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The Kingdom of Travancore
Travancore
(/ˈtrævəŋkɔːr/) was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family
Travancore Royal Family
from Padmanabhapuram, and later Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala
Kerala
with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda
Irinjalakuda
Koodalmanikkam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin,[1] as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell (Turbinella pyrum) at its center. In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire.The Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
Balarama Varma, Travancore
Travancore
became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work and social reforms.[2][3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Venad
Venad
Swaroopam 3.2 Formation and development of Travancore 3.3 The Mysore
Mysore
invasion 3.4 Velu Thampi Dalawa's rebellion 3.5 Cessation of mahādanams 3.6 19th and early 20th centuries 3.7 Formation of Kerala

4 Politics

4.1 Rulers of Travancore 4.2 Prime Ministers of Travancore

4.2.1 Dalawas 4.2.2 Dewans

5 Administrative divisions 6 Demographics 7 Culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] When the region was once part of the Chera empire, it was known as Thiruvazhumkode. It was contracted to Thiruvankode, and anglicised by the English to Travancore.[4][5][6] In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, and the land was called Aayi desam or Aayi rajyam, meaning 'Aayi territory'. The Aayis controlled the land from present-day Kollam district
Kollam district
in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district. There were two capitals, the major one at Kollam
Kollam
(Venad Swaroopam or Desinganadu) and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur (Thrippapur Swaroopam or Nanjinad). The kingdom was thus also called Venad. Kings of Venad
Venad
had, at various times, travelled from Kollam
Kollam
and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode and Kalkulam. Thiruvithamcode became the capital of the Thrippapur Swaroopam, and the country was referred to as Thiruvithamcode by Europeans even after the capital had been moved in 1601 to Padmanabhapuram, near Kalkulam.[7] The Chera empire
Chera empire
had dissolved by around 1100 and thereafter the territory comprised numerous small kingdoms until the time of Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
who, as king of Venad
Venad
from 1729, employed brutal methods to unify them.[8] During his reign, Thiruvithamcode or Travancore
Travancore
became the official name.[citation needed] Geography[edit]

Map of Travancore
Travancore
in 1871

The Kingdom of Travancore
Travancore
was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore
Travancore
was divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains).[citation needed]

Canal scene, Travancore

History[edit] Venad
Venad
Swaroopam[edit] Main article: Venad Venad
Venad
was a former state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent, traditionally ruled by rajas known as the Venattadis. Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil
Nagercoil
in the south to Trivandrum
Trivandrum
in the north. Their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and later, towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon(Kollam). Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century.[9]

British Residency
British Residency
in Quilon. Till 1829, Quilon
Quilon
was the capital of the Travancore State
Travancore State
with British Residency
British Residency
as the headquarters of the kingdom

When the Ay power diminished, Venad
Venad
became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom.[10] An invasion of the Cholas into Venad
Venad
caused the destruction of Kollam
Kollam
in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram, also fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam.[11] Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of the Chera dynasty, is probably the founder of the Venad royal house, and the title of the Chera kings, Kulasekara, was thenceforth kept by the rulers of Venad. Thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad.[12] In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty, Thrippappur and Chirava, merged in the Venad
Venad
family, which set up the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad
Venad
as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While the Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles north of Thiruvananthapuram, and was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad
Venad
kingdom, especially the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.[10] Formation and development of Travancore[edit] The history of Travancore
Travancore
began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad
Venad
(Thrippappur), and expanded it into Travancore during his reign (1729–1758). After defeating a union of feudal lords and establishing internal peace, he expanded the kingdom of Venad
Venad
through a series of military campaigns from Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
in the south to the borders of Kochi
Kochi
in the north during his 29-year rule.[13] This led to the Travancore-Dutch War
Travancore-Dutch War
(1739–1753) between the Dutch East India
India
Company who had been allied to some of these kingdoms and Travancore.[citation needed] In 1741, Travancore
Travancore
won the Battle of Colachel
Battle of Colachel
against the Dutch East India
India
Company, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in the region. In this battle, the admiral of the Dutch, Eustachius De Lannoy, was captured and later defected to Travancore.[14] De Lannoy was appointed as Captain of His Highness' Body-guard[14] and later Senior Admiral ("Valiya kappittan")[15] and he modernised the Travancore
Travancore
army by introducing firearms and artillery.[14] Travancore
Travancore
became the most dominant state in the Kerala
Kerala
region by defeating the powerful Zamorin
Zamorin
of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
in the battle of Purakkad
Purakkad
in 1755.[15] Ramayyan Dalawa, the Prime Minister (1737–1756) of Marthanda Varma, also played an important role in this consolidation and expansion. On 3 January 1750, (5 Makaram, 925 Kollavarsham), Marthanda Varma virtually "dedicated" Travancore
Travancore
to his tutelary deity Padmanabha, one of the aspects of the Hindu
Hindu
God Vishnu
Vishnu
with a lotus issuing from his navel on which Brahma
Brahma
sits. From then on the rulers of Travancore ruled as the "servants of Padmanabha" (the Padmnabha-dasar).[16] At the Battle of Ambalapuzha, Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
defeated the union of the kings who had been deposed and the king of the Cochin kingdom.[citation needed] The Mysore
Mysore
invasion[edit] Main article: Mysore
Mysore
invasion of Kerala

Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
at the lines of Travancore. Illustration from Cassell's Illustrated History of India
India
by James Grant (c 1896).

Marthanda Varma's successor Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (1758–1798), who was popularly known as Dharma Raja, shifted the capital in 1795 from Padmanabhapuram
Padmanabhapuram
to Thiruvananthapuram. Dharma Raja's period is considered as a Golden Age in the history of Travancore. He not only retained the territorial gains of his predecessor Marthanda Varma, but also improved and encouraged social development. He was greatly assisted by a very efficient administrator, Raja
Raja
Kesavadas, who was the Diwan of Travancore.[citation needed] Travancore
Travancore
often allied with the English East India
India
Company in military conflicts.[2] During Dharma Raja's reign, Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of Mysore
Mysore
and the son of Hyder Ali, attacked Travancore
Travancore
in 1789 as a part of the Mysore
Mysore
invasion of Kerala. Dharma Raja
Raja
had earlier refused to hand over the Hindu
Hindu
political refugees from the Mysore
Mysore
occupation of Malabar, who had been given asylum in Travancore. The Mysore
Mysore
army entered the Cochin kingdom
Cochin kingdom
from Coimbatore
Coimbatore
in November 1789 and reached Trichur
Trichur
in December. On 28 December 1789 Tipu Sultan attacked the Nedunkotta (Northern Lines) from the north, causing the Battle of the Nedumkotta
Nedumkotta
(1789).[citation needed] Velu Thampi Dalawa's rebellion[edit] Main article: Travancore
Travancore
Rebellion On Dharma Raja's death in 1798, Balarama Varma
Balarama Varma
(1798–1810), the weakest ruler of the dynasty, took over crown at the age of sixteen. A treaty brought Travancore
Travancore
under East India
India
Company protection in 1795.[2] The Prime Ministers (Dalawas or Dewans) started taking control of the kingdom beginning with Velu Thampi Dalawa
Velu Thampi Dalawa
(Velayudhan Chempakaraman Thampi) (1799–1809) who was appointed as the divan following the dismissal of Jayanthan Sankaran Nampoothiri (1798–1799). Initially, Velayudhan Chempakaraman Thampi and the English East India
India
Company got along very well. When a section of the Travancore
Travancore
army mutinied in 1805 against Velu Thampi Dalawa, he sought refuge with the British Resident and later used English East India
India
Company troops to crush the mutiny. Velu Thampi also played a key role in renegotiating a new treaty between Travancore
Travancore
and the English East India
India
Company. However, the demands by the East India
India
Company for the payment of compensation for their involvement in the Travancore- Mysore
Mysore
War (1791) on behalf of Travancore, led to tension between the Diwan and the East India Company Resident. Velu Thampi and the diwan of Cochin kingdom, Paliath Achan Govindan Menon, who was unhappy with the Resident for granting asylum to his enemy Kunhi Krishna Menon, declared "war" on the East India
India
Company.[citation needed]

