Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified
characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names
foreign to the Chinese language. Transcription is distinct from
translation into Chinese whereby the meaning of a foreign word is
communicated in Chinese. Since, in both mainland China and Taiwan,
Hanyu Pinyin is now used to transcribe Chinese into a modified Latin
alphabet and since English classes are now standard in most secondary
schools, it is increasingly common to see foreign names and terms left
in their original form in Chinese texts. However, for mass media and
marketing within China and for non-European languages, particularly
those of the Chinese minorities, transcription into characters remains
Despite the importance of
Cantonese and other southern coastal
varieties of Chinese to foreign contact during the 19th century (as
seen, for instance, in the number of
Cantonese loanwords in English),
the northern capital dialect has been formally sanctioned within the
country for centuries. This status continued under the Republic, which
retained the importance of the "National Language"
(國語, Guóyǔ) despite moving its capital to Nanking,
Chungking, and Taipei, none of which natively spoke it. Similarly,
"Standard Chinese" (普通话, Pǔtōnghuà) has been
mandatory for most media and education throughout the People's
Republic of China since 1956. Except for a handful of
traditional exceptions, modern transcription therefore uses the
standardized Mandarin pronunciations exclusively.
1 Official standards
3 Sound and meaning
4 Regional differences
5 Transcription table
6.1 Translating names
6.2 New characters
7 See also
Han Chinese consists of about 412 syllables in 5 tones, so
homophones abound and most non Han words have multiple possible
transcriptions. This is particularly true since Chinese is written as
monosyllabic logograms, and consonant clusters foreign to Chinese must
be broken into their constituent sounds (or omitted), despite being
thought of as a single unit in their original language. Since there
are so many characters to choose from when transcribing a word, a
translator can manipulate the transcription to add additional meaning.
In the People's Republic of China, the process has been standardized
by the Proper Names and Translation Service of the Xinhua News Agency.
Xinhua publishes an official reference guide, the Names of the World's
Peoples: a Comprehensive Dictionary of Names in Roman-Chinese
(世界人名翻译大辞典, Shìjiè Rénmíng Fānyì Dà
Cídiǎn), which controls most transcription for official media and
publication in mainland China. As the name implies, the work consists
of a dictionary of common names. It also includes transcription tables
for names and terms which are not included. The English table is
reproduced below; those for a number of other languages are available
at the Chinese.
The Basic Laws of the
Hong Kong and
Regions provide that "Chinese" will be the official languages of those
territories, in addition to English and Portuguese, respectively,
leaving ambiguous the relative preference for
Cantonese and Mandarin.
In practice, transcriptions based on both
Cantonese and Mandarin
pronunciations have been used.
In Singapore, transcription standards are established by the
Translation Standardisation Committee for the Chinese Media.
Increasingly, other countries are setting their own official standards
for Chinese transcription and do not necessarily follow Xinhua's
versions, just as Xinhua's version differs from
Wade–Giles and other
international standards. For example, the United States embassy in
China recommends rendering "Obama" as “欧巴马” (Ōubāmǎ),
while Xinhua uses “奥巴马” (Àobāmǎ).
Transcription of foreign terms may date to the earliest surviving
written records in China, the Shang oracle bones. As the
from their initial settlements near the confluence of the Wei and
Yellow rivers, they were surrounded on all sides by other peoples. The
Chinese characters developed to describe them may have originally
transcribed local names, such as the proposed connection between the
original "Eastern Yi" people (東夷) and an
Austroasiatic word for
"sea". However, the tendency within China was to fit new groups
into the existing structure, so that, for example, "Yi" eventually
became a word for any "barbarian" and the name "Yue" (戉 & 越),
originally applied to a people northwest of the Shang, was later
applied to a people south of the Yangtze and then to many cultures as
far south as Vietnam. Interaction with the states of Chu, Wu, and Yue
during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of the later
Zhou brings the first certain evidence of transcription: most
famously, the word jiāng (江), originally krong, derives from the
Austroasiatic word for "river".
Besides proper names, a small number of loanwords also found their way
into Chinese during the
Han Dynasty after Zhang Qian's exploration of
the Western Regions. The Western Han also saw Liu Xiang's
transcription and translation of the "Song of the Yue Boatman" in his
Garden of Stories. Some scholars have tried to use it to reconstruct
an original version of the otherwise unrecorded language of the
Yangtze's Yue people before their incorporation into the Han.
