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v t e

The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
(initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union
European Union
(EU). The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009.[2] It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), known in updated form as the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
(2007) or TEU, and the Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Rome
(1957), known in updated form as the Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(2007) or TFEU.[3] It also amends the attached treaty protocols as well as the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community
(EURATOM). Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament
European Parliament
forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of Ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council
European Council
and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty
Treaty
also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding. The Treaty
Treaty
for the first time gave member states the explicit legal right to leave the EU and the procedure to do so. The stated aim of the treaty was to "complete the process started by the Treaty
Treaty
of Amsterdam [1997] and by the Treaty of Nice
Treaty of Nice
[2001] with a view to enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and to improving the coherence of its action".[4] Opponents of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, such as former Danish Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Jens-Peter Bonde, argued that it would centralize the EU,[5] and weaken democracy by "moving power away" from national electorates.[6] Supporters argue that it brings more checks and balances into the EU system, with stronger powers for the European Parliament and a new role for national parliaments. Negotiations to modify EU institutions began in 2001, resulting first in the Treaty
Treaty
establishing a Constitution
Constitution
for Europe, which would have repealed the existing European treaties and replaced them with a "constitution". Although ratified by a majority of member states, this was abandoned after being rejected by 54.67% of French voters on 29 May 2005[7][8] and then by 61.54% of Dutch voters on 1 June 2005.[9] After a "period of reflection", member states agreed instead to maintain the existing treaties, but to amend them, salvaging a number of the reforms that had been envisaged in the constitution. An amending "reform" treaty was drawn up and signed in Lisbon
Lisbon
in 2007. It was originally intended to have been ratified by all member states by the end of 2008. This timetable failed, primarily due to the initial rejection of the Treaty
Treaty
in June 2008 by the Irish electorate, a decision which was reversed in a second referendum in October 2009 after Ireland secured a number of concessions related to the treaty.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 New impetus 1.3 Drafting

1.3.1 June European Council 1.3.2 Intergovernmental Conference 1.3.3 October European Council

1.4 Signing 1.5 Approval by the European Parliament 1.6 Ratification 1.7 Impact

2 Functioning 3 Fundamental Rights Charter 4 Amendments

4.1 Summary 4.2 Central Bank 4.3 Judiciary 4.4 Council of Ministers 4.5 European Council 4.6 Parliament 4.7 National parliaments 4.8 Commission 4.9 Foreign relations and security

4.9.1 High Representative 4.9.2 Mutual solidarity 4.9.3 Defence prospects

4.10 Legal consolidation 4.11 EU evolution timeline 4.12 Defined policy areas 4.13 Enlargement and secession 4.14 Revision procedures

5 Opt-outs

5.1 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
opt-out for justice and home affairs

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Background[edit]

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Further information: European Constitution The need to review the EU's constitutional framework, particularly in light of the accession of ten new Member States in 2004, was highlighted in a declaration annexed to the Treaty of Nice
Treaty of Nice
in 2001. The agreements at Nice had paved the way for further enlargement of the Union by reforming voting procedures. The Laeken declaration of December 2001 committed the EU to improving democracy, transparency and efficiency, and set out the process by which a constitution aiming to achieve these goals could be created. The European Convention was established, presided over by former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, and was given the task of consulting as widely as possible across Europe with the aim of producing a first draft of the Constitution. The final text of the proposed Constitution
Constitution
was agreed upon at the summit meeting on 18–19 June 2004 under the presidency of Ireland. The Constitution, having been agreed by heads of government from the 25 Member States, was signed at a ceremony in Rome on 29 October 2004. Before it could enter into force, however, it had to be ratified by each member state. Ratification took different forms in each country, depending on the traditions, constitutional arrangements, and political processes of each country. In 2005, referendums held in France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
rejected the European Constitution. While the majority of the Member States already had ratified the European Constitution
Constitution
(mostly through parliamentary ratification, although Spain
Spain
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
held referendums), due to the requirement of unanimity to amend the treaties of the EU, it became clear that it could not enter into force. This led to a "period of reflection" and the political end of the proposed European Constitution. New impetus[edit]

50th anniversary in the summer of 2007, Berlin. (Merkel and Barroso)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Berlin Declaration

In 2007, Germany
Germany
took over the rotating EU Presidency and declared the period of reflection over. By March, the 50th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome, the Berlin Declaration was adopted by all Member States. This declaration outlined the intention of all Member States to agree on a new treaty in time for the 2009 Parliamentary elections, that is to have a ratified treaty before mid-2009.[10] Already before the Berlin Declaration, the Amato Group
Amato Group
(officially the Action Committee for European Democracy, ACED) – a group of European politicians, backed by the Barroso Commission
Barroso Commission
with two representatives in the group – worked unofficially on rewriting the Treaty
Treaty
establishing a Constitution
Constitution
for Europe (EU Constitution). On 4 June 2007, the group released their text in French – cut from 63,000 words in 448 articles in the Treaty
Treaty
establishing a Constitution
Constitution
for Europe to 12,800 words in 70 articles.[11] In the Berlin Declaration, the EU leaders unofficially set a new timeline for the new treaty:

21–23 June 2007: European Council
European Council
meeting in Brussels, mandate for Intergovernmental Conference
Intergovernmental Conference
(IGC) 23 July 2007: IGC in Lisbon, text of Reform Treaty 7–8 September 2007: Foreign Ministers’ meeting 18–19 October 2007: European Council
European Council
in Lisbon, final agreement on Reform Treaty 13 December 2007: Signing in Lisbon 1 January 2009: Intended date of entry into force