Adoption Durbar, Trivandrum

The East India
India
Company army defeated Paliath Achan's army in Cochin on 27 February 1809. Paliath Achan
Paliath Achan
surrendered to the East India
India
Company and was exiled to Madras
Madras
and later to Benaras. The Company defeated forces under Velu Thampi Dalawa
Velu Thampi Dalawa
at battles near Nagercoil
Nagercoil
and Kollam and inflicted heavy casualties on the rebels, following which many of his supporters deserted and went back to their homes. The Maharajah of Travancore, who hitherto had not taken any part in the rebellion openly, now allied with the British and appointed one of Thampi's enemies as his Prime Minister. The allied East India
India
Company army and the Travancore
Travancore
soldiers camped in Pappanamcode, just outside Trivandrum. Velu Thampi Dalawa
Velu Thampi Dalawa
now organised a guerrilla struggle against the Company, but committed suicide to avoid capture by the Travancore
Travancore
army. After the mutiny of 1805 against Velu Thampi Dalawa, most of the Nair battalions of Travancore
Travancore
had been disbanded, and after Velu Thampi Dalawa's uprising, almost all of the remaining Travancore
Travancore
forces were also disbanded, with the East India
India
Company undertaking to serve the king in cases of external and internal aggression.[citation needed] Cessation of mahādanams[edit] The kings of Travancore
Travancore
had been conditionally promoted to Kshatryahood with periodic performance of 16 mahādānams (great gifts in charity) such as Hiranya-garbhā, Hiranya-Kāmdhenu, and Hiranyāswaratā in which each of which thousands of Brahmins
Brahmins
had been given costly gifts apart from each getting a minimum of 1 kazhanch (78.65 gm) of gold.[17] In 1848 the Marquess of Dalhousie, then Governor-General of British India, was apprised that the depressed condition of the finances in Travancore
Travancore
was due to the mahādanams by the rulers.[18] Lord Dalhousie instructed Lord Harris, Governor of the Madras
Madras
Presidency, to warn the then King of Travancore, Martanda Varma (Uttram Tirunal 1847–60), that if he did not put a stop to this practice, the Madras
Madras
Presidency would take over his Kingdom's administration. This led to the cessation of the practice of mahādanams.[citation needed] All Travancore
Travancore
kings including Sree Moolam Thirunal
Sree Moolam Thirunal
conducted the Hiranyagarbham and Tulapurushadaanam ceremonies. Maharajah Chithira Thirunal was the only King of Travancore
Travancore
not to have conducted these rituals as he considered them extremely costly.[19] 19th and early 20th centuries[edit]

A block of 1887 Travancore
Travancore
revenues depicting Queen Victoria.

In Travancore
Travancore
the caste system was more rigorously enforced than in many other parts of India
India
up to the mid-1800s. The rule of discriminative hierarchical caste order was deeply entrenched in the social system and was supported by the government, which had transformed this caste-based social system into a religious institution.[20] In such a context, the belief in Ayyavazhi, apart from being a religious system, served also as a reform movement in uplifting the downtrodden section of the society, both socially and as well religiously. The rituals of Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
constituted a social discourse. Its beliefs, mode of worship, and religious organisation seem to have enabled the Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
group to negotiate and cope with, and resist the imposition of authority.[21] The hard tone of Vaikundar towards this was perceived as a revolution against the government.[22] So the King Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
initially imprisoned Vaikundar in the Singarathoppu jail, where the jailor Appaguru ended up as a disciple of Vaikundar. Vaikundar
Vaikundar
was later set at liberty by the King.[23]

Travancore's postal service adopted a standard cast iron pillar box, made by Massey & Co in Madras, and similar to the British Penfold model that was introduced in 1866. This Anchal post
Anchal post
box is in Perumbavoor.

After the death of Sree Moolam Thirunal
Sree Moolam Thirunal
in 1924, Sethu Lakshmi Bayi became the regent (1924–1931), as the Heir Apparent Sree Chithira Thirunal was then a minor (12 years old).[24]

Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore
Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore
(centre) with the first prince (left) and Dewan Sit T. Madhava Rao
T. Madhava Rao
(right)

Last King Of Travancore
Travancore
Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
Balarama Varma

