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The TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany , Austria-Hungary , Bulgaria , and the Ottoman Empire ), that ended Russia's participation in World War I . The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Polish : _Brześć Litewski_; since 1945 Brest ), after two months of negotiations. The treaty was agreed upon by the Bolshevik government under threat of further advances by German and Austrian forces. According to the treaty, Soviet Russia defaulted on all of Imperial Russia 's commitments to the Triple Entente alliance.

In the treaty, Bolshevik Russia ceded the Baltic States to Germany; they were meant to become German vassal states under German princelings. Russia also ceded its province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and recognized the independence of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Historian Spencer Tucker says, "The German General Staff had formulated extraordinarily harsh terms that shocked even the German negotiator." Congress Poland
Poland
was not mentioned in the treaty, as Germans refused to recognize the existence of any Polish representatives, which in turn led to Polish protests. When Germans later complained that the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was too harsh on them, the Allies (and historians favorable to the Allies) responded that it was more benign than Brest-Litovsk.

The treaty was effectively terminated in November 1918, when Germany surrendered to the Allies. However, in the meantime, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks , already fighting the Russian Civil War , by the renouncement of Russia's claims on Poland
Poland
, Finland
Finland
, Estonia , Latvia
Latvia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Lithuania
Lithuania
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Peace negotiations * 3 Resumed hostilities

* 4 Terms

* 4.1 Signing * 4.2 Territorial cessions in eastern Europe * 4.3 Transfer of territory to Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 4.4 Russian-German financial agreement of August 1918

* 5 Lasting effects * 6 Other information * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

BACKGROUND

Main articles: Eastern Front (World War I) and Russian Revolution

By 1917, Germany and Imperial Russia were stuck in a stalemate on the Eastern Front of World War I . At the time, the Russian economy nearly collapsed under the strain of the war effort. The large numbers of war casualties and persistent food shortages in the major urban centers brought about civil unrest, known as the February Revolution , that forced Tsar Nicholas II
Nicholas II
to abdicate. The Russian Provisional Government that replaced the Tsar (initially presided by prince Georgy Lvov , later by Alexander Kerensky ), decided to continue the war on the Entente side. Foreign Minister Pavel Milyukov sent the Entente Powers a telegram, known as Milyukov note , affirming them that the Provisional Government would continue the war with the same war aims that Imperial Russia did.

The pro-war Provisional Government was opposed by the self-proclaimed Petrograd Soviet of Workers\' and Soldiers\' Deputies , dominated by leftist parties. Its Order No. 1 called for an overriding mandate to soldier committees rather than army officers. The Soviet started to form its own paramilitary power, the Red Guards , in March 1917.

The position of the Provisional Government led the Germans to offer support to the Russian opposition, the Communist Party ( Bolsheviks ) in particular, who were proponents of Russia's withdrawal from the war. In April 1917, Germany allowed Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to return to Russia from his exile in Switzerland and offered him financial help. Upon his arrival in Petrograd, Lenin proclaimed his April Theses , which included a call for turning all political power over to workers\' and soldiers\' soviets (councils) and an immediate withdrawal of Russia from the war. Throughout 1917, Bolsheviks called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government and an end to the war. Following the disastrous failure of the Kerensky Offensive , discipline in the Russian army deteriorated completely. Soldiers would disobey orders, often under the influence of Bolshevik agitation, and allowed soldiers' committees to take control of their units after deposing the officers. Russian and German soldiers occasionally left their positions and fraternized .

The defeat and ongoing hardships of war led to anti-government riots in Petrograd, the " July Days " of 1917. Several months later, on 7 November (25 October old style ), Red Guards seized the Winter Palace and arrested the Provisional Government in what is known as the October Revolution .

The newly established Soviet government decided to end Russia's participation in the war with Germany and its allies. On 26 October 1917, Vladimir Lenin signed the Decree on Peace , which was approved by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers\', Soldiers\', and Peasants\' Deputies . The Decree called "upon all the belligerent nations and their governments to start immediate negotiations for peace" and proposed an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I. Leon Trotsky was appointed Commissar of Foreign Affairs in the new Bolshevik government. In preparation for peace talks with the representatives of the German government and the representatives of the other Central Powers, Leon Trotsky appointed his good friend, Adolph Joffe , to represent the Bolsheviks at the peace conference.