The expansion of
Buddhism within China during the later Han and Three
Kingdoms period required the transcription of a great many Sanskrit
and Pali terms. According to the Song-era scholar Zhou Dunyi, the
monk and translator
Journey to the West
Journey to the West fame) handed down
guidelines of "Five Kinds of Words Not to Translate"
(t 五種不翻, s 五种不翻). He directed that
transcription should be used instead of translation when the words
Arcane, such as incantations
Not found in China
Traditionally transcribed, not translated
Lofty and subtle, which a translation might devalue or obscure
These ancient transcription into Chinese characters provide clues to
the reconstruction of Middle Chinese. In historical Chinese phonology,
this information is called duiyin (t 對音, s 对音,
lit. "corresponding sounds"); in Western Sinology, Baron
Alexander von Staël-Holstein was the first to emphasize its
importance in reconstructing the sounds of Middle Chinese. The
transcriptions made during the
Tang Dynasty are particularly valuable,
as the then-popular
Tantra sect required its mantras to be rendered
very carefully into Chinese characters, since they were thought to
lose their efficacy if their exact sounds were not properly uttered.
History of Liao contains a list of Khitan words phonetically
transcribed with Chinese characters. The
History of Jin contains a
list of Jurchen words phonetically transcribed with Chinese
characters. In the History of Yuan, Mongol names were
phonetically transcribed in Chinese characters.
In the Ming dynasty, the Chinese government's Bureau of Translators
(四夷馆, Siyi Guan) and the Bureau of Interpreters (会同馆,
Huitong Guan) published bilingual dictionaries/vocabularies of foreign
languages like the Bureau of Translators' multilingual dictionary
(华夷译语, Hua-Yi yiyu, 'Sino-Barbarian Dictionary'), using
Chinese characters to phonetically transcribe the words of the foreign
languages such as Jurchen, Korean, Japanese, Ryukyuan, Mongolian, Old
Uyghur, Vietnamese, Cham, Dai, Thai, Burmese, Khmer Persian, Tibetan,
Malay, Javanese, Acehnese, and Sanskrit.
Qing dynasty some bilingual Chinese-Manchu dictionaries had
the Manchu words phonetically transcribed with Chinese characters. The
book 御製增訂清文鑑 ("Imperially-Published Revised and Enlarged
mirror of Qing") in Manchu and Chinese, used both Manchu script to
transcribe Chinese words and Chinese characters to transcribe Manchu
words with fanqie.
As part of the promotion of
Kaozheng studies in the philological
field, Qianlong decided that the
Chinese character transcriptions of
names and words of the
Khitan language in the History of Liao, the
Jurchen language in the History of Jin, and the
Mongolian language in
History of Yuan were not phonetically accurate and true to the
original pronunciation. The histories were in fact hastily compiled
and suffered from inaccurate and inconsistent phonetic transcriptions
of the same names. He ordered the "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three
Histories National Language Explanation"
(欽定遼金元三史國語解 Qinding Liao Jin Yuan sanshi
guoyujie) project to "correct" the Chinese character
transcriptions by referring to the contemporaneous descendants of
those languages. Qianlong identified the
Solon language with the
Manchu language with the Jurchen, and the Mongolian
language with the Mongolian. Solon, Mongolian, and Manchu speakers
were consulted with on the "correct" pronunciations of the names and
words and their Chinese transcriptions were accordingly changed.
Khitan language has now been found by modern linguists to
be a Mongolic language and is unrelated to the Solon language. The
project was part of the Siku Quanshu. Qianlong also promulgated a
theory that the
Daur people were descended from a Khitan clan,
changing the Khitan clan name 大賀 dàhè, found in the History of
Liao, to 達呼爾 dáhūěr. The Chinese transcription of the Manchu
clan name Niohuru 鈕祜祿 (Niuhulu) was edited and inserted in place
of the Jurchen clan name 女奚烈 (Nüxilie).