The last ruling king of Travancore
Travancore
was Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
Balarama Varma, who reigned from 1931 to 1949. "His reign marked revolutionary progress in the fields of education, defence, economy and society as a whole."[25] He made the famous Temple Entry Proclamation
Temple Entry Proclamation
on 12 November 1936, which opened all the Kshetrams ( Hindu
Hindu
temples in Kerala) in Travancore
Travancore
to all Hindus, a privilege reserved to only upper caste Hindus
Hindus
till then. This act won him praise from across India, most notably from Mahatma Gandhi. The first public transport system (Thiruvananthapuram–Mavelikkara) and telecommunication system ( Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Palace– Mavelikkara
Mavelikkara
Palace) were launched during the reign of Sree Chithira Thirunal. He also started the industrialisation of the state, enhancing the role of the public sector. He introduced heavy industry in the State and established giant public sector undertakings. As many as twenty industries were established, mostly for utilizing the local raw materials such as rubber, ceramics, and minerals. A majority of the premier industries running in Kerala
Kerala
even today, were established by Sree Chithira Thirunal. He patronized musicians, artists, dancers, and Vedic scholars. Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
appointed, for the first time, an Art Advisor to the Government, Dr. G. H. Cousins. He also established a new form of University Training Corps, viz. Labour Corps, preceding the N.C.C, in the educational institutions. The expenses of the University were to be met fully by the Government. Sree Chithira Thirunal also built a beautiful palace named Kowdiar Palace, finished in 1934, which was previously an old Naluektu, given by Sree Moolam Thirunal to his mother Sethu Parvathi Bayi in 1915.[26][27][28] However, his Prime Minister, Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer, was unpopular among the general public of Travancore. When the British withdrew from India
India
in 1947, C.P. Ramaswami Iyer
C.P. Ramaswami Iyer
declared that Travancore
Travancore
would remain as an independent country, based on an "American model". The tension between the Communists and Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer
C.P. Ramaswami Iyer
led to revolts in various places of the country. In one such revolt in Punnapra-Vayalar in 1946, the Communists established their own government in the area. This was crushed by the Travancore
Travancore
Army and Navy at the cost of hundreds of deaths. The minister issued a statement in June 1947 that Travancore
Travancore
would remain as an independent country instead of joining the Indian Union; subsequently, an attempt was made on the life of Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, following which he resigned and left for Madras, to be succeeded by Sri P.G.N. Unnithan. After several rounds of discussions and negotiations between Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
and V.P. Menon, the King agreed that the Kingdom should accede to the Indian Union in 1949. On 1 July 1949 the Kingdom of Travancore
Travancore
was merged with the Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin
and the short-lived state of Travancore- Kochi
Kochi
was formed.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

Travancore
Travancore
in the Madras
Madras
Presidency in 1859

On 11 July 1991, Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
suffered a stroke and was admitted to Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
hospital, where he died on 20 July. He had ruled Travancore
Travancore
for 67 years and at his death was one of the few surviving rulers of a first-class princely state in the old Indian Empire. He was also the last surviving Knight Grand Commander of both the Order of the Star of India
India
and of the Order of the Indian Empire. He was succeeded as head of the Royal House as well as the Titular Maharajah of Travancore
Travancore
by his brother, Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma. The Government of India
India
issued a stamp on Nov 6, 1991, commemorating the reforms that marked the reign of Maharajah Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
in Travancore.[35] Formation of Kerala[edit] The State of Kerala
Kerala
came into existence on 1 November 1956, with a Governor appointed by the President of India
India
as the head of the State instead of the King.[citation needed] The King was stripped of all his political powers and the right to receive privy purses, according to the twenty-sixth amendment of the Indian constitution act of 31 July 1971. He died on 20 July 1991.[36] Politics[edit] Under the direct control of the king, Travancore's administration was headed by a Dewan assisted by the Neetezhutthu Pillay or secretary, Rayasom Pillay (assistant or under-secretary) and a number of Rayasoms or clerks along with Kanakku Pillamars (accountants). Individual districts were run by Sarvadhikaris under supervision of the Diwan, while dealings with neighbouring states and Europeans was under the purview of the Valia Sarvahi, who signed treaties and agreements.[37] Rulers of Travancore[edit] Main article: Rulers of Travancore

