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Transkei
Transkei
(/trɑːnsˈkeɪ, -ˈkaɪ, trænz-/, meaning the area beyond [the river] Kei), officially the Republic of Transkei
Transkei
(Xhosa: iRiphabliki yeTranskei), was an unrecognised state in the southeastern region of South Africa
South Africa
from 1976 to 1994. It was a Bantustan—an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity—and operated as a nominally independent parliamentary democracy. Its capital was Umtata (renamed Mthatha
Mthatha
in 2004).[2] Transkei
Transkei
represented a significant precedent and historic turning point in South Africa's policy of apartheid and "separate development"; it was the first of four territories to be declared independent of South Africa. Throughout its existence, it remained an internationally unrecognised, diplomatically isolated, politically unstable de facto one-party state, which at one point broke relations with South Africa, the only country that acknowledged it as a legal entity. In 1994, it was reintegrated into its larger neighbour and became part of the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
province.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Establishment

1.1.1 International reaction

1.2 Troubled existence 1.3 Dissolution

2 Government and politics

2.1 Citizenship 2.2 Flag

3 Geography and demographics 4 Security forces 5 Notable persons 6 See also 7 References

History[edit] Main articles: History of South Africa
South Africa
and Apartheid Establishment[edit]

Internal borders, Transkei
Transkei
in red

The South African government set up the area as one of the two homelands for Xhosa-speaking people in Cape Province, the other being Ciskei; it was given nominal autonomy in 1963. Although the first election was contested and won by the Democratic Party, whose founder Chief Victor Poto was opposed to the notion of Bantustan independence,[3] the government was formed by the Transkei
Transkei
National Independence
Independence
Party. Of the 109 members in the regional parliament, 45 were elected and 64 were held by ex officio chiefs.[4] The entity became a nominally independent state in 1976 with its capital at Umtata
Umtata
(now Mthatha), although it was recognised only by South Africa
South Africa
and later by the other nominally independent republics within the TBVC-system. Chief Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima was Transkei's Prime Minister
Prime Minister
until 1979, when he assumed the office of President, a position he held until 1986. International reaction[edit] South African prime minister B. J. Vorster
B. J. Vorster
justified the declaration of Transkei
Transkei
as an independent republic by referring to "the right of every people to have full control over its own affairs" and wished " Transkei
Transkei
and its leaders God's richest blessings on the road ahead."[5]

My heritage commands me in the name of [Xhosa] nationhood to sacrifice the best of my abilities to the advancement of my own nation in its own country […].

- Kaiser Matanzima[6]

The General Assembly rejects the declaration of "independence" of the Transkei
Transkei
and declares it invalid.

- United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly[7]