PEACE NEGOTIATIONS

_ Lev Kamenev arrives at Brest-Litovsk. Trotsky greeted by German officers. Special
Special
edition of the Lübeckischen Anzeigen_, Headline: “Peace with Ukraine”.

On 15 December 1917, an armistice between Soviet Russia and the Central Powers was concluded and fighting stopped. On 22 December, peace negotiations began at Brest-Litovsk.

Germany was represented officially by Foreign Secretary Richard von Kühlmann , but the most important German figure was General Max Hoffmann , Chief of Staff of the German armies on the Eastern Front (_Oberkommando-Ostfront_). Austria was represented by Foreign Minister Count Ottokar Czernin , and the Ottomans by Talat Pasha . The German representatives had effective control of the Central Power side.

The Russian representatives were all radicals and supporters of world revolution. They were led by Adolph Joffe , a veteran Red agitator, and included Anastasia Bizenko, who had assassinated a high Imperial official.

At the start of the negotiations, the two sides were far apart.

German plans for the peace treaty included annexing most of Russian Poland, with Austria to receive a smaller piece. A rump Polish state would be established to act as a buffer between Germany and Russia. In addition, Ukraine
Ukraine
would be detached as an independent state under German protection, while the Baltic states were to be annexed directly into Germany and ruled by German princes. For their part, the Bolsheviks declared that they sought a peace without any indemnities or territorial concessions.

On 28 December, the Central Powers delegation withdrew from the conference to consider the Bolshevik peace proposals. Over Christmas of 1917, the Central Powers released a declaration stating that they were in favor of the separate peace with all the Allies without indemnities and without annexations, provided the peace was immediate and all belligerents took part in the negotiations. But this did not supersede the demand for the "independence" of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. Reassurances from the German side that Berlin wished only for a peaceful, equitable resolution to the conflict met with an angry reply from Joffe, "Then why do you wish to tear eighteen provinces from us!?"

Lenin was in favor of signing the agreement immediately. He thought that only an immediate peace would allow the young Bolshevik government to consolidate power in Russia. However, he was virtually alone in this opinion among the Bolsheviks on the Central Committee.

For the second round of negotiations, Trotsky replaced Joffe as the head of the Soviet delegation. Meanwhile, Count Czernin announced that if negotiations between Berlin and Petrograd failed, then Austria would seek a separate peace with the latter. Kuhlmann then told the ambassador that such an action would result in Germany withdrawing all its divisions from the Austrian frontier, which promptly led Czernin to drop that offer. He also asked General Hindenburg exactly why he sought the annexation of the Baltic states and was told, "To secure my left flank for when the next war happens."

While Lenin wanted to accept the German peace proposal immediately, a majority of the Bolshevik Central Committee disagreed. The "Left Communists", led by Nikolai Bukharin and Karl Radek , believed that Germany, Austria, Turkey, and Bulgaria were all on the verge of revolution. They wanted to continue the war while awaiting revolutions in those countries. Thus the Soviet delegation returned to the peace conference without instructions to sign the proposed treaty.

Kühlman and Hoffmann now proposed independence for the Baltic states, Poland, and Ukraine, in accordance with the Soviets' own national self-determination doctrine. Indeed, the Germans were already negotiating with a separatist government in Ukraine. On 9 February 1918, Germany recognized that government and signed a treaty with it, the first Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
.

Frustrated with continued German demands for cessions of territory, Trotsky on 10 February announced a new policy. Russia unilaterally declared an end of hostilities against the Central Powers, and Russia withdrew from peace negotiations with the Central Powers - a position summed up as "no war — no peace".

Other Bolshevik leaders denounced Trotsky for exceeding his instructions and exposing Soviet Russia to the threat of invasion. Trotsky subsequently defended his action on the grounds that the Bolshevik leaders had originally entered the peace talks ostensibly, with the hope of exposing their enemies' territorial ambitions and rousing the workers of central Europe to revolution in defense of Russia's new workers' state.

