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This article deals with the system of transport in Turkey, both public and private.

Contents

1 Rail transport

1.1 Rail network 1.2 Urban rail 1.3 Railway links with adjacent countries

2 Road transport

2.1 Road network 2.2 Public road transport 2.3 Car
Car
ownership

3 Air transport

3.1 Airlines 3.2 Airports

4 Water transport

4.1 Ports and harbors

5 Pipelines 6 See also 7 References

Rail transport[edit] Rail network[edit] Main articles: Rail transport in Turkey and History of rail transport in Turkey

Rail transport map of Turkey
Turkey
along with urban rail networks indication

The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish State Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005).[1] There are daily regular passenger trains all through the network.[2] TCDD has started an investment program of building 5.000 km high-speed lines until 2023. By February 2014, three high speed train routes are running. Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara- Konya
Konya
and Eskişehir-Konya. The freight transportation is mainly organized as block trains for domestic routes, since TCDD discourages under 200 to loads by surcharges. In 2004, Marmaray
Marmaray
project started on a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus straits. Between Istanbul
Istanbul
and Ankara, a high speed railroad line is being constructed now next to the normal speed railroad which is being renovated. When finished, travel time between the two major cities will reduce from 6,5 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes, using trains ordered from Spain that can reach up to 250 km/h. Construction of a high speed railroad line between Ankara
Ankara
and Konya
Konya
was begun in order to connect the two cities with a direct line and reduced travel time from several hours to approximately one hour. The high speed railroad line between Ankara
Ankara
and Konya
Konya
was finished on 3 June 2011 and was put into service on 23 August 2011. Several other high speed and normal railroad projects are currently in the planning stage.[3] Because of works connected with the Marmaray
Marmaray
and Istanbul- Ankara
Ankara
high speed line there are currently no rail services linking Istanbul
Istanbul
with the rest of Anatolia. The suburban services from Haydarpaşa
Haydarpaşa
terminate at Pendik
Pendik
where the train tracks end. Urban rail[edit]

Trams in Kayseri

After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey
Turkey
is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award-winning tram network belongs to Eskişehir, (EsTram) a city with a new tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, usually with modern low-floow trams. By 2014, there have been 12 cities in Turkey
Turkey
using metro, light rail and tram systems. They are Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Konya, Samsun, Adana, Antalya
Antalya
and Adapazari. The total network is more than 500 kilometers and the rolling stock exceeds 1800 by now.[4]

Cities with commuter rail systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir Cities with metro systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Bursa Cities with light rail transit systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Bursa, Eskişehir, Konya, Antalya, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Samsun

Railway links with adjacent countries[edit]

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
- via Georgia - under construction Armenia
Armenia
- closed (see Kars Gyumri Akhalkalaki railway line)[5] Bulgaria
Bulgaria
- open - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) Greece
Greece
- open - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Note: Passenger services as Express of Friendship/Filia suspended from 13 February 2012 [6]) Georgia - under reconstruction - break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in). Iran
Iran
- via Lake Van
Lake Van
train ferry - same gauge Iraq
Iraq
- No direct link, traffic routed via Syria
Syria
- same gauge Syria
Syria
- closed - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Note: It was suspended after breakout of Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
in 29 August 2011)

Road transport[edit] Road network[edit] Main article: List of highways in Turkey

Turkish Otoyol network map

There are two types of intercity roads in Turkey: - The first is the historical and free road network called State roads (Devlet Yolları) that are completely under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Highways except for urban sections (like the sections falling within the inner part of ring roads of Ankara, Istanbul
Istanbul
or İzmir. Even if they mostly possess dual carriageways and interchanges, they also have some traffic lights and intersections. - The second type of roads are controlled-access highways that are officially named Otoyol. But it isn't uncommon that people in Turkey call them Otoban (referring to Autobahn) as this types of roads entered popular culture by the means of Turks in Germany. They also depend on the General Directorate of Highways except the newest Otoyol 5 that is financed with a BOT model.

