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The transtheoretical model of behavior change is an integrative theory of therapy that assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual.[1] The model is composed of constructs such as: stages of change, processes of change, levels of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance.[1]

The transtheoretical model is also known by the abbreviation "TTM"[2] and sometimes by the term "stages of change",[3][4] although this latter term is a synecdoche since the stages of change are only one part of the model along with processes of change, levels of change, etc.[1][5] Several self-help booksChanging for Good (1994),[6] Changeology (2012),[7] and Changing to Thrive (2016)[8]—and articles in the news media[9][10][11][12][13] have discussed the model. It has been called "arguably the dominant model of health behaviour change, having received unprecedented research attention, yet it has simultaneously attracted criticism".[14]

This core construct "reflects the individual's relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing".[16][nb 5] Decision making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann as a "decisional balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses.[31] Decisional balance measures, the pros and the cons, have become critical constructs in the transtheoretical model. The pros and cons combine to form a decisional "balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses. The balance between the pros and cons varies depending on which stage of change the individual is in.

Sound decision making requires the consideration of the potential benefits (pros) and costs (cons) associated with a behavior's consequences. TTM research has found the following relationships between the pros, cons, and the stage of change across 48 behaviors and over 100 populations studied.

The evaluation of pros and cons is part of the formation of decisional balance. During the change process, individuals gradually increase the pros and decrease the cons forming a more positive balance towards the target behaviour. Attitudes are one of the core constructs explaining behaviour and behaviour change in various research domains.[33] Other behaviour models, such as the theory of planned beh

This core construct "reflects the individual's relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing".[16][nb 5] Decision making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann as a "decisional balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses.[31] Decisional balance measures, the pros and the cons, have become critical constructs in the transtheoretical model. The pros and cons combine to form a decisional "balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses. The balance between the pros and cons varies depending on which stage of change the individual is in.

Sound decision making requires the consideration of the potential benefits (pros) and costs (cons) associated with a behavior's consequences. TTM research has found the following relationships between the pros, cons, and the stage of change across 48 behaviors and over 100 populations studied.