RESUMED HOSTILITIES

The consequences for the Bolsheviks were worse than what they had feared in December. The Central Powers repudiated the armistice on 18 February 1918, and in the next fortnight seized most of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic countries in Operation Faustschlag . Through the ice of the Baltic Sea , a German fleet approached the Gulf of Finland
Finland
and Russia's capital Petrograd . Despite strikes and demonstrations the month before in protest against economic hardship, the workers of Germany failed to rise up against their government. On February 19 the Bolsheviks sent a radio message to the Germans agreeing to the original peace treaty, and on 23 February, the Central Powers sent new terms for peace. These terms included cession of Dünaburg , Livonia , and Estonia
Estonia
to Germany; cession of western Armenia
Armenia
to the Ottoman Empire; recognition of an independent Ukraine; immediate evacuation of Russian troops from Finland
Finland
and Ukraine; and complete demobilization of the Russian Army. Additionally, the Central Powers required that these terms be agreed to within 48 hours. Lenin was again pressed for acceptance of these terms. This time a majority of the Central Committee supported Lenin. The Soviet government sent a new delegation headed by Georgy Chicherin and Lev Karakhan , with instructions to accept the proposal. On 3 March Chicherin signed the treaty. Thus the new Soviet government agreed to terms worse than those they had previously rejected.

TERMS

Signing of armistice between Russia and Germany

SIGNING

Borders drawn up in Brest-Litovsk.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
was signed on 3 March 1918. The signatories were Bolshevik Russia signed by Grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov on the one side and the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on the other.

The treaty marked Russia's final withdrawal from World War I as an enemy of her co-signatories, on severe terms. In all, the treaty took away territory that included a quarter of the population and industry of the former Russian Empire and nine-tenths of its coal mines .

TERRITORIAL CESSIONS IN EASTERN EUROPE

Russia renounced all territorial claims in Finland
Finland
(which it had already acknowledged), Baltic states ( Estonia
Estonia
, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania ), Belarus
Belarus
, and Ukraine
Ukraine
. The territory of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
was not mentioned in the treaty.

The treaty stated that "Germany and Austria-Hungary intend to determine the future fate of these territories in agreement with their populations." Most of these territories were in effect ceded to Germany, which intended to have them become economic and political dependencies. The many ethnic German residents (_volksdeutsch_) would be the ruling elite. New monarchies were created in Lithuania
Lithuania
and the United Baltic Duchy (which comprised the modern countries of Latvia and Estonia). The German aristocrats Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach (in Lithuania), and Adolf Friedrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (in the United Baltic Duchy), were appointed as rulers.

This plan was detailed by German Colonel General Erich Ludendorff , who wrote, "German prestige demands that we should hold a strong protecting hand, not only over German citizens, but over all Germans."

The occupation of Western Russia ultimately proved a costly blunder for Berlin as over one million German troops lay sprawled out from Poland
Poland
nearly to the Caspian Sea , all idle and depriving Germany of badly needed manpower in France. The hopes of utilizing Ukraine's grain and coal proved abortive and in addition, the local population became increasingly upset at the occupying army. Revolts and guerrilla warfare began breaking out all over the occupied zone, many of them inspired by Bolshevik agents. German troops had to intervene in Finland
Finland
to put down an attempted Bolshevik coup, and Ludendorff became increasingly paranoid about his troops being affected by propaganda emanating from Moscow; this was one of the reasons he was reluctant to transfer divisions to the Western Front. The attempt at establishing an independent Ukrainian state under German guidance was unsuccessful as well. Despite all this, Ludendorff completely ruled out the idea of marching on Moscow and Petrograd to remove the Bolshevik government from power.

Germany transferred hundreds of thousands of veteran troops to the Western Front for the 1918 Spring Offensive , which shocked the Allies badly, but ultimately failed. Some Germans later blamed the occupation for significantly weakening the Spring Offensive.

TRANSFER OF TERRITORY TO OTTOMAN EMPIRE

"Three bones—a bountiful tip", a political cartoon from 1918 by American cartoonist E. A. Bushnell .