Drafting[edit] June European Council[edit] On 21 June 2007, the European Council
European Council
of heads of states or governments met in Brussels
Brussels
to agree upon the foundation of a new treaty to replace the rejected Constitution. The meeting took place under the German Presidency of the EU, with Chancellor Angela Merkel leading the negotiations as President-in-Office of the European Council. After dealing with other issues, such as deciding on the accession of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta
Malta
to the Eurozone, negotiations on the Treaty
Treaty
took over and lasted until the morning of 23 June 2007. The hardest part of the negotiations was reported to be Poland's insistence on square root voting in the Council of Ministers.[12] The European Round Table Of Industrialists (ERT) Members contributed to the preparation of the Lisbon
Lisbon
Agenda, which sought to make Europe the ‘most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world’ by the year 2010. But the implementation of the Agenda was less impressive than the declarations made at its adoption by the European Council
European Council
in March 2000. ERT Members constantly stressed the need for better performance by national governments towards achieving the Lisbon
Lisbon
targets within a specified timeframe that otherwise risked remaining beyond Europe's grasp. In subsequent years, ERT regularly contributed to the debate on how to ensure better implementation of the Lisbon
Lisbon
Agenda across all EU Member States, including on ways to foster innovation and achieve higher industry investment in Research & Development in Europe.[13] Agreement was reached on a 16-page mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference, that proposed removing much of the constitutional terminology and many of the symbols from the old European Constitution text. In addition, it was agreed to recommend to the IGC that the provisions of the old European Constitution
European Constitution
should be amended in certain key aspects (such as voting or foreign policy). Due to pressure from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Poland, it was also decided to add a protocol to the Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the European Union (clarifying that it did not extend the rights of the courts to overturn domestic law in Britain or Poland). Among the specific changes were greater ability to opt out in certain areas of legislation and that the proposed new voting system that was part of the European Constitution
European Constitution
would not be used before 2014 (see Provisions below).[14] In the June meeting, the name 'Reform Treaty' also emerged, finally clarifying that the Constitutional approach was abandoned. Technically it was agreed that the Reform Treaty
Treaty
would amend both the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
(TEU) and the Treaty
Treaty
establishing the European Community (TEC) to include most provisions of the European Constitution, however not to combine them into one document. It was also agreed to rename the treaty establishing the European Community, which is the main functional agreement including most of the substantive provisions of European primary law, to " Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the Union". In addition it was agreed, that unlike the European Constitution
European Constitution
where a charter was part of the document, there would only be a reference to the Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the European Union
European Union
to make that text legally binding.[14] After the council, Poland
Poland
indicated they wished to re-open some areas. During June, Poland's Prime Minister had controversially stated that Poland would have a substantially larger population were it not for World War II.[15] Another issue was that Dutch prime minister Jan-Peter Balkenende succeeded in obtaining a greater role for national parliaments in the EU decision-making process, as he declared this to be non-negotiable for Dutch agreement.[16] Intergovernmental Conference[edit]

Wikinews has related news: Work begins on " Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty"

Portugal
Portugal
had pressed and supported Germany
Germany
to reach an agreement on a mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference
Intergovernmental Conference
(IGC) under their presidency. After the June negotiations and final settlement on a 16-page framework for the new Reform Treaty, the Intergovernmental conference on actually drafting the new treaty commenced on 23 July 2007. The IGC opened following a short ceremony. The Portuguese presidency presented a 145-page document (with an extra 132 pages of 12 protocols and 51 declarations) entitled the Draft Treaty
Treaty
amending the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
and the Treaty
Treaty
establishing the European Community and made it available on the Council of Ministers website as a starting point for the drafting process.[17] In addition to government representatives and legal scholars from each member state, the European Parliament
European Parliament
sent three representatives. These were conservative Elmar Brok, social democratic Enrique Baron Crespo and liberal Andrew Duff.[18] Before the opening of the IGC, the Polish government expressed a desire to renegotiate the June agreement, notably over the voting system, but relented under political pressure by most other Member States, due to a desire not to be seen as the sole trouble maker over the negotiations.[19] October European Council[edit] The October European Council, led by Portugal's Prime Minister and then President-in-Office of the European Council, José Sócrates, consisted of legal experts from all Member States scrutinising the final drafts of the Treaty. During the council, it became clear that the Reform Treaty
Treaty
would be called Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
because its signing would take place in Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
being the holder of the presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
at the time. At the European Council
European Council
meeting on 18 and 19 October 2007 in Lisbon, a few last-minute concessions were made to ensure the signing of the treaty.[20] That included giving Poland
Poland
a slightly stronger wording for the revived Ioannina Compromise, plus a nomination for an additional Advocate General at the European Court of Justice. The creation of the permanent "Polish" Advocate General was formally permitted by an increase of the number of Advocates General from 8 to 11.[21] Signing[edit] Main article: Signing of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon

The plenipotentiaries standing outside the 15th-century Jerónimos Monastery, which was the venue, having signed the treaty

Wikinews has related news: European leaders sign Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty

At the meeting of the European Council
European Council
in October 2007, Portugal insisted that the Treaty
Treaty
(then called the 'Reform Treaty') be signed in Lisbon, the Portuguese capital. This request was granted, and the Treaty
Treaty
was thus to be called the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, in line with the tradition of European Union
European Union
treaties. The Portuguese presidency was appointed to the job of organising the programme for a signing ceremony.[22] The signing of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
took place in Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
on 13 December 2007. The Government of Portugal, by virtue of holding Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
at the time, arranged a ceremony inside the 15th century Jerónimos Monastery, the same place Portugal's treaty of accession to the European Union
European Union
(EU) was signed in 1985.[23] Representatives from the 27 EU member states were present, and signed the Treaty
Treaty
as plenipotentiaries, marking the end of treaty negotiations. In addition, for the first time an EU treaty was also signed by the presidents of the three main EU institutions. Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
did not take part in the main ceremony, and instead signed the treaty separately a number of hours after the other delegates. A requirement to appear before a committee of British MPs was cited as the reason for his absence.[24][25]

Approval by the European Parliament[edit] The European Parliament
European Parliament
voted in favour of a non-binding resolution endorsing the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
by 525 votes in favour and 115 against on 20 February 2008 on the basis of an analysis of the treaty's implications by the Parliament's rapporteurs Richard Corbett
Richard Corbett
and Inigo Mendez de Vigo. They had been the Parliament's rapporteurs on the constitutional treaty. Ratification[edit] Main article: Ratification of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon

Order in which countries ratified the Treaty
Treaty
(when green)

All EU member states had to ratify the Treaty
Treaty
before it could enter into law. A national ratification was completed and registered when the instruments of ratification were lodged with the Government of Italy. The month following the deposition of the last national ratification saw the Treaty
Treaty
enter into force across the EU. Under the original timetable set by the German Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
in the first half of 2007, the Treaty was initially scheduled to be fully ratified by the end of 2008, thus entering into force on 1 January 2009. This plan failed however, primarily due to the initial rejection of the Treaty
Treaty
in 2008 by the Irish electorate in a referendum, a decision which was reversed in a second referendum in October 2009. Ireland, as required by its constitution, was the only member state to hold referendums on the Treaty. In the UK, the European Union
European Union
(Amendment) Bill was debated in the House of Commons on 21 January 2008, and passed its second reading that day by a vote of 362 to 224; Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
was absent that day; the Bill was proposed to the Commons by David Miliband.[26] The Czech instrument of ratification was the last to be deposited in Rome on 13 November 2009.[27] Therefore, the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
entered into force on 1 December 2009.[28][29] Impact[edit] The exact impact of the treaty on the functioning of the EU left many questions open (uncertainties which have led to calls for another new treaty in response to the economic crisis in the late 2000s).[30] When its impact is assessed, the biggest winners from Lisbon
Lisbon
have been Parliament, with its increase in power, and the European Council. The first months under Lisbon
Lisbon
have arguably seen a shift in power and leadership from the Commission, the traditional motor of integration, to the European Council
European Council
with its new full-time and longer-term President.[31] The split between the Commission and European Council presidents involved overlap, potential rivalry and unwieldy compromises, such as both presidents attending international summits, in theory each with their own responsibilities, but inevitably with a considerable grey area. There was some expectation that the posts may be merged, as allowed under new treaty, in 2014 when their two mandates expired.[32] Parliament has used its greater powers over legislation, but also for example over the appointment of the Commission to gain further privileges from President Barroso[33] and it used its budgetary powers as a veto over how the External Action Service should be set up.[34] It also applied its new power over international agreements to rapidly block the SWIFT data sharing deal with the US[35] and threatened to do so over a free trade agreement with South Korea.[36] Like the Commission, the Council of Ministers has, relatively, lost power due to Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon. Its dynamic has also changed as member states have lost their veto in a number of areas. Consequently, they have had to come up with stronger arguments faster in order to win a vote.[31] The Presidency of the Council, which continues to rotate among Member States every 6 months, has lost influence: the Prime minister of the country in question no longer chairs the European Council, its foreign minister no longer represents the EU externally (that is now done by the High Representative). Functioning[edit] As an amending treaty, the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
is not intended to be read as an autonomous text. It consists of a number of amendments to the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
("Maastricht Treaty") and the Treaty establishing the European Community (" Treaty
Treaty
of Rome"), the latter renamed ' Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union' in the process. As amended by the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union provides a reference to the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights, making that document legally binding. The Treaty
Treaty
on European Union, the Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
and the Charter of Fundamental rights thus have equal legal value and combined constitute the European Union's legal basis. A typical amendment in Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
text is:

“ Article 7 shall be amended as follows: (a) throughout the Article, the word "assent" shall be replaced by "consent", the reference to breach "of principles mentioned in Article 6(1)" shall be replaced by a reference to breach "of the values referred to in Article 2" and the words "of this Treaty" shall be replaced by "of the Treaties";

The Commission has published a consolidated text (in each community language) which shows the previous Treaties as revised by the Treaty of Lisbon. Fundamental Rights Charter[edit] Main article: Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the European Union

The rights charter bans, among other things, capital punishment and eugenics

The fifty-five articles of the Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
of the European Union
European Union
enshrine certain political, social, and economic rights for both European Union
European Union
citizens and residents, into EU law. It was drafted by the European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However its then legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect[37] until the entry into force of the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
on 1 December 2009. In the rejected Treaty
Treaty
establishing a Constitution
Constitution
for Europe the charter was integrated as a part of the treaty itself. In the Lisbon Treaty, however, the charter is incorporated by reference and given legal status without forming part of the treaties. The EU must act and legislate consistently with the Charter and the EU's courts will strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter only applies to EU member states as regards their implementation of EU law and does not extend the competences of the EU beyond its competences as defined in the treaties. Amendments[edit]

Summary[edit]

A European Council
European Council
President

with a 2½ year term, reducing the rotating Council Presidency's role.

A single foreign affairs post

created by merging the External Relations Commissioner with the CFSP High Representative.

Charter of Fundamental Rights

from 2000 made legally binding.

Pillars merged to 1 legal person

enabling the Union per se to be party to treaties.

European Council
European Council
separated

officially from the Council of Ministers.

More powerful Parliament

by means of extending the codecision procedure to more policy areas.

A secession clause

More double majority voting

to new areas of policy in the European Council
European Council
and the Council of Ministers, from 2014 on.

National parliaments engaged

by expanding scrutiny-time of legislation and enabling them to jointly compel the Commission to review or withdraw legislation.

Mutual solidarity obliged

if a member state is object of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster.

Citizens' Initiative

to be considered by the Commission if signed by 1 million citizens.

Enhanced co-operation

extended to CSDP issues.

