HOME
The Info List - Treaty Of Ganghwa



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The JAPAN–KOREA TREATY OF 1876, also known as the JAPAN-KOREA TREATY OF AMITY in Japanese or TREATY OF GANGHWA ISLAND in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Joseon Kingdom in 1876. Negotiations were concluded on February 26, 1876.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Ganghwa incident * 3 Treaty provisions * 4 Aftermath * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading

BACKGROUND

After the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in the 18th century, European nations began to colonize many other nations in Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
under the political ideology known as Imperialism
Imperialism
. Almost all of Africa
Africa
was colonized by European Powers; most of Central , South and Southeast Asia
Asia
including India
India
were taken over by various European nations. East Asia
Asia
also was invaded by foreign powers, beginning with the First Opium War (1839–1842) and Second Opium War (1856–1860) against China
China
fought by Britain and other western powers; China's empire was reduced to a half-colonized territory. Meanwhile, the American Asiatic Squadron under the leadership of Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry
forced Japan
Japan
to open its ports to the western world in 1854.

Humiliated by unequal treaties and the prospect of losing its independence and integrity to imperialist powers, Japan
Japan
embarked on a rapid transformation, successfully turning itself from a medieval society into a modern industrialized state.

GANGHWA INCIDENT

Main article: Ganghwa Island incident The Japanese gunboat Un\'yō . The landing of the forces of the Un\'yō at Ganghwa Island in 1875.

In Korea, the strong dictatorship of Heungseon Daewongun was overthrown by Queen Min , who instituted a policy of closing doors to European powers. France
France
and United States
United States
had already made several unsuccessful attempts to begin commerce with the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, all of them happening during Heungseon Daewongun 's era. However, after he was removed from power, many new officials who supported the idea of opening commerce with foreigners took power. While there was political instability, Japan
Japan
developed a plan to open and exert influence on Korea
Korea
before a European power could. In 1875, their plan was put into action: the Un\'yō , a small Japanese warship under the command of Inoue Yoshika , was dispatched to survey coastal waters without Korean permission.

TREATY PROVISIONS

Japan- Korea
Korea
Treaty of Amity, 26 February 1876. Diplomatic Record Office of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs .

Japan
Japan
employed gunboat diplomacy to press Korea
Korea
to sign this unequal treaty . The pact opened up Korea, as Commodore Matthew Perry's fleet of Black Ships had opened up Japan
Japan
in 1853. According to the treaty, it ended Joseon's status as a tributary state of Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and opened three ports to Japanese trade. The Treaty also granted Japanese many of the same rights in Korea
Korea
that Westerners enjoyed in Japan, such as extraterritoriality .

The chief treaty negotiators were Kuroda Kiyotaka , Governor of Hokkaidō , and Shin Heon , General/Minister of Joseon-dynasty Korea.

The articles of the treaty were as follows:

* Article 1 stated that Korea
Korea
was a free nation, "an independent state enjoying the same sovereign rights as does Japan". The Japanese statement is in an attempt to detach Korea
Korea
once and for all from its traditional tributary relationship with China. * Article 2 stipulated that Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
would exchange envoys within fifteen months and permanently maintain diplomatic missions in each country. The Japanese would confer with the Ministry of Rites; the Korean envoy would be received by the Foreign Office. * Under Article 3, Japan
Japan
would use the Japanese and Chinese languages in diplomatic communiques, while Korea
Korea
would use only Chinese. * Article 4 terminated Tsushima's centuries-old role as a diplomatic intermediary by abolishing all agreements then existing between Korea and Tsushima.

In addition to the open port of Pusan, Article 5 authorized the search in Kyongsang, Kyonggi, Chungchong, Cholla, and Hamgyung Provinces for two more suitable seaports for Japanese trade to be opened in October 1877.

* Article 6 secured aid and support for ships stranded or wrecked along the Korea
Korea
or Japanese coasts. * Article 7 permitted any Japanese mariner to conduct surveys and mapping operations at will in the seas off the Korean peninsula's coastline. * Article 8 permitted Japanese merchants residence, unhindered trade, and the right to lease land and buildings for those purposes in the open ports. * Article 9 guaranteed the freedom to conduct business without interference from either government and to trade without restrictions or prohibitions. * Article 10 granted Japan
Japan
the right of extraterritoriality, the one feature of previous Western treaties that was most widely resented in Asia. It not only gave foreigners a free rein to commit crimes with relative impunity, but its inclusion implied the grantor nation's system of law was either primitive, unjust, or both.