At the insistence of Talaat Pasha , the treaty declared that the territory Russia took from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) , specifically Ardahan , Kars , and Batumi
Batumi
, were to be returned. At the time of the treaty, this territory was under the effective control of Armenian and Georgian forces.

Paragraph 3 of Article IV of the treaty states that:

The districts of Erdehan, Kars, and Batum will likewise and without delay be cleared of Russian troops. Russia will not interfere in the reorganization of the national and international relations of these districts, but leave it to the population of these districts to carry out this reorganization in agreement with the neighboring States, especially with the Ottoman Empire.

RUSSIAN-GERMAN FINANCIAL AGREEMENT OF AUGUST 1918

In the wake of Russian repudiation of Tsarist bonds, nationalisation of foreign-owned property and confiscation of foreign assets, Russia and Germany signed an additional agreement on 27 August 1918. Russia agreed to pay six billion marks in compensation to German interests for their losses.

LASTING EFFECTS

" Poland
Poland
"> The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
broke the treaty after just two months by invading the newly created First Republic of Armenia
Armenia
in May 1918. In the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that ended World War I, one of the first conditions was the complete abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk treaty. Following the German capitulation, the Bolshevik legislature ( VTsIK ) annulled the treaty on 13 November 1918, and the text of the VTsIK Decision was printed in _ Pravda _ newspaper the next day. In the year after the armistice, the German Army withdrew its occupying forces from the lands gained in Brest-Litovsk, leaving behind a power vacuum that various forces subsequently attempted to fill. In the Treaty of Rapallo , concluded in April 1922, Germany accepted the Treaty's nullification, and the two powers agreed to abandon all war-related territorial and financial claims against each other.

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
marked a significant contraction of the territory controlled by the Bolsheviks or that they could lay claim to as effective successors of the Russian Empire. While the independence of Finland
Finland
and Poland
Poland
was already accepted by them in principle, the loss of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Baltics created, from the Bolshevik perspective, dangerous bases of anti- Bolshevik military activity in the subsequent Russian Civil War (1918–1922). Indeed, many Russian nationalists and some revolutionaries were furious at the Bolsheviks' acceptance of the treaty and joined forces to fight them. Non-Russians who inhabited the lands lost by Bolshevik Russia in the treaty saw the changes as an opportunity to set up independent states not under Bolshevik rule. Immediately after the signing of the treaty, Lenin moved the Soviet Russian government from Petrograd to Moscow. Trotsky blamed the peace treaty on the bourgeoisie, the social revolutionaries, Tsarist diplomats, Tsarist bureaucrats, "the Kerenskys, Tseretelis and Chernovs" the Tsarist regime, and the "petty-bourgeois compromisers".

The fate of the region, and the location of the eventual western border of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, was settled in violent and chaotic struggles over the course of the next three and a half years. The Polish–Soviet War was particularly bitter; it ended with the Treaty of Riga in 1921. Although most of Ukraine
Ukraine
fell under Bolshevik control and eventually became one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union, Poland
Poland
and the Baltic states emerged as independent countries. This state of affairs lasted until 1939. As a consequence of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact , the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
advanced its borders westward by invading Poland
Poland
in September 1939 and Finland
Finland
in November 1939 and annexing the Baltic States , Eastern Poland
Poland
and Bessarabia in 1940. It thus overturned almost all the territorial losses incurred at Brest-Litovsk, except for the main part of Finland, western Congress Poland, and western Armenia.

For the Western Allies, the terms that Germany imposed on Russia were interpreted as a warning of what to expect if Germany and the other Central Powers won the war. Between Brest-Litovsk and the point when the German military situation in the west became dire, some officials in the German government and high command began to favor offering more lenient terms to the Allies in exchange for their recognition of German gains in the east.

Russia's post-1991 western border bears a marked similarity to that imposed by the Brest-Litovsk treaty.

OTHER INFORMATION

Emil Orlik , the Viennese Secessionist artist, attended the conference, at the invitation of Richard von Kühlmann. He drew portraits of all the participants, along with a series of smaller caricatures. These were gathered together into a book, _Brest-Litovsk,_ a copy of which was given to each of the participants.