An External Action Service

Foreseen initiatives, pending member states further implementation decision:

Permanent Structured Cooperation
Permanent Structured Cooperation
in Defence EU Public Prosecutor Accession to the ECHR and the Council of Europe

Central Bank[edit] Main article: European Central Bank The European Central Bank
European Central Bank
gained the official status of being an EU institution, and the European Council
European Council
was given the right to appoint presidents of the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
through a qualified majority vote. On a related topic, the euro became the official currency of the Union (though not affecting opt-outs or the process of Eurozone enlargement). Judiciary[edit] Main article: Court of Justice of the European Union Under the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, the Court of First Instance has been renamed the General Court. The Civil Service Tribunal
Civil Service Tribunal
and the European Court of Justice (formerly named the Court of Justice of the European Communities, and formally called only Court of Justice after the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon), along with the General Court, were established as sub-courts of a new EU institution named the Court of Justice of the European Union. The jurisdiction of the courts continued to be excluded from matters of foreign policy, though new jurisdiction to review foreign policy sanction measures, as well as certain 'Area of Freedom, Security and Justice' (AFSJ) matters not concerning policing and criminal cooperation, were added.[38][39] Council of Ministers[edit]

Voting weights in both the Council of Ministers and the European Council

member state Nice Lisbon

votes % pop. in millions %

 Germany 29 8.4% 82 16.5%

 France 29 8.4% 64 12.9%

 United Kingdom 29 8.4% 62 12.4%

 Italy 29 8.4% 60 12.0%

 Spain 27 7.8% 46 9.0%

 Poland 27 7.8% 38 7.6%

 Romania 14 4.1% 21 4.3%

 Netherlands 13 3.8% 17 3.3%

 Greece 12 3.5% 11 2.2%

 Portugal 12 3.5% 11 2.1%

 Belgium 12 3.5% 11 2.1%

 Czech Republic 12 3.5% 10 2.1%

 Hungary 12 3.5% 10 2.0%

 Sweden 10 2.9% 9.2 1.9%

 Austria 10 2.9% 8.3 1.7%

 Bulgaria 10 2.9% 7.6 1.5%

 Denmark 7 2.0% 5.5 1.1%

 Slovakia 7 2.0% 5.4 1.1%

 Finland 7 2.0% 5.3 1.1%

 Ireland 7 2.0% 4.5 0.9%

 Lithuania 7 2.0% 3.3 0.7%

 Latvia 4 1.2% 2.2 0.5%

 Slovenia 4 1.2% 2.0 0.4%

 Estonia 4 1.2% 1.3 0.3%

 Cyprus 4 1.2% 0.87 0.2%

 Luxembourg 4 1.2% 0.49 0.1%

 Malta 3 0.9% 0.41 0.1%

total 345 100% 498 100%

required majority 255 74% 324 65%

Main article: Council of the European Union Further information: Voting in the Council of the European Union
European Union
and Presidency of the Council of the European Union The treaty has expanded the use of qualified majority voting (QMV) in the Council of Ministers by having it replace unanimity as the standard voting procedure in almost every policy area outside taxation and foreign policy. Moreover, taking effect in 2014, the definition of a qualified majority has changed: a qualified majority is reached when at least 55% of all member states, who comprise at least 65% of EU citizens, vote in favour of a proposal. When the Council of Ministers is acting neither on a proposal of the Commission nor on one of the High Representative, QMV requires 72% of the member states while the population requirement remains the same. However, the "blocking minority" that corresponds to these figures must comprise at least 4 countries. Hence, the voting powers of the member states are based on their population, and are no longer dependent on a negotiable system of voting points. The reform of qualified majority voting (QMV) in the Council was one of the main issues in the negotiation of the Lisbon Treaty.[40] The earlier rules for QMV, set in the Treaty of Nice
Treaty of Nice
and applying until 2014, required a majority of countries (50% / 67%),[clarification needed] voting weights (74%), and population (62%). Between 2014 and 2017 a transitional phase is taking place where the new QMV rules apply, but where the old Nice treaty voting weights can be applied when a member state formally requests it. Moreover, from 2014 a new version of the 1994 "Ioannina compromise" allows small minorities of EU states to call for re-examination of EU decisions.[41] The treaty instructs that Council deliberations on legislation (that include debate and voting) will be held in public (televised), as was already the case in the European Parliament. The Presidency of the Council of Ministers, rotates among member states every six months, with a "Trio" formed by three consecutive Presidencies in order to provide more continuity to their conduct. However, the Foreign Affairs Council
Foreign Affairs Council
(one configuration of the Council of ministers), is no longer chaired by the representative of the member state holding the Presidency, but rather by the person holding the newly created post of High Representative. Additionally the Euro Group
Euro Group
sub-unit of ECOFIN
ECOFIN
Eurozone
Eurozone
countries was formalized. European Council[edit] Main article: European Council Further information: President of the European Council The European Council
European Council
officially gains the status of an EU institution, thus being separated from the Council of ministers. It continues to be composed of the heads of state or government of the Union's member states along with the (nonvoting) President of the European Commission and its own president. The President of the European Council
European Council
is appointed for a two and a half year term in a qualified majority vote of the European Council. A president can be reappointed once, and be removed by the same voting procedure. Unlike the post of President of the European Commission, the appointment of the President of the European Council
European Council
does not have to reflect the composition of the European Parliament.[42] The president's work involves coordinating the work of the European Council, hosting its meetings and reporting its activities to the European Parliament
European Parliament
after each meeting. This makes the president the lynchpin of negotiations to find agreement at European Council meetings, which has become a more onerous task with successive enlargement of the EU to 28 Member States. The president also chairs informal summits of the 19 Member States which use the euro as their currency. Additionally, the president provides external representation to the Union on foreign policy and security matters when such representation is required at the level of heads of state or government (bilateral summits and G8/G20). Under the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, the European Council
European Council
is charged with setting the strategic priorities of the Union, and in practice with handling crises. It has a key role in appointments, including the Commission, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the members of the Board of the European Central Bank; the suspension of membership rights; changing the voting systems in the treaties bridging clauses. Under the emergency break procedure, a state may refer contentious legislation from the Council of ministers to the European Council
European Council
if it is outvoted in the Council of ministers, notwithstanding that it may still be outvoted in the European Council.[42][43][44] Parliament[edit] Main article: European Parliament

MEPs under the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty

member state 2007 2009 Lisbon

 Germany 99 99 96

 France 78 72 74

 United Kingdom 78 72 73

 Italy 78 72 73

 Spain 54 50 54

 Poland 54 50 51

 Romania 35 33 33

 Netherlands 27 25 26

 Belgium 24 22 22

 Czech Republic 24 22 22

 Greece 24 22 22

 Hungary 24 22 22

 Portugal 24 22 22

 Sweden 19 18 20

 Austria 18 17 19

 Bulgaria 18 17 18

 Finland 14 13 13

 Denmark 14 13 13

 Slovakia 14 13 13

 Ireland 13 12 12

 Lithuania 13 12 12

 Latvia 9 8 9

 Slovenia 7 7 8

 Cyprus 6 6 6

 Estonia 6 6 6

 Luxembourg 6 6 6

 Malta 5 5 6

total 785 736 751

The legislative power of the European Parliament
European Parliament
increases, as the codecision procedure with the Council of the EU is extended to almost all areas of policy. This procedure is slightly modified and renamed ordinary legislative procedure.