Anizham Tirunal Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
1729–1758[38] Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (Dharma Raja) 1758–1798 Balarama Varma
Balarama Varma
I 1798–1810 Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
1810–1815 (Queen from 1810–1813 and Regent Queen from 1813–1815) Gowri Parvati Bayi
Gowri Parvati Bayi
(Regent) 1815–1829 Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
II 1813–1846 Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
II 1846–1860 Ayilyam Thirunal
Ayilyam Thirunal
Rama Varma III 1860–1880 Visakham Thirunal
Visakham Thirunal
Rama Varma IV 1880–1885 Sree Moolam Thirunal
Sree Moolam Thirunal
Rama Varma V 1885–1924 Sethu Lakshmi Bayi
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi
(Regent) 1924–1931 Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma
Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma
II 1924–1949

Prime Ministers of Travancore[edit] Main article: List of Diwans of Travancore Dalawas[edit]

Arumukham Pillai 1729–1736[39] Thanu Pillai 1736–1737 Ramayyan Dalawa
Ramayyan Dalawa
1737–1756 Martanda Pillai 1756–1763 Warkala Subbayyan 1763–1768 Krishna Gopalayyan 1768–1776 Vadiswaran Subbrahmanya Iyer 1776–1780 Mullen Chempakaraman Pillai 1780–1782 Nagercoil
Nagercoil
Ramayyan 1782–1788 Krishnan Chempakaraman 1788–1789 Raja
Raja
Kesavadas 1789–1798 Odiery Jayanthan Sankaran Nampoothiri 1798–1799 Velu Thampi Dalawa
Velu Thampi Dalawa
1799–1809 Oommini Thampi 1809–1811

Dewans[edit]

Dewan Rajah Sir T. Madhava Rao

Col. John Munro 1811–1814[39] Devan Padmanabhan Menon 1814–1814 Bappu Rao (acting) 1814–1815 Sanku Annavi Pillai 1815–1815 Raman Menon 1815–1817 Reddy Rao 1817–1821 T. Venkata Rao
T. Venkata Rao
1821–1830 Thanjavur Subha Rao 1830–1837 T. Ranga Rao (acting) 1837–1838 T. Venkata Rao
T. Venkata Rao
(Again) 1838–1839 Thanjavur Subha Rao (again) 1839–1842 Krishna Rao (acting) 1842–1843 Reddy Rao (again) 1843–1845 Srinivasa Rao (acting) 1845–1846 Krishna Rao 1846–1858

Name Portrait Took office Left office Term[40]

T. Madhava Rao

1857 1872 1

A. Seshayya Sastri

1872 1877 1

Nanoo Pillai

1877 1880 1

V. Ramiengar

1880 1887 1

T. Rama Rao

1887 1892 1

S. Shungrasoobyer

1892 1898 1

K. Krishnaswamy Rao

1898 1904 1

V. P. Madhava Rao

1904 1906 1

S. Gopalachari

1906 1907 1

P. Rajagopalachari

1907 1914 1

M. Krishnan Nair

1914 1920 1

T. Raghavaiah

1920 1925 1

M. E. Watts

1925 1929 1

V. S. Subramanya Iyer

1929 1932 1

T. Austin

1932 1934 1

Sir Muhammad Habibullah

1934 1936 1

Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer

1936 1947 1

P.G.N.Unnithan

1947 1947 1

Administrative divisions[edit] In 1856, the princely state was sub-divided into three divisions, each of which was administered by a Divan Peishkar, with a rank equivalent to a District Collector in British India.[41] These were the:

Northern (Kottayam) comprising the talukas of Sharetalay, Vycome, Yetmanoor, Cottayam, Chunginacherry, Meenachil, Thodupolay, Moovatupolay, Kunnathnaud, Alangaud and Paravoor; Quilon
Quilon
(Central), comprising the talukas of Ambalappura, Chenganur, Kunnattur, Karungapalli, Karthikapalli, Mavelikkara, Quilon; and Southern (Padmanabhapuram) comprising the talukas of Thovalay, Auguteeswarom, Kalculam, Eraneel, and Velavencode.

