of
The terms of peace having been read, Elepoo the senior commissioner paused, expecting something more, and at length said "is that all?" Mr. Morrison enquired of Lieutenant-colonel Malcolm if there was anything else, and being answered in the negative, Elepoo immediately and with great tact closed the negotiation by saying, "all shall be granted—it is settled—it is finished."
The Qing government agreed to make Hong Kong Island a crown colony , ceding it to the British Queen "in perpetuity" (常遠, Cháng yuǎn, in the Chinese version of the treaty), to provide British traders with a harbour where they could "careen and refit their ships and keep stores for that purpose" (Article III). Pottinger was later appointed the first governor of Hong Kong.
In 1860, the colony was extended with the
Kowloon peninsula and in
1898, the Second
Convention of Peking
AFTERMATH AND LEGACY
Because of the brevity of the
Treaty of Nanking
Nevertheless, the treaties of 1842–43 left several unsettled
issues. In particular they did not resolve the status of the opium
trade. Although the American treaty of 1844 explicitly banned
Americans from selling opium, the trade continued as both the British
and American merchants were only subject to the legal control of their
consuls. The opium trade was later legalised in the Treaties of
Tianjin , which China concluded after the
Second Opium War
The Nanking Treaty ended the old Canton System and created a new framework for China's foreign relations and overseas trade which would last for almost a hundred years. From the Chinese perspective, the most injurious terms were the fixed trade tariff, extraterritoriality, and the most favoured nation provisions. These were conceded partly out of expediency and partly because Qing officials did not yet know of international law or understand the long term consequences. The tariff fixed at 5% was higher than before, the concept of extraterritoriality seemed to put the burden on foreigners to police themselves, and most favoured nation treatment appeared to set the foreigners one against the others. Although China regained tariff autonomy in the 1920s, extraterritoriality was not formally abolished until 1943.
* China portal
* Hong Kong portal
* ^ Treaties of Peace. Chinese Repository. 1845. * ^ Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Routledge. p. 203. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7 . * ^ John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire, p. 271. (London: Allen Lane, 2007) "Under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, five 'treaty ports' were opened to Western trade, Hong Kong island was ceded to the British, the Europeans were allowed to station consuls in the open ports, and the old Canton system was replaced by the freedom to trade and the promise that no more than 5 per cent duty would be charged on foreign imports." * ^ John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire, p. 431. (London: Allen Lane, 2007) "In 1943 the remnants of China's unequal treaties were at last swept away when the British abandoned their surviving privileges there as so much useless lumber." * ^ A B C D Treaty of Nanking * ^ A B Martin, Robert Montgomery (1847). China: Political, Commercial, and Social; In an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government. Volume 2. James Madden. p. 84. * ^ Hsu, The Rise of Modern China: 190–92.
* Fairbank, John King . Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953. * Têng Ssu-yü . Chang Hsi and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944. * R. Derek Wood, 'The Treaty of Nanking: Form and the Foreign Office, 1842-1843', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (London) 24 (May 1996), 181-196.