Codecision will be used in new policy areas, increasing the power of the Parliament.

In the few remaining areas, called "special legislative procedures", Parliament now has either the right of consent to a Council of the EU measure, or vice versa, except in the few cases where the old Consultation procedure
Consultation procedure
still applies, wherein the Council of the EU will only need to consult the European Parliament
European Parliament
before voting on the Commission proposal. Council is then not bound by the Parliament's position but only by the obligation to consult it. Parliament would need to be consulted again if the Council of ministers deviated too far from the initial proposal. The Commission will have to submit each proposed budget of the European Union
European Union
directly to Parliament, which must approve the budget in its entirety. The Treaty
Treaty
changes the way in which MEP seats are apportioned among member states. Rather than setting out a precise number (as it was the case in every previous treaty), the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
gives the power to the Council of the EU, acting unanimously on the initiative of the Parliament and with its consent, to adopt a decision fixing the number of MEPs for each member state. Moreover, the treaty provides for the number of MEPs to be degressively proportional to the number of citizens of each member state. A draft decision fixing the apportionment of MEPs was annexed to the treaty itself and had Lisbon been in force at the time of 2009 European Parliament
European Parliament
elections the apportionment would have been:[45] In the meantime, Croatia's seats, when it joins, will be supernumerary. The number of MEPs will be limited to 750, in addition to the President of the Parliament. Additionally, the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
will reduce the maximum number of MEPs from a member state from 99 to 96 (affects Germany) and increases the minimal number from 5 to 6 (affects Malta).

National parliaments[edit] Main article: National parliaments of the European Union The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
expanded the role of Member States' parliaments in the legislative processes of the EU by giving them a prior scrutiny of legislative proposals before the Council and the Parliament can take a position. The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
provides for national parliaments "to contribute to the good functioning of the Union" through receiving draft EU legislation, seeing to it that the principle of subsidiarity is respected, taking part in the evaluation mechanisms for the implementation of the Union policies in the area of freedom, security and justice, being involved in the political monitoring of Europol
Europol
and the evaluation of Eurojust's activities, being notified of applications for EU accession, taking part in the inter-parliamentary cooperation between national parliaments and with the European Parliament. The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
allows national parliaments eight weeks to study legislative proposals made by the European Commission
European Commission
and decide whether to send a reasoned opinion stating why the national parliament considers it to be incompatible with the principle of subsidiarity. National parliaments may vote to have the measure reviewed. If one third (or one quarter, where the proposed EU measure concerns freedom, justice and security) of national parliaments are in favour of a review, the Commission would have to review the measure and if it decides to maintain it, must give a reasoned opinion to the Union legislator as to why it considers the measure to be compatible with subsidiarity. Commission[edit] Main article: European Commission The Commission of the European Communities
European Communities
will officially be renamed European Commission.[17] The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
stated that the size of the Commission will reduce from one per member state to one for two thirds of member states from 2014, with an equal rotation over time. This would have ended the arrangement which has existed since 1957 of having at least one Commissioner for each Member State at all times. However, the Treaty
Treaty
also provided[46] that the European Council
European Council
could unanimously decide to alter this number. Following the first Irish referendum on Lisbon, the European Council
European Council
decided in December 2008 to revert to one Commissioner per member state with effect from the date of entry into force of the Treaty.[47] The person holding the new post of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy automatically becomes also a Vice-President of the Commission.

Signed In force Document 1951 1952 Paris Treaty 1957 1958 Rome treaties 1965 1967 Merger Treaty 2007 2009 Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty

       

  Commission of the European Atomic Energy Community Commission of the European Communities European Commission   

High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community

  Commission of the European Economic Community

     

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Foreign relations and security[edit] High Representative[edit] Main article: High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy See also: European External Action Service In an effort to ensure greater coordination and consistency in EU foreign policy, the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
created a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, de facto merging the post of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the European Commissioner
European Commissioner
for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy. The High Representative is Vice-President of the Commission, the administrator of the European Defence Agency but not the Secretary-General of the Council of Ministers, which becomes a separate post. He or she has a right to propose defence or security missions. In the proposed constitution this post was called the Union Minister of Foreign Affairs.[14][48] The High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is in charge of an External Action Service also created by the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon. This is essentially a common Foreign Office or Diplomatic Corps for the Union. Mutual solidarity[edit] Further information: Common Security and Defence Policy Under the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, Member States should assist if a member state is subject to a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man-made disaster[49] (but any joint military action is subject to the provisions of Article 31 of the consolidated Treaty
Treaty
of European Union, which recognises various national concerns). In addition, several provisions of the treaties have been amended to include solidarity in matters of energy supply and changes to the energy policy within the EU. Defence prospects[edit] See also: Military of the European Union The treaty foresees that the European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
will lead to a common defence for the EU when the European Council
European Council
resolves unanimously to do so, and provided that all member states give their approval through their usual constitutional procedures.[50] Additionally, the area of defence has become available to enhanced co-operation, potentially allowing for a defence integration that excludes member states with policies of neutrality. Countries with significant military capabilities are envisioned to form a Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence. Legal consolidation[edit] See also: Legal person and Three pillars of the European Union Prior to the entry into force of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, the Union comprised a system of three legal pillars, of which only the European Communities pillar had its own legal personality. The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon abolished this pillar system, and as a consolidated entity, the European Union
European Union
succeeded the legal personality of the European Communities. Therefore, the EU is now able to sign international treaties in its own name. The European Union
European Union
gained for example membership of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
immediately after the entry into force of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, since the European Communities
European Communities
was already a member of that organisation.[17] EU evolution timeline[edit]