A press release by the African National Congress
African National Congress
at the time rejected the Transkei's independence and condemned it as "designed to consolidate the inhuman policies of apartheid".[8] During its thirty-first session, in resolution A/RES/31/6 A, the General Assembly of the United Nations
United Nations
referred to Transkei's "sham independence" as "invalid," re-iterated its labeling of South Africa
South Africa
as a "racist régime," and called upon "all [g]overnments to deny any form of recognition to the so-called independent Transkei."[7] An article published in Time Magazine
Time Magazine
opined that though Transkei
Transkei
declared independence theoretically as a "free Black state", Matanzima ruled as the dictator of a one-party state. He banned local opposition parties and bought farmlands for himself and his family offered by the South African government at subsidised prices.[9] Matanzima published Independence
Independence
my Way in 1976, a book in which he argued that true liberation could only be gained through a confederation of black states; he described Transkei
Transkei
as a positive precedent and maintained that the liberation struggle chosen by the ANC would not be successful.[10] The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council supported moves not to recognise Transkei, and in Resolution 402 (1976) condemned moves by South Africa to pressure Lesotho
Lesotho
to recognise Transkei
Transkei
by closing its borders with the country. Troubled existence[edit] Throughout its existence, Transkei's economy remained dependent on that of its larger neighbour, with the local population being recruited as workers into South Africa's Rand mines.[11] Because of a territorial dispute,[12] Matanzima announced on 10 April 1978 that Transkei
Transkei
would break all diplomatic ties with South Africa,[13] including a unilateral withdrawal from the non-aggression pact between the two governments, and ordered that all South African Defence Force members seconded to the Transkei
Transkei
Army should leave. This created the unique situation of a country refusing to deal with the only internationally recognised nation it was recognised by. Matanzima soon backed down in the face of Transkei's dependence on South African economic aid. During his reign, Matanzima arrested state officials and journalists at will; in late 1979, he detained the head of the newly formed Democratic Progressive Party, Sabata Dalindyebo, king of the Thembu people and vocal opponent of apartheid, for violating the dignity and injuring the reputation of the president.[14] Dalindyebo went into exile in Zambia, a move that marked the end of official opposition politics in Transkei,[3] and in the 1981 election, the ruling Transkei National Independence
Independence
Party was re-elected, gaining 100% of all open seats.[15] On 20 February 1986, faced with South African evidence of corruption, Matanzima was forced to retire as President. He was succeeded by his brother George. Kaiser Matanzima was still described as Transkei's effective leader for a time,[16] but soon the two fell out and Kaiser was temporarily detained in the Transkei
Transkei
gaols in 1987; upon release, he was restricted to Qamata. General Bantu Holomisa of the Transkei Defence Force
Transkei Defence Force
forced the resignation and exile of Prime Minister
Prime Minister
George Matanzima in October 1987[17][18] and then overthrew Matanzima's successor, Prime Minister Stella Sigcau[19] in December 1987. Holomisa became the Head of State,[20] and the Transkei
Transkei
was from that point onwards effectively in (often uneasy) alliance with the African National Congress
African National Congress
and provided a relatively safe area for the ANC's activities. In 1990, Holomisa himself evaded a failed attempt to be ousted from his post, and when asked about the fate of his opponents, he claimed that they had died in the ensuing battles with TDF soldiers.[21] It was later found that those deemed responsible for the foiled coup had only suffered minor injuries, but were subsequently executed without trial.[22] Dissolution[edit] Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa The Transkei
Transkei
government was a participant in the Codesa
Codesa
negotiations for a new South Africa. The territory was reincorporated into South Africa on 27 April 1994, and the area became part of the Eastern Cape province. Government and politics[edit]

Political Parties in Transkei[3]

Democratic Party (DP) 1976-1979

Transkei
Transkei
National Independence
Independence
Party (TNIP) 1976-1987

New Democratic Party (NDP) 1976-1979

Transkei
Transkei
People's Freedom Party (TPFP) 1976-1979

Transkei
Transkei
National Progressive Party (TNPP) 1978-1979

Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) 1979-1980

Nominally, the Republic of Transkei
Transkei
was a parliamentary democracy which allowed for a multi-party system. During its existence, six different parties registered to compete in elections at different points of its history.[3] Until the military coup of 1987, the TNIP remained the ruling party, while the Transkei
Transkei
People's Freedom Party constituted the official opposition. Because its founder, Cromwell Diko, was a former member of the ruling party, and due to its continued support of President Matanzima's policies, there is a widely held belief that it was actually initiated by Matanzima himself to give the impression of free elections when in fact there were none.[3] Other parties that existed never did gain any representation in parliament. According to the Constitution of Transkei, parliament consisted of the president in joint session with the National Assembly and its laws and legislative decisions were immune to judicial review.[23] Seventy-five of its members were elected by popular vote from the various districts Transkei's territory was divided into. The remaining members were unelected Paramount Chiefs and ex officio chiefs whose number per district was enshrined in the constitution.[24] Citizenship[edit] With the establishment of the republic, the citizenry consisted of all those who had been holding the citizenship of the former territory of Transkei. Individuals were given no choice in this matter as the Transkeian constitution was a legally binding act; for the future, it provided citizenship regulations based on both jus sanguinis and jus soli. Citizenship by descent was given along the paternal line, regardless of a person's place of birth; in addition, any individual born within the republic's territory was eligible for citizenship, excluding those whose father held diplomatic immunity or was deemed an illegal immigrant and whose mother was a non-citizen.[25] Dual citizenship at birth was not permitted, and renunciation of one's citizenship was legally possible, but rendered the individual stateless in most cases. In effect, the regulations thus created an almost homogeneous population of Xhosa ethnicity, though exceptions existed. Flag[edit] The flag of Transkei
Transkei
is a triband. The colours are (from the top down) red ochre, white, and green.[26] Geography and demographics[edit]