AFTERMATH

The Imperial Japanese Navy , in Pusan , on its way to Ganghwa Island , Korea
Korea
, January 16th, 1876. There were 2 warships (Nisshin, Moshun ), 3 troop transports, and one liner for the embassy led by Kuroda Kiyotaka . Four Gatling guns set up in Ganghwa by Japanese troops. 1876 Kuroda mission.

The following year saw a Japanese fleet led by Special
Special
Envoy Kuroda Kiyotaka coming over to Korea, demanding an apology from the Joseon government and a commercial treaty between the two nations. The Korean government decided to accept the demand, in hope of importing some technologies to defend the country from any future invasions.

However, the treaty would eventually turn out to be the first of many unequal treaties signed by Korea; It gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea, and forced the Korean government to open 3 ports to Japan, specifically Busan
Busan
, Incheon
Incheon
and Wonsan
Wonsan
. With the signing of its first unequal treaty, Korea
Korea
became vulnerable to the influence of imperialistic powers; and later the treaty led Korea
Korea
to be annexed by Japan
Japan
.

SEE ALSO

* Index of Korea-related articles * History of Korea
Korea
* Japan– Korea
Korea
disputes * General Sherman incident (1866) * French campaign against Korea
Korea
(1866) * United States
United States
expedition to Korea
Korea
(1871) * Ganghwa Island incident (1875) * Imperialism
Imperialism
* Capitulation (treaty)

NOTES

* ^ Chung, Young-lob. (2005). Korea
Korea
Under Siege, 1876–1945: Capital Formation and Economic Transformation, p. 42., p. 42, at Google Books ; excerpt, "... the initial opening of Korea's borders to the outside world came in the form of the Korea- Japan
Japan
Treaty of Amity (the so-called Ganghwa Treaty)." * ^ Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament, Washington, D.C., 1921–1922. (1922). Korea\'s Appeal, p. 33., p. 33, at Google Books ; excerpt, "Treaty between Japan
Japan
and Korea, dated February 26, 1876." * ^ Bauer, Susan Wise; Park, Sarah (2005). The Modern Age: From Victoria\'s Empire to the End of the USSR. Peace Hill Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780972860338 .

REFERENCES

* Duus, Peter (1998). The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea. University of California Press. ISBN 0-52092-090-2 . * Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-6740-0334-9 . * Jansen, Marius B. (1995). The Emergence of Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5214-8405-7 . * Sims, Richard (1998). French Policy Towards the Bakufu and Meiji Japan
Japan
1854–95. Psychology Press. ISBN 1-87341-061-1 . * Chung, Young-lob. (2005). Korea
Korea
Under Siege, 1876-1945: Capital Formation and Economic Transformation. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517830-2 ; OCLC 156412277 * Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament, Washington, D.C., 1921-1922. (1922). Korea's Appeal to the Conference on Limitation of Armament. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. OCLC 12923609 * United States. Dept. of State. (1919). Catalogue of treaties: 1814-1918. Washington: Government Printing Office. OCLC 3830508

FURTHER READING

* McDougall, Walter (1993). Let the Sea Make a Noise: Four Hundred Years of Cataclysm, Conquest, War and Folly in the North Pacific. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 9780380724673 ; OCLC 152400671

* v * t * e

Treaties of Japan
Japan

Bakumatsu period (1854–68)

* Japan-US Treaty of Peace and Amity (1854) * Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty (1854) * Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan
Japan
and Russia (1855) * Dutch- Japan
Japan
Treaty of Peace and Amity (1856) (ja) * Japan-US Additional Treaty (1857) * Japan-Netherlands Additional Treaty (1857) (ja) * Japan-Russia Additional Treaty (1857) * Treaty of Amity and Commerce ( United States
United States
– Japan) (1858) * Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Netherlands and Japan (1858) (ja) * Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Russia and Japan
Japan
(1858) * Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce
(1858) * Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France
France
and Japan
Japan
(1858) * Agreement of Paris (1864) (ja)

Meiji period (1868–1912)

* Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty (1871) * Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Hawaii and Japan
Japan
(1871) * Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Peru and Japan
Japan
(1873) * Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875)
Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875)
* Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1876 * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1882 * Japan-Hawaii Labor Immigration Treaty (1884) * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1885 * Convention of Tientsin * Declaration of Amity and Commerce between Thailand and Japan (1887) * Treaty of Friendship, Commerce between Mexico and Japan
Japan
(1888) * Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1894) * Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan
Japan
and the USA (1894)