SEE ALSO

* World War I portal

* Commissions of the Danube River * History of Belarus
Belarus
* Mitteleuropa * Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(9 February 1918) , signed by Ukraine * Treaty of Bucharest (1918)

REFERENCES

* ^ (in Ukrainian) To whom did Brest belong in 1918? Argument among Ukraine, Belarus, and Germany. Ukrayinska Pravda , 25 March 2011. * ^ A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918 By Robert A. Kann page 479-480 * ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2005). _World War One_. ABC-CLIO. p. 225. * ^ Mapping Europe's Borderlands: Russian Cartography in the Age of Empire Steven Seegel - 2012 At Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, no Polish delegation was invited to the negotiations, and in the Polish press, journalists condemned it as yet another partition of the lands east of the Bug River by great powers * ^ Zara S. Steiner (2005). _The Lights that Failed: European International History, 1919–1933_. Oxford U.P. p. 68. * ^ Fry, Michael Graham; Goldstein, Erik; Langhorne, Richard (2002). _Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy_. Continuum. p. 188. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Ruth Fischer, _Stalin and German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party_ (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transition Books, 1982) p. 32-36. * ^ David Stevenson (2009). _Cataclysm: The First World War as Political Tragedy_. Basic Books. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-7867-3885-4 . * ^ Ruth Fischer, _Stalin and German Communism_, p. 39. * ^ Ruth Fischer, _Stalin and German Communism_, p. 38. * ^ John Keegan, _The First World War_ (New York: Vintage Books, 2000), p. 342. * ^ Shirer, _The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich_, 1960, p. 57 * ^ Ludendorff, Erich von (1920). _The General Staff and its Problems_. London. p. 562. * ^ "LENINE’S MIGRATION A QUEER SCENE", _ The New York Times _, March 16, 1918 * ^ The Military Writings of Leon Trotsky Volume 1, 1918 TWO ROADS "We have not forgotten, in the first place, that the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk meant the noose that was flung about our neck by the bourgeoisie and the SRs who were responsible for the offensive of June 18". * ^ The Military Writings of Leon Trotsky Volume 1, 1918 THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL TASKS OF THE SOVIET POWER "Those who bear the guilt of the Brest-Litovsk peace are the Tsarist bureaucrats and diplomats who involved us in the dreadful war, squandering what the people had accumulated, robbing the people – they who kept the working masses in ignorance and slavery. On the other hand, no less guilt rests with the compromisers, the Kerenskys, Tseretelis and Chernovs * ^ The Military Writings of Leon Trotsky Volume 1, 1918 WE NEED AN ARMY "the entire burden of recent events, above all, the Brest peace, has fallen tragically upon us only through the previous management of affairs by the Tsarist regime and, following it, by the regime of the petty-bourgeois compromisers." * ^ Jewish Museum in Prague (2013-2015). Emil Orlik (1870–1932) - Portraits of Friends and Contemporaries . Retrieved 2015-04-03.

FURTHER READING

* Dornik, Wolfram, and Peter Lieb. "Misconceived realpolitik in a failing state: the political and economical fiasco of the Central Powers in the Ukraine, 1918." _First World War Studies_ 4.1 (2013): 111-124. * Kennan, George . _Soviet Foreign Policy 1917–1941_, Kreiger Publishing Company, 1960. * Kettle, Michael. _Allies and the Russian Collapse_ (1981) 287p. * Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John _Brest-Litovsk the Forgotten Peace, March 1918_, (W. W. Norton ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

World War I treaties

DURING THE WAR

* Sykes–Picot * St.-Jean-de-Maurienne * Damascus Protocol * London * Brest-Litovsk * Ukraine
Ukraine
* Batum

PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE

* Versailles * Saint-Germain-en-Laye * Neuilly-sur-Seine * Trianon * Sèvres

AFTERMATH

* Rapallo (1920) * Tartu (1920) * Warsaw * Riga (1920) * Suwałki * Alexandropol * Moscow * Riga (1921) * Tartu (1921) * Cilicia * Ankara * Kars * Lausanne * Rapallo (1922) * Territories of the Former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy * Italian Reparation Payments * Sino-German Peace Treaty

MONTREUX

* Regime of the Turkish Straits * Abolition of the Capitulations in Egypt

BRITISH (EGYPT)