Topographic map of the Transkei

Main articles: Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
and Demographics of South Africa The Transkei
Transkei
consisted of three disconnected sections with a total area covering 45,000 km2 (17,000 sq mi),.[27] The large main segment was bordered by the Umtamvuna River in the north and the Great Kei River
Great Kei River
in the south, with the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
mountain range, including parts of the landlocked kingdom of Lesotho, served as the eastern and western frontiers. A further two small segments occurred as landlocked isolates within South Africa. One of these was in the north-west, along the Orange River adjoining south-western Lesotho, and the other in the uMzimkhulu area to the east, each reflecting colonially designated tribal areas where Xhosa speaking peoples predominated. A large portion of the area was mountainous and not suitable for agriculture.[28] The majority of the population was Xhosa-speaking, and according to the Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Xhosa was the sole official language, but laws had to be translated into Sotho and English in order for them to come into effect, and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
was permissible in court proceedings and for other administrative purposes.[29] In addition, many thousands of northern Transkei residents spoke a small hybrid Nguni–Sotho language, called Phuthi.[30] Conflicting data exist about the number of inhabitants. According to the South African Encyclopaedia, the total population of the Transkei increased from 2,487,000 to 3,005,000 between 1960 and 1970.[31] An estimate of 1982 puts the number at about 2.3 million, with approximately 400,000 citizens residing permanently outside the territory's borders. Fewer than 10,000 individuals were of European descent, and the urbanisation-rate for the entire population was around 5%.[27] Security forces[edit] Main article: Transkei
Transkei
Defence Force The Transkei Defence Force
Transkei Defence Force
(TDF) was formed in October 1976 and numbered about 2,000, including one infantry battalion and an air wing with two light transporters and two helicopters.[32] By 1993, the number of troops had risen to 4,000.[33] Initial training was provided by the SADF,[34] and despite its diplomatic isolation, the government of Transkei
Transkei
received advice from and collaborated with Israeli counterinsurgency experts.[35] Armscor/Krygkor was its main supplier of weaponry. After breaking all diplomatic ties with South Africa, President Matanzima announced construction-plans for an international airport by an unnamed French consortium in order for "arms and troops from other countries" to be brought into Transkei
Transkei
without touching South African soil, but did not elaborate on where those resources would originate.[36] During its last days in 1994, the Transkei
Transkei
Police had 4,993 police officers, operating from 61 police stations throughout the territory.[37] With the dissolution of Transkei
Transkei
in 1994, the TDF and the Transkei Police were incorporated into the South African National Defence Force and the South African Police Service, respectively. Notable persons[edit]

D. G. M. Wood-Gush
D. G. M. Wood-Gush
FRSE
FRSE
expert on animal behaviour and father of "Free-range" farming born and raised in Transkei Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, former president of the ANC and President of South Africa
South Africa
1994–1999 Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki, Co-Deputy President of South Africa
South Africa
1994–1996, Deputy President of South Africa
South Africa
1996–1999, President of South Africa 1999–2008 Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki, former South African politician and leader of the ANC Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu, former South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the ANC Chief Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima, Transkei's first and longest serving president until 1986 George Mzivubu Mathanzima, Transkei's Prime Minister Bantu Holomisa, Chief of Staff of the Transkei
Transkei
Defense Force 1985–1987, Transkei's Head of State 1987–1994, South African Member of Parliament, President of the United Democratic Movement Oliver Tambo, former president of the ANC 1967-1991 Chris Hani, former SACP
SACP
General Secretary and liberation fighter. Stella Sigcau, Transkei
Transkei
Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and minister of public entreprises. Sabelo Gqwetha Phama, APLA Commander and Pan Africanist Congress of Azania Member

See also[edit]

South Africa
South Africa
portal

Bantustan Diplomatic recognition Jongilizwe College Puppet state Satellite state Transkei
Transkei
legislative election, 1968 Unrecognized countries

References[edit]