"2. A learned committee, consisting of Chinese, Manchus, Mongols,
western Mohammedans, etc. was appointed by the emperor K'ien-lung to
revise the Yüan shi, and especially the foreign names of men, places
etc. occurring so frequently in that book. These savants in their
reformatory zeal, proceeded on the idea, that all the proper names had
been incorrectly rendered in the official documents of the Mongols,
and had to be changed. They pronounced the same verdict with respect
to the histories of the Liao and the Kin. Thus in the new editions of
the histories of the Liao, Kin and Yüan, all the original proper
names without exception disappeared, and were replaced by names of a
new invention, which generally have little resemblance to the
original. For further particulars, compare my Notes on Chinese
Mediaeval Travellers, p. 58, note 1. By this way of corrupting the
names of the original historios, which have generally rendered foreign
sounds as correctly as the
Chinese language permits, the K'ien-lung
editions of these works have become completely unserviceable for
historical and geographical investigations. K'ien-lung was very proud
of the happy idea of metamorphosing the ancient proper names, and
issued an edict, that in future no Chinese scholar should dare to use
the ancient names.
After the three histories had been corrupted, K'ien-lung ordered the
same committee to explain the meanings of the new names; and this gave
rise to a new work entitled: 遼金元史語解 Liao kin yüan shi yü
kai, or "Explanation of words (proper names) found in the histories of
the Liao, Kin and Yüan." In this vocabulary, all the names of men,
countries, places, mountains, rivers etc.—of the three histories
have been systematically arranged, but according to the new spelling.
The original spelling of the name however is always given, and the
chapters are indicated where the name occurs. This renders the
vocabulary very useful for reference, and we may lay aside the fact,
that the principal object in view of the learned committee, was the
absurd explanation of the meaning of the newly-invented names. I may
give a few examples of the sagacity these savants displayed in their
etymological commentaries. The city of Derbend (the name means "gate"
in Persian), situated on the western shore of the Caspian sea, is
mentioned in the Yuan shi, as a city of Persia, and the name is
written 打耳班 Da-r-ban. The committee changed the name into
都爾本 Du-r-ben, and explain that durben in Mongol means, "four."
The name of Bardaa, a city of Armenia, is rendered in the original
Yuan shi by 巴耳打阿 Ba-r-da-a. The committee will have the name
to be 巴勒塔哈 Ba-le-t'a-ha, and comment that this name in Manchu
means "the neck part of a sable skin." By 别失八里 Bie-shi-ba-li
in theuncorrupted Yuan shi, Bishbalik is to be understood. The meaning
of this name in Turkish, is " Five cities," and the term 五城
Wu-ch'eng, meaning also "Five cities," occurs repeatedly in the Yuan
shi, as a synonym of Bie-shi-ba-li. The committee however transformed
the name into 巴實伯里 Ba-shi-bo-li, and state that Ba-shi in the
language of the Mohammedans means "head" and bo-li "kidneys."
The most recent edition of the Yüan shi (also with corrupted proper
names) is dated 1824, but Archimandrite Palladius has noticed that it
was only finished about twenty years later. This edition is not
difficult of purchase, and I fancy it is the only edition of the Yuan
shi found in European libraries. The numerous translations from the
"Mongol history," found in Pauthier's M. Polo, have all been made from
this corrupted text. At the time Klaproth and Rémusat wrote, the Yuan
shi was unknown in Europe, and it seems, that even the old Catholic
missionaries in Peking had not seen it. The old sinologues knew only
an extract of the great "Mongol History"." - E. Bretschneider, Notices
of the Mediæval Geography and History of Central and Western Asia,
Marshall Broomhall commented that Though a great soldier and a great
litterateur, K'ien-lung did not escape some serious errors. At one
time he appointed a learned committee of Chinese, Manchus, Mongols,
and Western Mohammedans to revise the foreign names of men and places
which occur in the Yüan Records. So unscientific was this work that
the K'ien-lung editions of the Liao, Kin, and Yüan histories are
practically useless. The title Kalif rendered Ha-li-fu was changed by
the Committee into Farkha and is explained as being "a village in
Transcriptions of English in Chinese characters were used in a book to
learn English dating to 1860 in the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor.
During the late 19th century, when Western ideas and products flooded
China, transcriptions mushroomed. They include not only transcriptions
of proper nouns but also those of common nouns for new
products. The influence was particularly marked in dialects
near the major ports, like Shanghainese. Many of these phonemic loans
proved to be fads, however, and popular usage and linguistic reformers
subsequently favored calques or neologisms in their place.
