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The Transport Act 1947
Transport Act 1947
(c. 49) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under the terms of the Act, the railway network, long-distance road haulage and various other types of transport were nationalised and handed over to a new British Transport Commission for operation. The commission was responsible to the Ministry of Transport for general transport policy, which it exercised principally through financial control of a number of executives set up to manage specified sections of the industry under schemes of delegation.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Road transport 3 Railways 4 Transport Act 1962 5 References 6 External links

Overview[edit] The Act was part of the nationalisation agenda of Clement Attlee's Labour government, and took effect from 1 January 1948. In Northern Ireland, the Ulster Transport Authority
Ulster Transport Authority
acted in a similar manner. The government also nationalised other means of transport such as: canals, sea and shipping ports, bus companies, and eventually, in the face of much opposition, road haulage. All of these transport modes, including British Railways, were brought under the control of a new body, the British Transport Commission (BTC). The BTC was a part of a highly ambitious scheme to create a publicly-owned, centrally planned, integrated transport system. In theory, the BTC was to co-ordinate different modes of transport, to co-operate and supplement each other instead of competing. This was to be achieved by means of fare and rate adjustments. In practice, very little integration between modes ever materialised. Section 5 of the Act provided for the setting up of a number of Executives within the BTC: the Railway Executive; the Docks and Inland Waterways Executive; the Road Transport Executive; and the London Transport Executive were to be created immediately, with the Hotels Executive to be set up at a later date. The same section allowed the number and names of these Executives to be varied as necessary. Road transport[edit] The road haulage industry bitterly opposed nationalisation, and found allies in the Conservative Party. Once the Conservatives were elected in 1951, road haulage was soon privatised and deregulated, but the railways and buses remained regulated, and were left under the control of the British Transport Commission. Railways[edit] Further information: list of constituents of British Railways After the Second World War, the Big Four railway companies of the grouping era were effectively bankrupt, and the Act was intended to bring about some stability in transport policy. As part of that policy, British Railways was established to run the railways. (The Transport Act 1948 later transferred the lines in Northern Ireland formerly of the LMS, the Northern Counties Committee, to the Ulster Transport Authority.) Shares in the railway companies were exchanged for British Transport Stock, with a guaranteed 3% return chargeable to the BTC,[1] and were repayable after forty years. The level of compensation paid has proved to be a matter of historical controversy.[citation needed] Some commentators, including The Economist and the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
stated that because the Government based the levels of compensation for former railway shareholders on the valuation of their shares in 1946 (when the whole railway infrastructure was in a run-down and dilapidated state because of war damage and minimal maintenance) the railways were acquired comparatively cheaply.[2] However, others[who?] point out that three of the Big Four were effectively bankrupt before the onset of war in 1939 and were only saved from the ignominy of actually declaring bankruptcy by the guaranteed income provided by the wartime government and the temporary surge in rail traffic caused by the restrictions on other forms of transport during and immediately after the war. The exchange of potentially worthless private stock for government gilts based on a valuation during an artificially created boom could thus be considered a very good deal.[citation needed] Despite nationalisation and the creation of British Railways (BR), the rail system changed little, and was left in much the same way as it had been before nationalisation.[citation needed] BR was divided into six administrative regions: Eastern, London Midland, North Eastern, Scottish, Southern and Western. These closely mirrored the regions covered by the former companies in England and Wales, although with the addition of a separate Scottish Region. The North Eastern Region was eventually amalgamated with the Eastern Region, reflecting the English operations of the 1923–1947 London and North Eastern Railway. Transport Act 1962[edit] Fifteen years later, under the Transport Act 1962, Harold Macmillan's Conservative government dissolved the British Transport Commission and created the British Railways Board to take over railway duties from 1 January 1963 and the Transport Holding Company to take over bus operations from the same date. References[edit]

^ "The Nationalised Railway: 1948 – 1992". The Railways Archive. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2008.  ^ http://www.transportmyths.co.uk/Nationalisation.htm

External links[edit]

Summary of the Act Text of the Act

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United Kingdom
United Kingdom
legislation

Pre-Parliamentary legislation

List of English statutes Charter of Liberties Magna Carta

Acts of Parliament by states preceding the Kingdom of Great Britain

Parliament of England

to 1483 1485–1601 1603–1641 Interregnum (1642–1660) 1660–1699 1700–1706

Parliament of Scotland

to 1706

Acts of Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain

1707–1719 1720–1739 1740–1759 1760–1779 1780–1800

Acts of the Parliament of Ireland

to 1700 1701–1800

Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland

1801–1819 1820–1839 1840–1859 1860–1879 1880–1899 1900–1919 1920–1939 1940–1959 1960–1979 1980–1999 2000 to date Halsbury's Statutes Legislation.gov.uk Short titles

relating to the European Union

1972 to date

Church of England
Church of England
measures

List Church of England
Church of England
Assembly (Powers) Act 1919

Legislation of devolved institutions

Acts of the Scottish Parliament

List

Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales

List

Acts of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland

Orders-in-Council / Orders in Council

Orders-in-Council

for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(1972-2009)

Orders in Council for Northern Ireland

Secondary legislation

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Statutory Instruments

various

Scottish Statutory Instruments

Acts of Sederunt Acts of Adjournal all others

v t e

History of bus transport in the United Kingdom

General

Charabanc John Greenwood

Organisations

British Electric Traction British Transport Commission Defunct manufacturers Former PTE bus operators National Bus Company (UK) Scottish Bus Group Transport Holding Company Tilling Group Ulster Transport Authority

Regulation

Bus deregulation Former municipal bus companies History of the PTE bus operations

London

History of public transport authorities in London AEC Routemaster Buses in London Former London bus operators London Country Bus Services London Omnibus Traction Society London General Omnibus Company Privatisation of London bus services Star Omnibus Company

Parliamentary Acts

London Traffic Act 1924 Road Traffic Act 1930 Transport Act 1947 Transport Act 1962 Transport Act 1968 London Regional Transport Act 1984 Transport Act 1985

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British Rail

History

1955 Modernisation Plan Beeching cuts Serpell Report Privatisation of British Rail Accidents

Legislation

Transport Act 1947 Transport Act 1962 Railways Act 1993 Transport Act 2000

Management

British Transport Commission British Railways Board BRB (Residuary) Limited

Regions

Eastern London Midland North Eastern Scottish Southern Western

Services, sectors and subsidiaries

Passenger

InterCity Network NorthWest Network SouthEast Regional Railways ScotRail

Freight

Railfreight Rail Express Systems Railfreight
Railfreight
Distribution

Speedlink Freightliner

Trainload Freight Red Star Parcels

Other

British Rail
British Rail
Engineering British Rail
British Rail
Research Division British Rail
British Rail
Telecommunications British Transport Hotels Sealink Travellers Fare

Media and Publicity

Blue Pullman Killing Time Age of the Train Railnews The wrong type of snow

See also Category:

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