^ Sally Frankental; Owen Sichone (2005-01-01). South Africa's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57607-674-3. Retrieved 2013-09-18.  ^ Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Chapter 1, 1(2) (PDF)  ^ a b c d e South African Democracy Education Trust, ed. (2006), The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1970-1980, Pretoria: Unisa Press, p. 780, ISBN 1-86888-406-6  ^ South Africa: Historical franchise arrangements, EISA, 2002, archived from the original on 9 May 2013  ^ Vorster, B. J., "Message to Transkei
Transkei
on the eve of Independence, July 1976", Selected Speeches  ^ Barber, James. South Africa
South Africa
in the Twentieth Century. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford:1999. p186 ^ a b Resolution A/RES/31/6 A, General Assembly of the United Nations, 42nd plenary meeting, 26 October 1976  ^ Statement by the African National Congress
African National Congress
GA/5498, 26 October 1976  ^ "The Transkei
Transkei
Puppet Show", TIME Magazine, 25 October 1976  ^ Matanzima, Kaiser D. (1976), Independence
Independence
my Way, Pretoria: Foreign Affairs Association, ISBN 0-908397-05-4  ^ Bush, Barbara (1999), Imperialism, race, and resistance: Africa and Britain, 1919–1945, New York: Routledge, p. 147, ISBN 0-415-15973-3  ^ Wood, Geoffrey; Mills, Greg (1992), "The present and future role of the Transkei
Transkei
defence force in a changing South Africa", Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 11 (2): 255–269, doi:10.1080/02589009208729541  ^ Burns, John F. (11 April 1978), " Transkei
Transkei
Breaks Diplomatic Tie, Its Only One, With South Africans", New York Times  ^ South African Democracy Education Trust, ed. (2006), The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1970-1980, Pretoria: Unisa Press, p. 778, ISBN 1-86888-406-6  ^ Elections in Apartheid-Era Black Homelands "Bantustans"  ^ "Leader Of Tribe Seizes S. African Rebel`s Body". Chicago Tribune. 21 April 1986. Retrieved 9 June 2014.  ^ Mgaqelwa, Abongile (2013-08-08). "Matanzima dies after hijack". Daily Dispatch. Archived from the original on 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2013-08-31.  ^ "Chief George Mzimvubu Mathanzima, former Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Transkei, dies". South Africa
South Africa
History Online. 2000-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-31.  ^ " Stella Sigcau dead at 69". Mail&Guardian. 2006-05-08. Retrieved 2007-12-14.  ^ "General Bantubonke Harrington "Bantu" Holomisa (profile)", Who's Who in Southern Africa, 24.com, archived from the original on 17 November 2007, retrieved 12 July 2009  ^ "Black Homeland reports uprising", New York Times, 23 November 1990  ^ Truth Body hears startling new claims on Transkei
Transkei
coup attempt, South African Press Association, 19 June 1996  ^ Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Chapter 5, (4) (PDF)  ^ Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Schedule 1 (PDF)  ^ Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Chapter 8, 57-59 (PDF)  ^ "Republic of Transkei
Transkei
Constitution Act, Chapter 3.13" (PDF).  ^ a b "Atlas of Transkei
Transkei
—a cartographical project in a developing country", GeoJournal, 6 (6), 1982  ^ "Transkei", South African History Online, retrieved 2009-07-10  ^ Constitution of the Republic of Transkei, Chapter 3, 16 (PDF)  ^ Neither South Africa
South Africa
nor Lesotho
Lesotho
release official statistics on the number of speakers. Its status as a language in its own right is disputed. Ethnologue lists Phuti as a dialect of Sotho, and research on the language is scarce. ^ South African Encyclopaedia, Johannesburg: Naspers, 1972  ^ South Africa
South Africa
Homeland Militaries, May 1996  ^ Former Black Homelands (Bantustans)  ^ Peled, Alon (1998), A Question of Loyalty: Military Manpower Policy in Multiethnic States, Cornell Studies in Security Affairs, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp. 50f, ISBN 0-8014-3239-1  ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1988), The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and Why, London: Tauris, p. 141, ISBN 1-85043-069-1  ^ " Transkei
Transkei
will import troops, arms", The Age, 17 April 1978  ^ Policing Agencies: 1994, Prior to Amalgamation: South Africa, South African Police Service 

v t e

Apartheid
Apartheid
Bantustans in South Africa
South Africa
and South West Africa

