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A transport hub (also transport interchange) is a place where passengers and cargo are exchanged between vehicles or between transport modes. Public transport
Public transport
hubs include train stations, rapid transit stations, bus stops, tram stop, airports and ferry slips. Freight hubs include classification yards, airports, seaports and truck terminals, or combinations of these. For private transport, the parking lot functions as a hub. Historically, an interchange service in the scheduled passenger air transport industry involved a "through plane" flight operated by two or more airlines where a single aircraft was used with the individual airlines operating it with their own flight crews on their respective portions of a direct, no change of plane multi-stop flight. In the U.S., a number of air carriers including Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Braniff International Airways, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Airlines, National Airlines (1934-1980), Pan Am, Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines
(TWA), United Airlines
United Airlines
and Western Airlines previously operated such cooperative "through plane" interchange flights on both domestic and/or international services in the past with these schedules appearing in their respective system timetables.[1][2] Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
pioneered the hub and spoke system for aviation in 1955 from its hub in Atlanta, Georgia, United States,[3] in an effort to compete with Eastern Air Lines. FedEx adopted the hub and spoke model for overnight package delivery during the 1970s. When the United States airline industry was deregulated in 1978, Delta's hub and spoke paradigm was annexed by several airlines. A large number of airlines around the world operate hub and spoke systems facilitating passenger connections between their respective flights.

Contents

1 Public transport 2 Airports 3 Freight 4 See also 5 References

Public transport[edit] Intermodal passenger transport
Intermodal passenger transport
hubs in public transport include bus stations, railway stations and metro stations, while a major transport hub, often multimodal (bus and rail), may be referred to as a transport center or, in American English
American English
or Canadian English, as a transit center.[4] Sections of city streets that are devoted to functioning as transit hubs are referred to as transit malls. Modern electronic passenger information systems and journey planners require a digital representation of the stops and transportation hubs including their topology. Public transport
Public transport
data information standards such as Transmodel and IFOPT have been developed to provide a common terminology, conceptual models and data exchange formats to allow the collection and distribution of stop and interchange data. Airports[edit] Main article: Airline
Airline
hub Airports
Airports
have a twofold hub function. First they concentrate passenger traffic into one place for onward transportation. This makes it important for airports to be connected to the surrounding transport infrastructure, including roads, bus services, and railway and rapid transit systems. Secondly some airports function as intra-modular hubs for the airlines, or airline hubs. This is a common strategy among network airlines who fly only from limited number of airports and usually will make their customers change planes at one of their hubs if they want to get between two cities the airline doesn't fly directly between. Airlines have extended the hub-and-spoke model in various ways. One method is to create additional hubs on a regional basis, and to create major routes between the hubs. This reduces the need to travel long distances between nodes that are close together. Another method is to use focus cities to implement point-to-point service for high traffic routes, bypassing the hub entirely. Freight[edit] There are usually three kinds of freight hubs: sea-road, sea-rail and road-rail, though they can also be sea-road-rail. With the growth of containerization, intermodal freight transport has become more efficient, often making multiple legs cheaper than through services—increasing the use of hubs.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Central station Infrastructure security Intermodal Journey Planner Junction (traffic) Layover Spoke-hub distribution paradigm

References[edit]

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^ http://www.timetableimages.com, April 24, 1966 & July 1, 1986 Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways
system timetables; Jan. 15, 1956 Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
system timetable; Sept. 30, 1966 Delta Air Lines system timetable; June 1, 1980 Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines
system timetable; April 24, 1966 United Airlines
United Airlines
system timetable; March 2, 1962 National Airlines system timetable; June 1, 1969 Pan Am
Pan Am
system timetable ^ http://www.departedflights.com, March 1, 1981 Western Airlines
Western Airlines
route map ^ Delta Air Lines. "Delta through decades".  ^ "A transit center is a major transit hub served by several bus or rail lines." Tri-Met: Transit Centers

v t e

Public transport

Bus
Bus
service

Bus

list

Bus
Bus
rapid transit Charabanc Express bus Guided bus Intercity bus

driver

Open top bus Public light bus Rail replacement bus Shuttle bus Transit bus Trolleybus

Rail

Cable car Commuter rail Funicular Heavy rail Heritage railway Heritage streetcar High-speed rail Horsecar Inter-city rail Interurban Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Monorail Rapid transit Regional rail Rubber-tyred metro Street running Tram Tram-train

Vehicles for hire

Auto rickshaw Boda-boda Cycle rickshaw Gondola Hackney carriage Limousine Motorcycle taxi Paratransit Personal rapid transit Pulled rickshaw Share taxi Taxicab

Carpooling

Car jockey Flexible carpooling Real-time ridesharing Slugging Vanpool

Ship

Cable ferry Ferry Hovercraft Hydrofoil Ocean liner Water taxi

Other transport

Aerial tramway Airline Airliner Bicycle-sharing Carsharing Elevator Escalator Gondola
Gondola
lift Horse-drawn vehicle Maglev Moving walkway People mover Trackless train

Locations

Airport Bus
Bus
bulb Bus
Bus
garage (bus depot) Bus
Bus
lane Bus
Bus
stand Bus
Bus
station Bus
Bus
stop Bus
Bus
terminus Bus
Bus
turnout (bus bay) Dry dock Hangar Harbor Interchange station Kassel kerb Layover Metro station Park and ride Port Queue jump Taxicab
Taxicab
stand Train station Tram
Tram
stop Transit mall Transport hub

Ticketing and fares

Automated fare collection Bus
Bus
advertising Contract of carriage Dead mileage Exit fare Fare
Fare
avoidance Fare
Fare
evasion Farebox recovery ratio Free public transport Free travel pass Integrated ticketing Manual fare collection Money train Paid area Proof-of-payment Reduced fare program Smart cards Ticket machine Transfer Transit pass

Routing

Circle route Cross-city route Network length Non-revenue track Radial route Transport network

Facilities

Checked baggage First class Sleeper Standing passenger Travel class

Scheduling

Bus
Bus
bunching Clock-face scheduling Headway On-time performance Public transport
Public transport
timetable Short turn

Politics

Airport
Airport
security Rail subsidies Security Transit district Transit police Transit-oriented development
Transit-oriented development
(TOD) Transportation authority

Other topics

Boarding Crush load Destination sign Hail and ride Prohibited activities Request stop Passenger
Passenger
load

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