Total network: 426,906 km

Paved: 177,550 km (2004)

Motorways: 2,080 km (2010) Dual carriageways: 16,784 km (2010)[7]

Unpaved: 249,356 km (2004)

As of 2010, there are 155 tunnels (total length 99.5 km) and 6447 bridges (total length 296.3 km) on the network.[8][9] Public road transport[edit]

Ankara
Ankara
intercity bus station

There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey. For local trips to villages there are dolmuşes, small vans that seat about twenty passengers. As of 2010, number of road vehicles is around 15 million. The number of vehicles by type and use is as follows.[10]

Car
Car
7,544,871 Minibus
Minibus
386,973 Bus
Bus
208,510 Small truck 2,399,038 Truck
Truck
726,359 Motorcycle
Motorcycle
2,389,488 Special
Special
Purpose vehicle 35,492 Tractor
Tractor
1,404,872 Total: 15,095,603

Car
Car
ownership[edit] According to the figures released by Turkey's statistics authority (TurkStat) the total number of motor vehicles in Turkey
Turkey
reached 15.023 million as of November 2010.[11] The provinces with the highest rates of car ownership were:-

1 - Ankara
Ankara
(158 cars per 1,000 pop.) 2 - İstanbul (129) 3 - Muğla (106) 4 - İzmir
İzmir
(103) 5 - Eskişehir
Eskişehir
(98) 6 - Denizli (98) 7 - Antalya
Antalya
(95) 8 - Burdur (90) 9 - Kayseri
Kayseri
(85) 10- Karabük (84) 11- Bursa
Bursa
(83) 12- Zonguldak
Zonguldak
(79)

Total number of passenger cars was 6,472,156 at the end of 2007. Total number of motor vehicles (excluding tractors and construction vehicles) was 11,695,611 at the end of 2007.[12][13][14] The number of passenger cars had increased to 9,800,000 by 2010.[15] Air transport[edit] Main article: Aviation in Turkey In 2013 Turkey
Turkey
had the tenth largest passenger air market in the world with 74,353,297 passengers.[16] Airlines[edit] Main articles: List of airlines of Turkey
Turkey
and List of defunct airlines of Turkey

Turkish Airlines, the flag carrier of Turkey

Airports[edit] Main article: List of airports in Turkey

Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk airport, Turkey's busiest airport

Total number of Airports in Turkey: 117 (2007) Airports - with paved runways total: 88 over 3,047 m: 16 2,438 to 3,047 m:″ 33 1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 16 under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[17]) Airports - with unpaved runways total: 11 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 6 under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[17]) Heliports 20 (2010) Water transport[edit] About 1,200 km Ports and harbors[edit] Black Sea

Hopa Inebolu Samsun Trabzon Zonguldak

Aegean Sea

İzmir

Mediterranean Sea

İskenderun Mersin Antalya

Sea of Marmara

Gemlik Bandırma Istanbul İzmit Derince

Pipelines[edit] gas 10,706 km; oil 3,636 km; Total:14,342 km (2010) See also[edit]

Railways portal

Turkey Public transport
Public transport
in Istanbul List of highways in Turkey

References[edit]

^ TCDD Statistics - PDF file ^ Uysal, Onur. "Traveling by Train in Turkey", Rail Turkey, 05 Mar 2014 ^ Uysal, Onur. "5 Billion Needed Annually for High Speed Trains", Rail Turkey, 30 Jan 2014 ^ Uysal, Onur. "Public Transport by Rail in Turkish Cities", Rail Turkey, 18 September 2014 ^ Railway Gazette International - January 2008 p51 ^ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/home/detail/?id=233 ^ "Yol Ağı Bilgileri". Kgm.gov.tr. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ [2][dead link] ^ "::Türkiye Ýstatistik Kurumu Web sayfalarýna Hoţ Geldiniz::". Tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ "NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES -Number of registered motor vehicles in Turkey
Turkey
exceeds 15 million in November 2010. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ [3] ^ http://www.tuik.gov.tr/metaveri/52_m9.doc. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ [4][dead link] ^ World Bank Datebase, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.PSGR ^ a b "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 

v t e

Urban public transport networks and systems in Turkey

Suburban rail

Current

Ankara Istanbul İzmir

Future

Balikesir Gaziantep Istanbul
Istanbul
Monorail

Rapid transit

Metro

Current

Adana Ankara Bursa Istanbul Izmir

Future

Gaziantep Konya

Bus

Istanbul

Tram

Current

Antalya Bursa Eskişehir Gaziantep Istanbul Kocaeli İzmir
İzmir
(North Bay Coast) Izmir
Izmir
(South Bay Coast) Kayseri Konya Samsun

Ferry

Istanbul Izmir

v t e

Transport in Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

Eu

.