Sound and meaning
See also: Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese
A transcription into Chinese characters sometimes reflects the meaning
as well as the sound of the transcribed word. For example, Belarus
(lit. "White Russia") is transcribed in Chinese as 白俄罗斯
(Bái'èluósī), with 白 preserving the meaning of the original
name. Similarly, the common ending -va in Russian female surnames is
usually transcribed as 娃 (wā), meaning "baby" or "girl", and the
corresponding masculine suffix —[o]v is rendered as 夫 (fū),
meaning "man". In literary translations,
Utopia was famously
Yan Fu as 烏托邦 or 乌托邦 (Wūtuōbāng,
"fabricated country") and Pantagruel was written as 龐大固埃 or
庞大固埃 (Pángdàgù'āi), from 龐大 or 庞大 ("gigantic") and
固 ("solid", "hefty"). More recently, one translation of World Wide
Web is 萬維網 or 万维网 (Wànwéi Wǎng), meaning
"myriad-dimensional net". Sometimes the transcription reflects chengyu
or other Chinese sayings and idioms. For example, the
Mainland China as 披頭士 (披头士, Pītóushì), "the
mop-headed", and in
Taiwan and Hong Kong, 披頭四 (披头四,
Pītóusì), "the mop-head four", reflecting the chengyu 披頭散髮
or 披头散发 (pītóu sànfǎ) concerning disheveled hair. They can
also reflect subjective opinions or advertising. Esperanto, now known
as "the international language" or literally "language of the world"
(世界語 or 世界语, Shìjièyǔ), was first introduced to China
as 愛斯不難讀 or 爱斯不难读 (Àisībùnándú), meaning
"[We] love this [because it's] not difficult to read".
Given that a word may be transcribed in accordance with meaning as
well as sound, an "innocent" transcription may be unwittingly
interpreted as reflecting the meaning of the original. During the Qing
Dynasty, some Chinese scholars were unhappy to find China was located
on a continent called 亞細亞 (亚细亚 Yàxìyà), i.e. Asia, as
亞 means "secondary" and 細 "small", believing that the Europeans
were deliberately belittling the East. The ancient Japanese, or
the Wa people were upset by their name being represented by the
character 倭 wō ("small, short, servile") by the Chinese, and
replaced it with 和 hé ("peace, harmony"). Modern Africans have
accused the Chinese of racism, as "Africa" is written as 非洲
fēizhōu ("negative, wrong continent") in Chinese. Whether these
accusations were justified is controversial.
Cultural differences and personal preference about negative meaning is
subjective. However, some translations are generally held to be
inappropriate and are usually not used in today’s transcriptions:
Mozambique as 莫三鼻給 (莫三鼻给, Mòsānbígěi), with 鼻
meaning "nose" and 三鼻 "three noses". Today the country is more
often transcribed as 莫桑比克 (Mòsāngbǐkè).
Aberdeen is a common name for places and people, rendered as 鴨巴甸
(Yābādiàn), with 鴨 (鸭) meaning duck. However a place in Hong
Aberdeen Harbour, was originally called 香港仔
(Xiānggǎngzǐ), meaning "
Hong Kong minor"; that is now the official
name, but 鴨巴甸 is still used colloquially. Moreover, today the
place is more often transcribed as 阿伯丁 (Ābódīng).
A street in
Macau is called Avenida do Conselheiro Ferreira de
Almeida, after the official Ferreira de Almeida. Ferreira was
transcribed as 肥利喇 (Féilìlǎ), as shown on the name of the
street, with 肥 meaning "fat" (adj.).
A street in
Macau is called Avenida de Demetrio Cinatti. It has been
transcribed as 爹美刁施拿地大馬路, with 刁 meaning cunning
Some transcriptions are meant to have, or happen to have, positive
United Kingdom is called 英國/英国 Yīngguó, literally "hero
country". The first character, 英, is abbreviated from 英吉利
Yīngjílì, the early Chinese transcription of "English", but
subsequently applied to the UK after it was formed from the union of
England and Scotland.
Germany is abbreviated as 德國/德国 Déguó, literally "moral
country". The first character, 德, is abbreviated from 德意志
Déyìzhì (the Chinese transcription of "Deutsch", the German word
United States of America is abbreviated 美國/美国 Měiguó,
literally "beautiful country". It is abbreviated from
美利堅合眾國 Meǐlìjiān Hézhòngguó, 美利堅 is an early
phonetic transcription of "America".