Signed: In force: Document: 1948 1948 Brussels Treaty 1951 1952 Paris Treaty 1954 1955 Modified Brussels Treaty 1957 1958 Rome Treaty
Treaty
& EURATOM 1965 1967 Merger Treaty 1975 1976 Council Agreement on TREVI 1986 1987 Single European Act 1985+90 1995 Schengen Treaty
Treaty
& Convention 1992 1993 Maastricht Treaty (TEU) 1997 1999 Amsterdam Treaty 2001 2003 Nice Treaty 2007 2009 Lisbon Treaty  

Content: (founded WUDO) (founded ECSC) (protocol amending WUDO to become WEU) (founded EEC and EURATOM) (merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities) (founded TREVI) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+ (founded EPC) (founded Schengen) (implemented Schengen) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to transform it into EC)+ (founded: JHA+CFSP) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA) (amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU) (abolished the 3 pillars and WEU by amending: EURATOM, EC=>TFEU, and TEU) (founded EU as an overall legal unit with Charter of Fundamental Rights, and reformed governance structures & decision procedures)  

                         

Three pillars of the European Union:  

European Communities (with a single Commission & Council)  

European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)

  

European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC) Treaty
Treaty
expired in 2002

European Union
European Union
(EU)

   

European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC)   European Community (EC)

        Schengen Rules  

    Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)   Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters
Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters
(PJCC)

  European Political Cooperation (EPC) Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP)

Western Union Defence Organization (WUDO) Western European Union
European Union
(WEU)    

Treaty
Treaty
terminated in 2011    

                 

   

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Defined policy areas[edit] In the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
the distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is explicitly stated in the following three categories:

As outlined in Title I of Part I of the consolidated Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union

view talk edit

Exclusive competence

Shared competence

Supporting competence

"The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act."

the customs union the establishing of the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal market monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the euro the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fisheries policy Common Commercial Policy conclusion of certain international agreements

"Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so."

the internal market social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty economic, social and territorial cohesion agriculture and fisheries, excluding the conservation of marine biological resources environment consumer protection transport trans-European networks energy the area of freedom, security and justice common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty

"Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in" …

research, technological development and (outer) space development cooperation, humanitarian aid

"The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to theirs common policies, not covered elsewhere"

coordination of economic, employment and social policies common foreign, security and defence policies

"The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in" …

the protection and improvement of human health industry culture tourism education, youth, sport and vocational training civil protection (disaster prevention) administrative cooperation

Enlargement and secession[edit] Main articles: Future enlargement of the European Union
European Union
and Withdrawal from the European Union A proposal to enshrine the Copenhagen Criteria
Copenhagen Criteria
for further enlargement in the treaty was not fully accepted as there were fears it will lead to Court of Justice judges having the last word on who could join the EU, rather than political leaders.[48] The treaty introduces an exit clause for members wanting to withdraw from the Union. This formalises the procedure by stating that a member state must inform the European Council
European Council
before it can terminate its membership, and a withdrawal agreement would then be negotiated between the Union and that State, with the Treaties ceasing to be applicable to that State from the date of the agreement or, failing that, within two years of the notification unless the State and the Council both agree to extend this period. There have been several instances where a territory has ceased to be part of the Community, e.g. Greenland in 1985, though so far no member state has ever left. Before the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
came into force, the question of whether a member state had a legal right to leave the union was unclear. Following the referendum of 23 June 2016, the British Prime Minister announced the government's intention of making the notification according to (Article 50) by the end of March 2017.[needs update] A new provision in the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
is that the status of French, Dutch and Danish overseas territories can be changed more easily, by no longer requiring a full treaty revision. Instead, the European Council may, on the initiative of the member state concerned, change the status of an overseas country or territory (OCT) to an outermost region (OMR) or vice versa.[51] This provision was included on a proposal by the Netherlands, which was investigating the future of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles and Aruba
Aruba
in the European Union
European Union
as part of an institutional reform process that was taking place in the Netherlands Antilles.[citation needed] Revision procedures[edit] The Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
creates two different ways for further amendments of the European Union
European Union
treaties: an ordinary revision procedure which is broadly similar to the present process in that it involves convening an intergovernmental conference, and a simplified revision procedure whereby Part three of the Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union, which deals with Union policies and internal actions, could be amended by a unanimous decision of the European Council
European Council
subject to ratification by all member states in the usual manner. The Treaty
Treaty
also provides for the Passerelle Clause which allows the European Council
European Council
to unanimously decide to move from unanimous voting to qualified majority voting, and move from a special legislative procedure to the ordinary legislative procedure. Ordinary revision procedure

Proposals to amend the treaties are submitted by a Member State, the European Parliament
European Parliament
or the European Commission
European Commission
to the Council of Ministers who, in turn, submit them to the European Council
European Council
and notify member states. There are no limits on what kind of amendments can be proposed. The European Council, after consulting the European Parliament
European Parliament
and the Commission, votes to consider the proposals on the basis of a simple majority, and then either:

The President of the European Council
European Council
convenes a convention containing representatives of national parliaments, governments, the European Parliament and the European Commission, to further consider the proposals. In due course, the convention submits its final recommendation to the European Council. Or the European Council
European Council
decides, with the consent of the European Parliament, not to convene a convention, and set the terms of reference for the inter-governmental conference itself.

The President of the European Council
European Council
convenes an inter-governmental conference consisting of representatives of each member-state's government. The conference drafts and finalises a treaty based on the convention's recommendation or on the European Council's terms of reference. EU leaders sign the treaty. All member states must then ratify the treaty "in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements", if it is to come into force.