Demographics[edit] Travancore
Travancore
had a population of 6,070,018 at the time of the 1941 Census of India.[42] Culture[edit]

Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum

Travancore
Travancore
was characterised by the popularity of its rulers among their subjects.[43] The kings of Travancore, unlike their counterparts in the other princely states of India, spent only a small portion of their state's resources for personal use. This was in sharp contrast with some of the northern Indian kings. Since they spent most of the state's revenue for the benefit of the public, they were naturally much loved by their subjects.[44] Unlike many British Indian states, violence rooted in religion or caste was rare in Travancore, apart from a few incidents in 1821, 1829, 1858 and 1921. This tolerance of different religions was equally applicable when it came to social and ideological matters. Many political ideologies (such as communism) and social reforms were welcomed in Travancore. Although the Travancore
Travancore
royal family were devout Hindus, they were tolerant rulers who donated land and material for the construction of Christian churches and Muslim mosques. This patronage was appreciated by local Christians who actively supported the devout Hindu
Hindu
Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
during the Travancore-Dutch battles, against a Christian power, and by the Muslims who joined his army.[citation needed] Unlike in the rest of India, in Travancore
Travancore
(and Kochi), the social status and freedom of women were high. In most communities, the daughters inherited the property (until 1925), were educated, and had the right to divorce and remarry.[45] See also[edit]

Travancore
Travancore
Royal Family Thachudaya Kaimal Family Travancore–Dutch War Travancore
Travancore
War Travancore
Travancore
rupee Nedumkotta Cochin - Travancore
Travancore
Alliance (1761) Cochin Travancore War
Travancore War
(1755–1756) Mysore
Mysore
invasion of Kerala Upper cloth revolt Vaikom
Vaikom
Satyagraha Temple Entry Proclamation Marthandavarma (novel) The Years of Rice and Salt, an acclaimed novel that features an alternate history Travancore

References[edit]

