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A TRANSPORT HUB (also TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes . Public transport hubs include train stations , rapid transit stations , bus stops , tram stop , airports and ferry slips . Freight hubs include classification yards , airports, seaports and truck terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport , the parking lot functions as a hub.

Historically, an interchange service in the scheduled passenger air transport industry involved a "through plane" flight operated by two or more airlines where a single aircraft was used with the individual airlines operating it with their own flight crews on their respective portions of a direct, no change of plane multi-stop flight. In the U.S., a number of air carriers including Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines
, American Airlines , Braniff International Airways , Continental Airlines , Delta Air Lines , Eastern Airlines , National Airlines (1934-1980)
National Airlines (1934-1980)
, Pan Am , Trans World Airlines ( TWA
TWA
), United Airlines
United Airlines
and Western Airlines previously operated such cooperative "through plane" interchange flights on both domestic and/or international services in the past with these schedules appearing in their respective system timetables.

Delta Air Lines pioneered the hub and spoke system for aviation in 1955 from its hub in Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia
, United States
United States
, in an effort to compete with Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
. FedEx adopted the hub and spoke model for overnight package delivery during the 1970s. When the United States airline industry was deregulated in 1978, Delta's hub and spoke paradigm was annexed by several airlines. A large number of airlines around the world operate hub and spoke systems facilitating passenger connections between their respective flights.

CONTENTS

* 1 Public transport * 2 Airports
Airports
* 3 Freight * 4 See also * 5 References

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

Intermodal passenger transport
Intermodal passenger transport
hubs in public transport include bus stations, railway stations and metro stations , while a major transport hub, often multimodal (bus and rail), may be referred to in American English as a TRANSPORT CENTER or TRANSIT CENTER. Sections of city streets that are devoted to functioning as transit hubs are referred to as transit malls .

Modern electronic passenger information systems and journey planners require a digital representation of the stops and transportation hubs including their topology . Public transport data information standards such as Transmodel and IFOPT have been developed to provide a common terminology, conceptual models and data exchange formats to allow the collection and distribution of stop and interchange data.

AIRPORTS

Main article: Airline hub

Airports
Airports
have a twofold hub function. First they concentrate passenger traffic into one place for onward transportation. This makes it important for airports to be connected to the surrounding transport infrastructure, including roads, bus services, railway and rapid transit systems. Secondly some airports function as intra-modular hubs for the airlines, or airline hubs . This is a common strategy among network airlines who fly only from limited number of airports and usually will make their customers change planes at one of their hubs if they want to get between two cities the airline doesn't fly directly between.

Airlines have extended the hub-and-spoke model in various ways. One method is to create additional hubs on a regional basis, and to create major routes between the hubs. This reduces the need to travel long distances between nodes that are close together. Another method is to use focus cities to implement point-to-point service for high traffic routes, bypassing the hub entirely.

FREIGHT

There are usually three kinds of freight hubs: sea-road, sea-rail and road-rail, though they can also be sea-road-rail. With the growth of containerization , intermodal freight transport has become more efficient, often making multiple legs cheaper than through services—increasing the use of hubs.

SEE ALSO

* Central station
Central station
* Infrastructure security * Intermodal Journey Planner * Junction (traffic) * Layover * Spoke-hub distribution paradigm

REFERENCES

This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

* ^ http://www.timetableimages.com, April 24, 1966 Jan. 15, 1956 Continental Airlines system timetable; Sept. 30, 1966 Delta Air Lines system timetable; June 1, 1980 Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines
system timetable; April 24, 1966 United Airlines
United Airlines
system timetable; March 2, 1962 National Airlines system timetable; June 1, 1969 Pan Am system timetable * ^ http://www.departedflights.com, March 1, 1981 Western Airlines route map * ^ Delta Air Lines . "Delta through decades". * ^ "A transit center is a major transit hub served by several bus or rail lines." Tri-Met: Transit Centers

* v * t * e

Public transport

BUS SERVICE

* Bus
Bus

* list

* Bus
Bus
rapid transit * Charabanc * Express bus * Guided bus

* Intercity bus

* driver

* Open top bus * Public light bus * Rail replacement bus * Shuttle bus * Transit bus * Trolleybus

RAIL

* Cable car * Commuter rail * Funicular
Funicular
* Heavy rail * Heritage railway * Heritage streetcar * High-speed rail * Horsecar
Horsecar
* Inter-city rail * Interurban
Interurban
* Light rail
Light rail
* Medium-capacity rail transport system * Monorail * Rapid transit * Regional rail * Rubber-tyred metro
Rubber-tyred metro
* Street running * Tram
Tram
* Tram-train

VEHICLES FOR HIRE

* Auto rickshaw
Auto rickshaw
* Boda-boda * Cycle rickshaw
Cycle rickshaw
* Gondola * Hackney carriage
Hackney carriage
* Limousine * Motorcycle taxi * Paratransit * Personal rapid transit
Personal rapid transit
* Pulled rickshaw * Share taxi * Taxicab

CARPOOLING

* Car jockey * Flexible carpooling * Real-time ridesharing * Slugging
Slugging
* Vanpool

SHIP

* Cable ferry
Cable ferry
* Ferry
Ferry
* Hovercraft
Hovercraft
* Hydrofoil
Hydrofoil
* Ocean liner * Water taxi
Water taxi

OTHER TRANSPORT

* Aerial tramway * Airline * Airliner
Airliner
* Bicycle-sharing * Carsharing
Carsharing
* Elevator
Elevator
* Escalator
Escalator
* Gondola lift * Horse-drawn vehicle
Horse-drawn vehicle
* Maglev
Maglev
* Moving walkway * People mover * Trackless train

LOCATIONS

* Airport
Airport
* Bus
Bus
bulb * Bus
Bus
garage (bus depot) * Bus
Bus
lane * Bus
Bus
stand * Bus
Bus
station * Bus stop
Bus stop
* Bus
Bus
terminus * Bus
Bus
turnout (bus bay) * Circle route * Cross-city route * Dry dock
Dry dock
* Hangar * Harbor
Harbor
* Interchange station
Interchange station
* Kassel kerb * Layover * Metro station * Park and ride * Port
Port
* Queue jump * Radial route * Taxicab stand * Train station
Train station
* Tram stop * Transit mall * Transport hub * Transport network

TICKETING AND FARES

* Automated fare collection * Bus
Bus
advertising * Contract of carriage * Dead mileage * Exit fare * Fare
Fare
avoidance * Fare
Fare
evasion * Farebox recovery ratio * Free public transport * Free travel pass * Integrated ticketing * Manual fare collection * Money train * Paid area * Proof-of-payment * Reduced fare program * Smart cards * Ticket machine * Transfer * Transit pass

FACILITIES

* Checked baggage
Checked baggage
* First class * Sleeper * Standing passenger * Travel class

SCHEDULING

* Bus
Bus
bunching * Clock-face scheduling * Headway * On-time performance * Public transport timetable * Short turn

OTHER TOPICS

* Airport
Airport
security * Boarding * Crush load * Destination sign
Destination sign
* Hail and ride * Network length * Non-revenue track * Prohibited activities * Rail subsidies * Request stop * Passenger
Passenger
load factor * Security * Transit district * Transit map *