Simplified revision procedure

Proposals to amend Part three of the Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
are submitted by a Member State, the European Parliament or the European Commission
European Commission
to the Council of Ministers who, in turn, submit them to the European Council
European Council
and notify member states. Proposed amendments cannot increase the competences of the Union. The European Council, after consulting the European Parliament
European Parliament
and the Commission, votes to adopt a decision amending Part three on the basis of the proposals by unanimity. All member states must approve the decision "in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements", if it is to come into force.

The Passerelle Clause The treaty also allows for the changing of voting procedures without amending the EU treaties. Under this clause the European Council
European Council
can, after receiving the consent of the European Parliament, vote unanimously to:

allow the Council of Ministers to act on the basis of qualified majority in areas where they previously had to act on the basis of unanimity. (This is not available for decisions with defence or military implications.) allow for legislation to be adopted on the basis of the ordinary legislative procedure where it previously was to be adopted on the basis of a special legislative procedure.

A decision of the European Council
European Council
to use either of these provisions can only come into effect if, six months after all national parliaments had been given notice of the decision, none object to it. Opt-outs[edit] Further information: Opt-outs in the European Union United Kingdom
United Kingdom
opt-out for justice and home affairs[edit] Under the former third pillar, the Council of Ministers could adopt measures relating to justice and home affairs. These laws did not come within the body of European Community law, and had only the optional jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice. The Commission could not bring enforcement action against any member state for failing to implement or for failing to correctly implement third pillar measures. The UK and Ireland have a flexible opt-out from justice and home affairs measures and could choose to participate in them on a case-by-case basis. Under the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon, the limitations on the powers of the Court of Justice and the Commission would be lifted after a transitional period of five years which expired on 30 November 2014. In order to avoid submitting to the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice and to enforcement actions by the Commission, the UK negotiated an opt-out which allows them the option of a block withdrawal from all third pillar measures they had previously chosen to participate in. In October 2012 the UK government announced that it intended to exercise this opt-out and then selectively opt back into certain measures.[52] The use of this opt-out by the UK will not affect the UK's flexible opt-out from justice and home affairs measures, or Ireland's identical opt-out. See also[edit]

European Union
European Union
portal

History of the European Union Signing of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon Treaties of the European Union Timeline of European Union
European Union
history Three pillars of the European Union

References[edit]

^ " Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty : The making of". Council of the European Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2011. After signature by all 27 Heads of State and governments, the Treaty
Treaty
will travel back to Brussels, where it will be officially sealed with the seals of the 27 Member States, on the 18th of December. Then, it will be sent to Rome, the Italian government being the depository of the Treaties.  ^ eur-lex.europa.eu: " Official Journal of the European Union, ISSN 1725-2423 C 115 Volume 51, 9 May 2008, retrieved 1 June 2014 ^ Both can be found here in their consolidated states as of 29 December 2006 ^ Quoted from the Treaty
Treaty
Preamble ^ European Union
European Union
Committee of the House of Lords
House of Lords
(2008). The Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon: an impact assessment. London: Stationery Office. p. 335 (S18 Q47). In the event, however, the Constitution
Constitution
and its successor, the Reform Treaty, pursued the centralizing course that had caused the democratic deficit in the first place. Additional competences are transferred to the EU...  ^ Jens-Peter Bonde. From EU Constitution
Constitution
to Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
(PDF). Foundation for EU Democracy
Democracy
and the EU Democrats. p. 41. ISBN 87-87692-71-6. We can still have elections, but we cannot use our vote to change legislation in the many areas where the Union is given power to decide. It is a very, very long process to change an EU law under the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty. The power to do this does not lie with the normal majority of voters. It also demands a great effort in a lot of countries to change a law.  ^ "29 May 2005 European Constitution
European Constitution
referendum : results in France". Minister of the Interior (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2010.  ^ "Marine Le Pen : "The spirit of 29 May"". Front National (in French). 28 May 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010.  ^ "Verkiezingsuitslagen Referendum
Referendum
2005—Nederland". Kiesraad (in Dutch). Retrieved 15 November 2010.  ^ "Constitutional Treaty: the "reflection period"". EurActiv. 1 June 2007. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2007.  ^ "A New Treaty
Treaty
and Supplementary Protocols: Contribution to the Debate on Europes's Political Prospects in the Perspective of the European Council
European Council
of 21–22 June 2007, Explanatory Memorandum" (PDF). Action Committee for European Democracy. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ Martin Kurth (2007). "Square root voting in the Council of the European Union: Rounding effects and the Jagiellonian Compromise". arXiv:0712.2699  [math.GM].  ^ "The European Round Table of Industrialists" (PDF). Retrieved 28 May 2016.  ^ a b c "Presidency Conclusions Brussels
Brussels
European Council
European Council
21/22 June 2007" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2007. ; Honor Mahony (21 June 2007). "Stakes high as EU tries to put 2005 referendums behind it". EU Observer. Retrieved 26 June 2007.  ^ George Pascoe-Watson (22 June 2007). "EU can't mention the war". The Sun. Retrieved 26 June 2007.  ^ Bruno Waterfield and Toby Helm (23 July 2007). "EU treaty must be re-written, warn MPs". London: The Daily Telegraph.  ^ a b c "Draft Reform Treaty
Treaty
– Projet de traité modificatif". Council of the European Union. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2007.  ^ "Parliament to give green light for IGC". Euractiv.com. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2007.  ^ Kubosova, Lucia (20 July 2007). " Poland
Poland
indicates it is ready to compromise on EU voting rights". EU Observer. Retrieved 20 July 2007.  ^ "EU leaders agree new treaty deal". BBC News Online. 19 October 2007.  ^ Declaration on Article 222 of the Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
on the number of Advocates-General in the Court of Justice (pdf). ^ Proud Portugal
Portugal
leaves mixed EU presidency record, EUobserver. ^ José Sócrates
José Sócrates
on the signing of the Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon ^ "AFP: Government wins first round in battle over EU treaty". Afp.google.com. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2011.  ^ Castle, Stephen; Bowley, Graham (14 December 2007). " Treaty
Treaty
on Running European Union
European Union
Is Signed" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ Hansard: Volume No. 470 Part No. 34 House of Commons Debates January 21, 2008 and see Division #50. ^ "Lisabonská smlouva začne platit 1. prosince" (in Czech). Radio Praha. Retrieved 14 November 2009.  ^ Article 6(2) of the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty. ^ "Timeline: The road to Lisbon". BBC News. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.  ^ EU president admits 'gaps and uncertainties' in Lisbon
Lisbon
treaty, theParliament.com ^ a b European Council
European Council
seen as winner under Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
EU observer ^ "A Van Barroso?". EU Observer. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.  ^ MEPs agree working relations with Barroso, European Voice ^ Member states to signal broad backing for diplomatic service blueprint, EU Observer ^ European parliament rejects SWIFT deal for sharing bank data with US, DW World ^ Korean trade deal could fall under Lisbon
Lisbon
rules, EU Observer ^ Craig, Paul; Grainne De Burca; P. P. Craig (2007). "Chapter 11 Human rights in the EU". EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8.  ^ Amended Article 240a, to become Article 275 TFEU ^ Amended Article 240b, to become Article 276 TFEU ^ Diego Varela and Javier Prado-Dominguez (2012) 'Negotiating the Lisbon
Lisbon
treaty: Redistribution, efficiency and power indices', AUCO Czech Economic Review 6(2): 107–124. ^ Honor Mahony (23 June 2007). "EU leaders scrape treaty deal at 11th hour". EU Observer. Retrieved 26 June 2007.  ^ a b Europa website. "SCADPlus: The Institutions of the Union". Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2007.  ^ Peers, Steve (2 August 2007). "EU Reform Treaty
Treaty
Analysis no. 2.2: Foreign policy provisions of the revised text of the Treaty
Treaty
on the European Union
European Union
(TEU)" (PDF). Statewatch. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ Peers, Steve (2 August 2007). "EU Reform Treaty
Treaty
analysis 1: JHA provisions" (PDF). Statewatch. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ As the Lisbon
Lisbon
treaty entered into force only after the 2009 European elections, a treaty amendment to grant extra seats to those Member States due to gain extra seats under Lisbon, but without waiting until the 2014 elections, was agreed in 2010. As it's expected that Croatia and other countries might join the Union before 2014 (thus gaining the right to elect at least 6 MEPs) the apportionment set out above might be changed in time for the 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
elections. ^ See Article 17 of the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union ^ "Ireland has a diplomatic victory but the real winner is Europe". 12 December 2008.  ^ a b Honor Mahony (20 June 2007). "EU treaty blueprint sets stage for bitter negotiations". EU Observer. Retrieved 26 June 2007.  ^ Article 222 of consolidated "Functioning of the European Union" ^ Preamble and Article 42 of the (consolidated) Treaty
Treaty
of European Union ^ The provision reads:

Article 311 shall be repealed. A new Article 311a shall be inserted, with the wording of Article 299(2), first subparagraph, and Article 299(3) to (6); the text shall be amended as follows: [...] (e) the following new paragraph shall be added at the end of the Article: "6. The European Council
European Council
may, on the initiative of the Member State concerned, adopt a decision amending the status, with regard to the Union, of a Danish, French or Netherlands
Netherlands
country or territory referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2. The European Council
European Council
shall act unanimously after consulting the Commission." —  Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
Article 2, point 293

^ Peers, Steve. "The UK's planned 'block opt-out' from EU justice and policing measures in 2014" (PDF). Statewatch. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 

External links[edit]

Consolidated version of the Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
on Wikisource

Official websites

Official website (archived) – Europa

Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
(the amendments) Consolidated treaties (the result of the amendments)

Media overviews

Q&A: The Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
– BBC News The ' Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon' – EurActiv The EU following the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty
Treaty
– Eur-charts visualization

v t e

Treaty
Treaty
of Lisbon
Lisbon
topics

Convention on the Future of Europe European Constitution Berlin Declaration Amato Group Signing Ratification

Irish referendum I Irish referendum II

European Union
European Union
portal

v t e

Treaties of the European Union
European Union
and related documents

Legal basis

Treaty
Treaty
on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(2007) Treaty
Treaty
on European Union
European Union
(2007) Euratom Treaty
Treaty
(1957)

Main treaties

Paris (European Coal and Steel Community, 1951) Rome (European Economic Community, 1957) Merger (1965) Single European Act
Single European Act
(1986) Maastricht (1992) Amsterdam (1997) Nice (2001) Lisbon
Lisbon
(2007)

Accession Treaties

1972 1979 1985 1994 2003 2005 2011

Minor treaties

Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles Association Convention (1962) First Budgetary Treaty
Treaty
(1970) Second Budgetary Treaty
Treaty
(1975) Greenland Treaty
Treaty
(1984)

Minor amendments

Protocol 36 (2011) Article 136 (2011)

Abandoned treaties and agreements

Treaty
Treaty
establishing the European Defence Community (1952) Treaty
Treaty
establishing a Constitution
Constitution
for Europe (2004) UK renegotiation of EU membership (2016)

Declarations

Schuman Declaration
Schuman Declaration
(1950) Solemn Declaration (1983) Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
(2000) Berlin Declaration (2007)

Other documents

Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
(1985) Schengen Convention
Schengen Convention
(1990) Schengen acquis
Schengen acquis
of the EU (1999) PFI Convention (2002) Prüm Convention
Prüm Convention
(2005) Treaty
Treaty
Establishing the European Stability Mechanism (2012) European Fiscal Compact
European Fiscal Compact
(2012) Agreement on a Unified Patent Court
Unified Patent Court
(2013) Single Resolution Fund Agreement (2014)

European Union
European Union
Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 176075178 GND: 7606667-8 SELIBR: 368749 SUDOC: 182633136 BNF: cb16593960s (data) BIBSYS: 10039

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