Philippines as 菲律宾/菲律賓 Fēilǜbīn through
Filipino-Chinese in the
菲國 Fēi guó meaning "Fragrant Lands".
Athens as 雅典 Yǎdiǎn, literally "elegant" and "classical".
Champs-Élysées as 香榭麗舍/香榭丽舍 Xiāngxièlìshè,
meaning "fragrant pavilion (and) beautiful house".
Firenze as 翡冷翠 Fěilěngcuì (by the poet Xu Zhimo), 翡翠
meaning "jadeite" and 冷 "cold". Today the city is usually known as
佛羅倫薩/佛罗伦萨 Fóluólúnsà or 佛羅倫斯
Fóluólúnsī, transcriptions based on the Anglo-French Florence
rather than the endonym.
Fontainebleau as 楓丹白露/枫丹白露, meaning "red maple (and)
Ithaca as 綺色佳/绮色佳 Qǐsèjiā, literally "gorgeous colour
Yosemite as 優山美地/优山美地 Yōushānměidì (also
優仙美地/优仙美地 Yōuxiānměidì, 優聖美地/优圣美地
Yōushèngměidì, 優詩美地/优诗美地 Yōushīměidì, or
優勝美地/优胜美地 Yōushèngměidì), meaning "elegant
mountain / excellent and holy / elegant poem / superior (and)
Champagne as 香檳 (香槟, xiāng bīn) meaning "fragrant areca"
is 維基百科/维基百科 Wéijī Bǎikē, it means "Wiki
Encyclopedia". The Chinese transcription of "Wiki" is composed of two
characters: 維/维, whose ancient sense refers to 'ropes or webs
connecting objects', and alludes to the 'Internet'; and 基, meaning
'foundations'. The name can be interpreted as 'the encyclopedia that
connects the fundamental knowledge of humanity'.
Foreign companies are able to choose representations of their names
which serve advertising purposes:
Coca-Cola as 可口可樂/可口可乐 Kěkǒu Kělè, meaning
"delicious (and) fun"
Revlon as 露華濃/露华浓, literally "revealing bright spring
dew", excerpted from Li Bai's A Song of Pure Happiness (清平調).
Sheraton Hotels as 喜來登/喜来登 Xǐláidēng, "love to visit"
Best Buy as 百思買/百思买 Bǎisīmǎi, "buy (after) thinking a
Subway restaurants as 賽百味/赛百味 Sàibǎiwèi, "competing
(with) a hundred tastes"
IKEA as 宜家 Yíjiā, "suitable/proper for a home"
Costco as 好市多 Hǎoshìduō, "market of many great things"
Duolingo as 多邻国/多鄰國 Duōlínguó, "multiple neighboring
Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)
Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) as 肯德基 Kĕndéjī, "agree to (a)
McDonald's as 麦当劳/麥當簩 Màidāngláo, “wheat serve as
BMW as 宝马/寶馬 Bǎomǎ, meaning "prize horse", sounding like its
colloquial name "Beamer"
Pizza Hut as 必胜客/必勝客 Bìshèngkè, "the guest must win"
Bing as 必应/必應 Bìyìng, "must respond"
Singapore and Malaysia use simplified characters in
its transcriptions, while Taiwan,
Hong Kong and
Macau typically uses
traditional characters. In addition, official names sometimes differ
from one authority to another. For example,
Taiwan transcribe the
New Zealand (紐西蘭, Niǔxīlán) where mainland China
translates it (新西兰, Xīnxīlán, lit. "New Xilan").
In general, mainland China tends to preserve the pronunciation of
names deriving from their language of origin while
transcribes them according to the English pronunciation. For example,
the Russian President
Vladimir Putin is known as Pǔjīng (普京) in
mainland sources after the native Russian pronunciation [ˈputʲɪn],
whereas the name is rendered as Pǔdīng (普丁) in Taiwan. Hong Kong
and Macau, meanwhile, formerly transcribed names using their Cantonese
pronunciations, although that practice has become less common
following their handovers. Chinese transcriptions are now frequently
cribbed from the mainland, even if the local pronunciation then
becomes more remote from the original. For example,
copy the mainland transcription 普京, despite its local
pronunciation being the rather infelicitous Póugīng.