^ British Archives http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/rd/d3e53001-d49e-4d4d-bcb2-9f8daaffe2e0 ^ a b c "Travancore." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 11 November 2011. ^ Chandra Mallampalli, Christians and Public Life in Colonial South India, 1863–1937: Contending with Marginality, RoutledgeCurzon, 2004, p. 30 ^ P. Shungunny Menon (1878). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times. Thiruvananthapuram: Higginbotham's.  ^ R. Narayana Panikkar (1933-04-18). Travancore
Travancore
History (in Malayalam). Nagar Kovil.  ^ "Database: HANDBOOK  FOR  INDIA PART 1.  -  MADRAS., Page vii". 2008-08-01. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2018-01-02.  ^ "തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍" (in Malayalam). The State Institute of Encyclopaedic Publications. 2008-07-04. Archived from the original on 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2014-04-04.  ^ Ramusack, Barbara N. (2004). The Indian Princes and their States. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-13944-908-3.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ a b A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey of Kerala
Kerala
History. DC Books. p. 141. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ C. J. Fuller (30 December 1976). The Nayars Today. CUP Archive. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-29091-3. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ a b c Shungoony Menon, P. (1878). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times (pdf). Madras: Higgin Botham & Co. pp. 136–140. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ a b Shungoony Menon, P. (1878). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times (pdf). Madras: Higgin Botham & Co. pp. 162–164. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ Shungoony Menon, P. (1878). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times (pdf). Madras: Higgin Botham & Co. p. 171. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ A Social History of India – (Ashish Publishing House: ISBN 81-7648-170-X / ISBN 81-7648-170-X, Jan 2000). ^ Sadasivan, S.N., 1988, Administration and social development in Kerala: A study in administrative sociology, New Delhi, Indian Institute of Public Administration ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  MATHRUBHUMI Paramparyam ഹിരണ്യഗര്‍ഭച്ചടങ്ങിന് ഡച്ചുകാരോട് ചോദിച്ചത് 10,000 കഴിഞ്ച് സ്വര്‍ണം - "ശ്രീമൂലംതിരുനാള്‍ വരെയുള്ള രാജാക്കന്മാര്‍ ഹിരണ്യഗര്‍ഭം നടത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ടെന്നാണ് അറിയുന്നത്. ഭാരിച്ച ചെലവ് കണക്കിലെടുത്ത് ശ്രീചിത്തിരതിരുനാള്‍ ബാലരാമവര്‍മ്മ മഹാരാജാവ് ഈ ചടങ്ങ് നടത്തിയില്ല." ^ Cf. Ward & Conner, Geographical and Statistical Memoir, page 133; V. Nagam Aiya, The Travancore State
Travancore State
Manual, Volume-2, Madras:AES, 1989 (1906), page 72. ^ G.Patrick, Religion and Subaltern Agency, University of Madras, 2003, The Subaltern Agency in Ayyavali, Page 174. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011. Towards Modern Kerala, 10th Standard Text Book, Chapter 9, Page 101. See this Pdf ^ C.f. Rev.Samuel Zechariah, The London Missionary Society in South Travancore, Page 201. ^ A. Sreedhara, Menon. A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. pp. 271–273.  ^ "During his rule, the revenues of the State were nearly quadrupled from a little over Rs 21/2 crore to over Rs 91/2 crore." - 'THE STORY OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE INDIAN STATES' by V. P. MENON ^ Supreme Court, Of India. "GOOD GOVERNANCE: JUDICIARY AND THE RULE OF LAW" (PDF). Sree Chithira Thirunal
Chithira Thirunal
Memorial Lecture, 29 December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2014.  ^ Gauri Lakshmi Bai, Aswathy Thirunal (1998). Sree Padmanabhaswamy Kshetram. Thiruvananthapuram: The State Institute Of Languages, Kerala. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-81-7638-028-7.  ^ Menon, A. Sreedhara (1967). A Survey Of Kerala
Kerala
History. Kottayam: D C Books. p. 273. ISBN 81-264-1578-9.  ^ Dominique Lapierre, Pg 260 ^ Dominique Lapierre, Pg 261 ^ A. G. Noorani (2003). "C.P. and independent Travancore". Frontline. 20 (13).  ^ Sir C. P. Remembered, Pg 112 ^ Sir C. P. Remembered, Pg 113 ^ K. N. Panikker (20 April 2003). "In the Name of Biography". The Hindu.  ^ Gauri Lakshmi Bai, Aswathy Thirunal (July 1998). Sree Padmanabha Swamy Kshetram. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala: The State Institute Of Languages. pp. 278–282, 242–243, 250–251. ISBN 978-81-7638-028-7.  ^ .THE CONSTITUTION (TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1971 ^ Aiya 1906, p. 329-30. ^ de Vries, Hubert (2009-10-26). "Travancore". Hubert Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-06-27.  ^ a b Cahoon, Ben. "Princely States of India
India
K-Z". World Statesmen.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-01. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ The ordinal number of the term being served by the person specified in the row in the corresponding period ^ Shungoony Menon, P. (1878). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times (pdf). Madras: Higgin Botham & Co. p. 486. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ "Table 1 - Area, houses and population". 1941 Census of India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2014-03-29.  ^ THE HINDU by STAFF REPORTER, May 14, 2013, ‘Simplicity hallmark of Travancore
Travancore
royal family’- National seminar on the last phase of monarchy in Travancore
Travancore
inaugurated: "History is replete with instances where the Travancore
Travancore
royal family functioned more as servants of the State than rulers who exploited the masses. The simplicity that the family consistently upheld in all aspects of governance distinguished it from other contemporary monarchies, said Governor of West Bengal M.K. Narayanan" ^ "Sree Chithira Thirunal, was a noble model of humility, simplicity, piety and total dedication to the welfare of the people. In the late 19th and early 20th century when many native rulers were callously squandering the resources Of their, states, this young Maharaja was able to shine like a solitary star in the firmament, with his royal dignity, transparent sincerity, commendable intelligence and a strong sense of duty."- 'A Magna Carta of Religious Freedom' Speech By His Excellency V.Rachaiya, Governor of Kerala, delivered at Kanakakkunnu Palace on 25.10.1992 ^ Santhanam, Kausalya (March 30, 2003). "Royal vignettes: Travancore
Travancore
- Simplicity graces this House". The Hindu
Hindu
(magazine section). Retrieved 14 February 2014. 

Bibliography

Aiya, V. Nagam (1906). Travancore State
Travancore State
Manual. Travancore
Travancore
Government Press. 

Travancore State
Travancore State
Manual (Digital book format) Further reading[edit]

Hatch, Emily Gilchriest (1934). Pictures of Travancore. Oxford University Press. p. 64.  Hatch, Emily Gilchriest (1933). Travancore: A guide book for the visitor with thirty-two illustrations and two maps. Calcutta: Oxford University Press. p. 270.  (a second revision was published in 1939) Menon, P. Shungoonny (1879). A History of Travancore
Travancore
from the Earliest Times. Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Travancore.