* Japan- China
China
Peace Treaty (1895) * Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between Brazil and Japan
Japan
(1895) * Treaty for returning Fengtian Peninsula (1895) (ja) * Komura-Weber Memorandum (1896) * Yamagata–Lobanov Agreement (1896) * Japan- China
China
Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1896) (ja) * Nishi–Rosen Agreement (1898) * Japan-Thailand Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Treaty (1898) * Boxer Protocol (1901) * Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) * Japan- China
China
Additional Treaty of Commerce and Navigation (1903) (ja) * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1904 * Japan– Korea
Korea
Agreement of August 1904 * Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace (1905) * Taft–Katsura agreement (1905) * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1905 * Additional Agreement of the Japan- China
China
Treaty relating to Manchuria (1905) (ja) * Franco-Japanese Treaty of 1907 * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1907 * Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1907 * Gentlemen\'s Agreement of 1907 * Root–Takahira Agreement (1908) * Japan- China
China
Agreement relating to Manchuria and Jiandao (1909) (ja) * Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1910 * Japan– Korea
Korea
Treaty of 1910 * North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 * Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1912

World War I –II (1912–45)

* Japan- China
China
Treaty of 1915 * Russo-Japanese Agreement of 1916 * Lansing–Ishii Agreement (1917) * Japan- China
China
Co-defense Military Pact (1918) (ja) * Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) * Gongota Agreement of 1920 * Four-Power Treaty (1921) * Nine-Power Treaty (1922) * Treaty concerning solution of Shandong issues (1922) (ja) * Washington Naval Treaty (1922) * Soviet–Japanese Basic Convention (1925) * Japan- China
China
Customs Agreement (1930) * Cease Fire Agreement in Shanghai (1932) (ja) * Japan-Manchukuo Protocol (1932) * Tanggu Truce (1933) * India- Japan
Japan
Agreement of 1934 * Japan-Manchukuo-Soviet Protocol for Cession of North Manchuria Railway (1935) (ja) * He–Umezu Agreement (1935) * Chin–Doihara Agreement (1935) * Canada- Japan
Japan
New Trade Agreement (1935) * Japan-Netherlands Shipping Agreement (1936) * Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) * Hart-Ishizawa Agreement (1937) * India- Japan
Japan
Agreement of 1937 * Van Mook-Kotani Agreement (1938) * Tripartite Pact (1940) * Japan- China
China
Basic Relations Treaty (1940) * Japan-Manchukuo- China
China
Joint Declaration (1940) (ja) * Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (1941) * Japan-Thailand Attack/Defence Alliance Treaty (1941) (ja) * Japanese Instrument of Surrender (1945)

During Cold War
Cold War
(1945–89)

* Security Treaty Between the United States
United States
and Japan
Japan
(1951) * Treaty of San Francisco
Treaty of San Francisco
(1951) * Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty (1952) * Japan–US Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (1960) * Japan–South Korea
Korea
Treaty (1965) * Sino–Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty (1978)

* v * t * e

Joseon
Joseon
dynasty of Korea
Korea

* List of monarchs * House of Yi

HISTORY

* Tsushima expedition * Japanese invasions of Korea
Korea
(1592–98) * Manchu invasions of Korea
Korea
(First , Second ) * Treaty of Ganghwa * Imo Incident * Gapsin Coup * Donghak Peasant Revolution
Donghak Peasant Revolution
* Gabo Reform * Eulmi Incident * Korean Empire
Korean Empire

POLITICS

* Political factions in Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty * Korean literati purges

GOVERNMENT

* State Council of Joseon
Joseon
* Six Ministries of Joseon
Joseon
* Three offices of Joseon
Joseon
* Border Defense Council of Joseon
Joseon
* Secret royal inspector

SOCIETY

* Neo-Confucianism * yangban * seonbi * chungin * sangmin * cheonmin * kisaeng

CULTURE

* Education in the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty * Five Grand Palaces * Hanbok * Hangul
Hangul
* Buncheong
Buncheong
ware * Joseon
Joseon
white porcelain * Korean tea ceremony * Korean garden * Sungkyunkwan * Styles and titles

CULTURAL HERITAGES

* Changdeokgung * Jongmyo Shrine * Namhansanseong
Namhansanseong
* Royal Tombs of the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty * Villages of Hahoe and Yangdong * Annals of the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty * Hunminjeongeum * Ilseongnok * Nanjung Ilgi * Seungjeongwon ilgi * Uigwe
Uigwe

SEE ALSO

* Joseon
Joseon
Navy * Joseon
Joseon
missions to Imperial China
China
* Joseon
Joseon
missions to Japan