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The Treaty of Montgomery
Treaty of Montgomery
was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire
Montgomeryshire
by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
was acknowledged as Prince of Wales
Wales
by King Henry III of England
England
(r. 1216–1272). It was the only time an English ruler recognised the right of a ruler of Gwynedd over Wales. Llywelyn's grandfather Llywelyn the Great
Llywelyn the Great
had previously laid claim to be the effective prince of Wales
Wales
by using the title "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" in the 1230s, after subduing all the other Welsh dynasties. Likewise Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, claimed the title of Prince of Wales
Wales
during his reign from 1240 to 1246. However, Llywelyn's supremacy in the late 1260s forced recognition of his authority in Wales
Wales
by an English Crown weakened by internal division.

Contents

1 Conditions of the treaty 2 Implications 3 References 4 See also

Conditions of the treaty[edit] Many of the conditions of the treaty had been anticipated by the Treaty of Pipton (1265) between Llywelyn and Simon de Montfort. The 1267 treaty ceded Builth
Builth
to Llywelyn, along with Brecon
Brecon
and Gwerthrynion in mid-Wales. Llywelyn was also granted Whittington Castle in modern-day Shropshire, previously held by his grandfather in the 1220s, and received an assurance that no castle would be built at Hawarden
Hawarden
for sixty years by Robert of Mold, thus helping to secure the north-eastern border of Wales. The treaty also allowed for the reinstatement of Llywelyn's brother, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, into Welsh society after his defection to England
England
in the early 1260s. Implications[edit] Though the treaty required Llywelyn to do homage to the king of England
England
for the land, it was in effect an acknowledgement of the power and authority of the prince. However, after the succession of Edward I as king of England
England
in 1272, relations between England
England
and Wales deteriorated, and Edward declared war on Llywelyn in 1276; the Treaty of Aberconwy of 1277 superseded the stipulations laid down at Montgomery and severely curbed Llywelyn's power. In December 1282, fifteen years after the original treaty, the army of Montgomery marched to Builth
Builth
Wells from Montgomery Castle, to surprise and kill Llywelyn. After 1295 and the final Welsh War of the thirteenth century, the castle became more of a military backwater and prison than a front line fortress. References[edit]

Pryce, Huw. The Acts of Welsh Rulers 1120-1283 (University of Wales Press, 2005), no. 363, pp. 536-42.

See also[edit]

History of Wale

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