Travancore State
Travancore State
Manual by T.K.Velu Pillai History of Travancore
Travancore
by Christopher Buyers

v t e

State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Symbols

Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen

Topics

Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports

Districts

Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14

Taluks

Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur

Municipalities

Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions

Malabar

North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

Travancore
Travancore
region

Districts

Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
(Part) Thiruvananthapuram Kollam Pathanamthitta Alappuzha Kottayam Idukki Ernakulam (Part)

Towns and Cities

Nagarcoil Kanyakumari Thovala Suchindram Manavalakurichy Kaliyakkavilai Mandaikadu Marthandam Neyyoor Thiruvithancode Kolachal Thiruvananthapuram Parassala Neyyattinkara Nedumangadu Venjaramoodu Aryanad Vembayam Chirayinkeezhu Attingal Varkala Avanavancherry Kallambalam Kilimanoor Kottarakara Neduvathoor Ayoor Anchal Edamulackal Chadayamangalam Chathannoor Kalluvathukkal Kottiyam Kollam Paravur Parippally Munroethuruth Mayyanad Punalur Pathanapuram Manchalloor Pidavoor Kottarakkara Adoor Konni Pathanamthitta Kozhencherry Aranmula Kumbanad Ranni Vadasserikkara Mallapally Tiruvalla Parumala Mannar Edathua Chengannur Mavelikkara Padanilam Nilakkal Chettikulangara Kayamkulam Haripad Ambalappuzha Alappuzha Mankombu Mararikulam Cherthala Aroor Changanacherry Vazhoor Karukachal Kottayam Kumarakam Pambadi Ettumanoor Vaikom Kaduthuruthy Thalayolaparambu Kuravilangad Palai Uzhavoor Poonjar Erattupetta Kanjirappally Ponkunnam Erumely Mundakayam Vagamon Peermade Kumily Kattappana Adimali Vechoor North Paravur Alengad Angamaly Kalady Aluva Perumbavoor Muvattupuzha Kothamangalam Arakuzha Koothattukulam Piravom Kolenchery Kizhakkambalam Idukki Thodupuzha Painavu Munnar Devikulam Kannan Devan Hills Marayur Adimali Udumbanchola Nedumkandam Kattappana Rajakkad

v t e

Gun salute
Gun salute
Princely states
Princely states
during the British Raj

21-gun salute

Baroda Gwalior Hyderabad Jammu & Kashmir Mysore

19-gun salute

Bhopal Indore Kalat Kolhapur Travancore Udaipur

17-gun salute

Bahawalpur Bharatpur Bikaner Bundi Cochin Cutch Jaipur Jodhpur Karauli Kota Patiala Pudukkottai Rewa Tonk

15-gun salute

Alwar Banswara Datia Dewas Dhar Dholpur Dungarpur Idar Jaisalmer Khairpur Kishangarh Orchha Pratapgarh Rampur Sikkim Sirohi

13-gun salute

Benares Bhavnagar Cooch Behar Dhrangadhra Jaora Jhalawar Jind Junagadh Kapurthala Nabha Nawanagar Palanpur Porbandar Rajpipla Ratlam Tripura

11-gun salute

Ajaigarh Alirajpur Baoni Barwani Bijawar Bilaspur Cambay Chamba Charkhari Chhatarpur Chitral Faridkot Tehri Garhwal Gondal Janjira/Jafrabad Jhabua Malerkotla Mandi Manipur Morvi Narsinghgarh Panna Radhanpur Rajgarh Sailana Samthar Sirmur Sitamau Suket Wankaner

9-gun salute

Balasinor Banganapalle Bansda Baraundha Baria Bhor Chhota Udaipur Danta Dharampur Dhrol Jawhar Kalahandi Khilchipur Limbdi Loharu Lunavada Maihar Mayurbhanj Mudhol Nagod Palitana Patna Rajkot Sachin Sangli Sant Sawantwadi Shahpura Sonepur Wadhwan Yawnghwe

List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical) Salute state

v t e

Princely states
Princely states
of the Madras States Agency
Madras States Agency
during the British Raj

Salute states

Banganapalle Cochin Pudukkottai Travancore

Non-salute states

Sandur

List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical)

Coordinates: 8°26′N 76°55′E / 8.433°N 76.917°E / 8

.