* Denmark * Greece * Norway * Sweden * Portugal

* See also: Fourteen Points * Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

* v * t * e

World War I

* Home fronts

THEATRES

EUROPEAN

* Balkans * Western Front * Eastern Front * Italian Front

MIDDLE EASTERN

* Gallipoli * Sinai and Palestine * Caucasus * Persia * Mesopotamia * South Arabia

AFRICAN

* South-West * East * Kamerun * Togoland * North

ASIAN AND PACIFIC

* Tsingtao * German New Guinea and Samoa

AT SEA

* North Atlantic U-boat campaign * Mediterranean * North Sea * Baltic

* Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

* Papeete * Madras * Penang * Cocos * Coronel * Falkland Islands * Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people )

ENTENTE POWERS

* China * French Empire * Belgium * British Empire * Greece * Italy * Japan * Montenegro * Portuguese Empire * Romania

* Russia

* Russian Empire * Russian Republic

* Serbia * United States * Brazil

CENTRAL POWERS

* Germany * Austria-Hungary * Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Bulgaria

TIMELINE

PRE-WAR CONFLICTS

* Scramble for Africa (1880–1914) * Russo-Japanese War (1905) * First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) * Agadir Crisis (1911) * Italo-Turkish War (1911–12) * French conquest of Morocco (1911–12) * First Balkan War (1912–13) * Second Balkan War (1913)

PRELUDE

* Origins * Sarajevo assassination * Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo * July Crisis

AUTUMN 1914

* Battle of the Frontiers * Battle of Cer * First Battle of the Marne * Siege of Tsingtao * Battle of Tannenberg * Battle of Galicia * Battle of the Masurian Lakes * Battle of Kolubara * Battle of Sarikamish * Race to the Sea * First Battle of Ypres

1915

* Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes * Second Battle of Ypres * Battle of Gallipoli * Second Battle of Artois * Battles of the Isonzo * Great Retreat * Second Battle of Champagne * Kosovo Offensive * Siege of Kut * Battle of Loos

1916

* Erzurum Offensive * Battle of Verdun * Lake Naroch Offensive * Battle of Asiago * Battle of Jutland

* Battle of the Somme

* first day

* Brusilov Offensive * Baranovichi Offensive * Battle of Romani * Monastir Offensive * Battle of Transylvania

1917

* Capture of Baghdad * First Battle of Gaza * Zimmermann Telegram * Second Battle of Arras * Second Battle of the Aisne * Kerensky Offensive * Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) * Battle of Mărășești * Battle of Caporetto * Southern Palestine Offensive * Battle of Cambrai * Armistice of Erzincan

1918

* Operation Faustschlag * Treaty of Brest-Litovsk * Spring Offensive * Second Battle of the Marne * Battle of Baku * Hundred Days Offensive * Vardar Offensive * Battle of Megiddo * Third Transjordan attack * Meuse-Argonne Offensive * Battle of Vittorio Veneto * Battle of Aleppo * Armistice of Salonica * Armistice of Mudros * Armistice of Villa Giusti * Armistice with Germany

OTHER CONFLICTS

* Mexican Revolution (1910–20) * Somaliland Campaign (1910–20) * Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) * Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) * Zaian War (1914–21) * Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) * Senussi Campaign (1915–16) * Volta-Bani War (1915–17) * Easter Rising (1916) * Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition (1916) * Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) * Russian Revolution (1917) * Finnish Civil War (1918)

POST-WAR CONFLICTS

* Russian Civil War (1917–21) * Ukrainian–Soviet War (1917–21) * Armenian–Azerbaijani War (1918–20) * Georgian–Armenian War (1918) * German Revolution (1918–19) * Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) * Hungarian–Romanian War (1918–19) * Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) * Estonian War of Independence (1918–20) * Latvian War of Independence (1918–20) * Lithuanian Wars of Independence (1918–20) * Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) * Egyptian Revolution (1919) * Polish–Ukrainian War (1918–19) * Polish–Soviet War (1919–21) * Irish War of Independence (1919–21)

* Turkish War of Independence

* Greco-Turkish War (1919–23) * Turkish–Armenian War (1920)