Recently, a controversy arose in
Hong Kong when protestors petitioned
Nintendo to reverse its decision of converting the
Hong Kong names of
Pokémon into the mainland Chinese equivalents of their
names, including its most famous character Pikachu. In the first half
of 2016, Nintendo announced that it would change Pikachu's name from
Cantonese name, Béikāchīu 比卡超, to Pèikāyāu in
favor of fitting the Mandarin pronunciation, Píkǎqiū 皮卡丘, in
the most recent series of
Pokémon Sun and Moon,
in order to standardize marketing in the
Greater China region.
Regional transcriptions into Chinese
The table below is the English-into-Chinese transcription table from
Xinhua's Names of the World's Peoples. This table uses the
International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet for English vowels (rows) and
consonants (columns). The usage notes and pinyin version can be seen
Transcription from English (IPA) into Chinese
夫 / 弗
斯 / 丝
ɑː, æ, ʌ
巴 / 芭
瓦 / 娃
法 / 娃
萨 / 莎
沙 / 莎
马 / 玛
纳 / 娜
亚 / 娅
特 / 泰
赫 / 黑
纳 / 娜
尼 / 妮
利 / 莉
里 / 丽
ɒ, ɔː, oʊ
奥 / 欧
罗 / 萝
代 / 戴
æn, ʌn, æŋ
ɑn, aʊn, ʌŋ, ɔn, ɒn, ɒŋ
ɛn, ɛŋ, ɜn, ən, əŋ
ɪn, in, ɪən, jən
林 / 琳
un, ʊn, oʊn
翁 / 宏
The characters now employed in standardized transcription are often
deliberately meaningless, so that their phonetic use is apparent.
Therefore, in many cases, the Chinese names non-Chinese people adopt
for themselves are not those that are phonetically equivalent but are
instead "adapted" from or "inspired" by (i.e., translations of) the
original. See, for instance, the Chinese names of the Hong Kong
Very rarely, characters are specially made for the transcribed terms.
This was formerly more common: by adding the appropriate semantic
radical, existing characters could be used to give a sense of the
sound of the new word. 江, for instance, was formed out of 氵 (the
water radical) + 工, which at the time had the sound value khong,
to approximate the Yue name *Krong. Similarly, the addition of 艹
(the grass radical) produced 茉莉 (mòlì) to translate the Sanskrit
name for jasmine (malli) and 衣 (clothes) was added to other
characters to permit 袈裟 (jiāshā), the Chinese version of
Sanskrit kasaya. Another such example is 乒乓 (pīngpāng) the
Chinese word for ping pong, in which both characters are formed by
removing a stroke from the similar sounding character 兵 (bīng), and
at the same time, the two characters look like a net and a paddle. The
most general radical for transcription is the mouth radical, which is
not only used to transcribe certain foreign terms (such as 咖啡
(kāfēi, "coffee")), but also terms for which no Chinese characters
exist in non-Mandarin varieties of Chinese (such as in Cantonese).
Such phono-semantic compounds make up the majority of Chinese
characters, but new ones coined to communicate foreign words only
infrequently reach common use today. Notable exceptions are the
Chinese characters for chemical elements, which mostly consist of
combining pre-existing characters with the appropriate radicals, such
as 气 for gases.
Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia
Romanization of Chinese
Cyrillization of Chinese
Ateji, the Japanese equivalent
Place names in China
Template:Transcription into Chinese
Chinese characters for transcribing Slavonic, for transcription from
Jingtang Jiaoyu, for transcribing Arabic to Chinese characters
The Secret History of the Mongols, a surviving document written in
Mongolian transcribed to Chinese characters
^ Lam S.L., Agnes. Language Education in China: Policy and Experience
from 1949, p. 39.
Hong Kong Univ. Press (Hong Kong), 2005.
^ Guo Zhenzhi. Mapping Media in China: Region, Province, and Locality.
"Dialects and Local Media: The Cases of Kunming and Yunnan TV", p. 49.
Accessed 6 November 2013.
^ Chinese Wiktionary's pinyin index
^ Schuessler, Axel. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese, p.
563. University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
^ Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the
Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 15: 93–100.
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This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder and
missionary journal, Volume 3, a publication from 1871 now in the
public domain in the United States.