South Africa

Nominal independence

Bophuthatswana Ciskei Transkei Venda

Self-governance

Gazankulu KaNgwane KwaNdebele KwaZulu Lebowa QwaQwa

South West Africa

Self-governance

East Caprivi Hereroland Kavangoland Ovamboland

No self-governance

Bushmanland Damaraland Kaokoland Namaland Rehoboth Tswanaland

Leaders and Administrators

After Nominal Independence

Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana

Head of State:

Lucas Mangope (1968–94) Rocky Malebane-Metsing (Feb 1988)

Administrator:

Tjaart Van der Walt and Job Mokgoro (Mar–Apr 1994)

Bushmanland

No central government established

Ciskei
Ciskei

Head of State:

Lennox Sebe (1981–90) Oupa Gqozo (1990–94)

Administrator:

Pieter van Rensburg Goosen and Bongani Blessing Finca (Mar–Apr 1994)

Damaraland
Damaraland

Head of State:

Justus ǁGaroëb
Justus ǁGaroëb
(1980–89)

Kaokoland
Kaokoland

No central government established

Namaland
Namaland

Head of State:

Cornelius Cloete (1980–85) Daniel Luipert (1985–89)

Rehoboth

Head of State:

Johannes "Hans" Diergaardt (1979–89)

Transkei
Transkei

Head of State:

Botha Sigcau (1976–78) Zwelibanzi Maneli Mabandla (1978–79) Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (1979–86) Tutor Nyangelizwe Vulindlela Ndamase (1986–94)

Administrator:

Bantu Holomisa (1987–94) (Head of Military Council)

Tswanaland

Head of State:

Constance Kgosiemang
Constance Kgosiemang
(1980–89)

Venda
Venda

Head of State:

Patrick Mphephu (1978–88) Frank N. Ravele (1988–90) Gabriel Ramushwana (1990–94) Tshamano G. Ramabulana (Jan–Apr 1994)

After Self-Governance

East Caprivi
East Caprivi

Chief Minister:

Josiah Moraliswane (Mar–Sept 1976) Richard Muhinda Mamili (1976–81)

Chairman:

Josiah Moraliswane (1981–84) H.J. Becker (Jul–Aug 1984) F.P.J. Visagie (1984–86) I.J. van der Merwe (Mar–Aug 1986) A.G. Visser
A.G. Visser
(1986–89)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu

Chief Minister:

Hudson William Edison Ntsanwisi (1973–93) Edward Mhinga (Mar-Apr 1993) Samuel Dickenson Nxumalo (1993–94)

Hereroland
Hereroland

Chairman:

Hosea Kutako (1968–70) Clemens Kapuuo (1970–78) Kuaima Riruako
Kuaima Riruako
(1978–80) Thimoteus Tjamuaha (1980–84) Erastus Tjejamba (1987–88) Gottlob Mbaukua (1984–89)

KaNgwane
KaNgwane

Chief Minister:

Enos John Mabuza (1970–81, 1984-91) Mangisi Cephas Zitha (1991–94)

Administrator:

N.J. Badenhorst (June-Dec 1982) Enos John Mabuza (1982–84)

Kavangoland
Kavangoland

Chief Minister:

Linus Shashipapo (1973–77) Alfons Shashipapo (1977–81) Sebastiaan Kamwanga (1981–89)

KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele

Chief Minister:

Simon Skosana (1981–86) Klaas Mtshiweni (Nov 1986) George Majozi Mahlangu (1986–89) Jonas Masana Mabena (1989–90) James Mahlangu (1990–94)

KwaZulu
KwaZulu

Chief Minister:

Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
(1977–94)

Lebowa
Lebowa

Chief Minister:

Mokgama Maurice Matlala (1972–73) Cedric Namedi Phatudi (1973–87) Z.T. Seleka (Oct 1987) Mogoboya Nelson Ramodike (1987–94)

Ovamboland
Ovamboland

Chief Minister:

Filemon Elifas (1973–75) Cornelius Thuhageni Njoba (1975–81) Peter Kalangula (1981–89)

QwaQwa
QwaQwa

Chief Minister:

Wessel Motha (1974–75) Tsiame Kenneth Mopeli (1975–94)

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand
Witwatersrand
Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

Category

Coordinates: 31°00′S 29°00′E / 31.000°S 29.000°E

.