* Iraqi revolt (1920) * Polish–Lithuanian War (1920) * Vlora War (1920) * Franco-Syrian War (1920) * Soviet–Georgian War (1921) * Irish Civil War (1922–23)

ASPECTS

OPPOSITION

* Pacifism * Anti-war movement

DEPLOYMENT

* Schlieffen Plan (German) * Plan XVII (French)

WARFARE

* Military engagements * Naval warfare * Convoy system * Air warfare

* Cryptography

* Room 40

* Horse use * Poison gas * Railways * Strategic bombing * Technology * Trench warfare * Total war * Christmas truce * Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

* Casualties * Economic history * 1918 flu pandemic * Destruction of Kalisz
Destruction of Kalisz
* Rape of Belgium * German occupation of Belgium * German occupation of Luxembourg * German occupation of northeastern France * Ober Ost * Ottoman people ( Armenian Genocide , Assyrian genocide , Pontic Greek genocide ) * Blockade of Germany * Women (Australia ) * Popular culture * German prisoners of war in the United States

AGREEMENTS

* Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Sykes–Picot Agreement * Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne * French-Armenian Agreement * Damascus Protocol * Paris Peace Conference * Venizelos–Tittoni agreement

TREATIES

* Treaty of Brest-Litovsk * Treaty of Lausanne * Treaty of London * Treaty of Neuilly * Treaty of St. Germain * Treaty of Sèvres * Treaty of Trianon * Treaty of Versailles

CONSEQUENCES

* Aftermath * " Fourteen Points " * League of Nations * World War I memorials * Centenary * (commemorations)

* Category * Portal
Portal

* World War I at Wiktionary * WWI textbooks at Wikibooks * WWI quotations at Wikiquote * WWI source texts at Wikisource * WWI images ">

* v * t * e

Treaties of Hungary

9–10TH CENTURY (AGE OF MAGYARS )

* Legend of the white horse (894)

1000–1301 (ÁRPáD DYNASTY )

* Personal union of Hungary and Croatia (1102) * Hungarian–Byzantine Treaties (1153–1167) * Treaty of Pressburg (1271)

1302–1526 (Middle ages to Tripartition )

* Treaty of Enns (1336) * Hungarian–Lithuanian Treaty (1351) * Hungarian–Neapolitan Treaty (1352) * Treaty of Zara (1358) * Treaty of Lubowla (1412) * Peace of Szeged (1444) * Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt (1463) * Treaty of Ófalu (1474) * Treaty of Brno (1478) * Treaty of Piotrków (1479) * Peace of Olomouc (1479) * Treaty of Pressburg (1491) * First Congress of Vienna (1515)

Dual reign , Ottoman vassalship , reconquest and Napoleonic Wars (1526–1848)

* Franco-Hungarian alliance (1526) * Treaty of Nagyvárad (1538) * Treaty of Gyalu (1541) * Confessio Pentapolitana (1549) * Treaty of Speyer (1570) * Treaty of Szatmár (1711)

* 1526-1848 ( Royal Hungary to Independence )

* Truce of Adrianople (1547) * Treaty of Adrianople (1568) * Treaty of Vienna (1606) * Peace of Zsitvatorok (1606) * Peace of Vasvár (1664) * Holy League (1684) * Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) * Treaty of Passarowitz (1718) * Pragmatic Sanction (1723) * Treaty of Belgrade (1739) * Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) * First Partition of Poland
Poland
(1772) * Treaty of Sistova (1791) * Treaty of Campo Formio (1797) * Treaty of Schönbrunn (1809) * Congress of Vienna (1815)

* (1570–1711) (Principality of Transylvania )

* Peace of Nikolsburg (1621) * Treaty of Pressburg (1626) * Treaty of Nymwegen (1679)

Austria-Hungary to the end of World War I (1848–1922)

* Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 * Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (1868) * League of the Three Emperors (1873) * Treaty of Bern (1874) * Reichstadt Agreement (1876) * Budapest Convention of 1877 (1877) * Treaty of Berlin (1878) * Dual Alliance (1879) * Triple Alliance (1882) * Boxer Protocol (1901) * Treaty of London (1913) * Armistice of Focșani (1917) * <