The Treaty of
Florence (28 March 1801), which followed the Armistice
of Foligno (9 February 1801), brought to an end the war between the
French Republic and the Kingdom of Naples, one of the Wars of the
French Revolution. Forced by the French military presence, Naples
ceded some territories in the Tyrrhenian sea and accepted French
garrisons to their ports on the Adriatic sea. All Neapolitan harbours
were closed to British and Ottoman vessels.
Napoleon was relatively lenient to the defenseless kingdom of Naples
thanks to his need to appease Tsar
Paul I of Russia
Paul I of Russia and its allies of
the League of Neutrals. The Tsar, who was assassinated less than a
week before the signing of the treaty, was concerned with the French
advance in Italy and had decided to support the King of Naples. The
First Consul, wanting to attract the Tsar to his side in the strife in
Europe, was forced to allow Ferdinand IV remaining on the throne,
albeit now a vassal of Napoleonic France.
2.1 Armistice of Foligno
2.2 Treaty of Florence
3 Effect and aftermath
In the early nineteenth century France, with
Napoleon in charge, was
at war against the
Second Coalition formed by the Holy Roman Empire,
Great Britain, Portugal, the kingdom of Naples, Russia and the Ottoman
Empire. Spain and France remained a military alliance since the
signing of the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1796.
Ferdinand IV of Naples.
After the victories of Napoleon's army in the campaign of 1800 in
Marengo, Höchstädt and Hohenlinden, on 9 February 1801 the Holy
Roman Empire made peace with France by the Treaty of Lunéville.
Naples, that until Marengo had help from the Holy Roman Empire, was at
the mercy of the powerful French army.
Ferdinand IV, King of Naples and (III of) Sicily, was the brother of
Charles IV of Spain, but their relationship was no obstacle to oppose
the Franco-Spanish alliance. The influence of his wife, Queen Maria
Carolina of Austria, of the Austrian royal family, led to the
alignment of Naples with the
Second Coalition and the Holy Roman
Empire. Maria Carolina was the sister of Marie Antoinette, queen
consort of France. The crown prince of Naples, Francis, was married to
the Archduchess of Austria Maria Clementina, daughter of Emperor
Armistice of Foligno
With the advance of the French army under General Murat, Count Roger
de Damas, in command of the Neapolitan troops, sent Colonel Micheroux
to negotiate an armistice for one month. With this preliminary
armistice, the final armistice was signed in Foligno on 9 February a
few days later.
Treaty of Florence
The final treaty was signed on 28 March in
Florence with the mediation
of the Russian general Lewaschef sent by the Tsar Paul I at the
request of Maria Carolina. The main points of the agreement were:
King Ferdinand to be restored to the Neapolitan throne.
Naples to cede the
State of Presidi
State of Presidi with their portion of the island
of Elba, Porto Longone, and the independent principality of Piombino
The Neapolitan troops to withdraw from the Papal States.
Neapolitan ports to be closed to British and Ottoman ships.
Trading privileges to be granted to France.
Naples to allow the stationing of French troops, with Neapolitan
financial support, on Neapolitan territory for a year: the city of
Pescara and the province of Terra d'Otranto, including the cities of
Brindisi and Otranto.
Release of prisoners of war on both sides, including the French
scientist Gratet de Dolomieu, and Neapolitan amnesty to imprisoned and
Athena of Velletri
Athena of Velletri to be returned to France.
Effect and aftermath
The principality of Piombino and the
State of Presidi
State of Presidi would be ceded
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany and transferred to the Spanish infante
Louis Francis of Bourbon-Parma, in exchange for the Spanish colony of
Louisiana, as agreed in the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800. In May
1801 the French general
Soult with 10,000 troops occupied the ports of
Taranto (temporarily) and Brindisi, to facilitate
communications with the French army in Egypt. Following the signing of
peace between France and Russia in October 1801, French troops
temporarily evacuate the Neapolitan territory, again to occupy the
country in 1803 against the threat from the British fleet.
With the treaty of Florence, together with the treaties of Lunéville
and Badajoz and the Concordat with the pope and culminating in 1802
with the signing of the Peace of Amiens, there was peace in Europe
until 1805, when hostilities would resume in the French war against
the Third Coalition.
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