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TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS refer to the historic, cultural, political, economic and social relations between countries on both side of the Atlantic Ocean . Sometimes specifically those between the United States , Canada
Canada
and the countries in Europe
Europe
, although other meanings are possible.

There are a number of issues over which the United States
United States
and Europe generally disagree. Some of these are cultural, such as the U.S. use of the death penalty , some are international issues such as the Middle East
Middle East
peace process where the United States
United States
is often seen as pro-Israel and where Europe
Europe
is often seen as pro-Arab, and many others are trade related. The current U.S. policies are often described as being unilateral in nature, whereas the European Union and Canada
Canada
are often said to take a more multilateral approach, relying more on the United Nations
United Nations
and other international institutions to help solve issues. Of course, there are many other issues upon which they do agree.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links

DEFINITION

One potential definition of transatlantic relations. The United States (in red), Canada
Canada
(in green), the European Union (in blue). Excluded from this definition are non-EU states in Europe, and all of Latin America and Africa. It is proposed to create a Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Transatlantic Free Trade Area
between the United States
United States
and European Union . Map shows potential other members: NAFTA , EFTA and future EU members .

Transatlantic relations
Transatlantic relations
can refer to relations between individual states or to relations between groups of states or international organizations with other groups or with states, or within one group. For example: Within a group:

* Intra- NATO relations

e.g. Canada– NATO relations

Between groups:

* EU - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) relations * European Free Trade Area
European Free Trade Area
(EFTA) - NAFTA relations * Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Transatlantic Free Trade Area
(theoretical) * CARIFORUM - European Commission
European Commission
( Economic Partnership Agreements )

Between a group and a state:

* Canada– European Union relations * United States–European Union relations * Canada
Canada
- EFTA Free Trade Agreement

Between states:

* Germany– United States
United States
relations * Canada–France relations , etc.

See also: Special Relationship and North Atlantic triangle

By language and culture

* Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
* Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
* Dutch Union * La Francophonie * Latin Union

The boundaries of which states are part of Transatlantic relations depends on the context. The term may be used as a euphemism to a specific bilateral relationship, for example, Anglo-American relations . The boundary could be drawn so as only to refer member states of the EU plus the US, when discussing Euro-American relations . In other circumstances it may include Canada, or non-EU countries in Europe. The term may also be used in the context of the wider Atlantic world including Africa and Latin America.

HISTORY

Further information: European colonization of the Americas

The early relationship between Europe
Europe
and America was based on colonialism and merchantilism . The majority of modern states in the Americas can be traced back to colonial states that were founded by European nations, states that were very different from the pre-Columbian civilizations and cultures that had existed before.

Even after the United States
United States
(and later Canada) became independent, the main relationship between the two continents was one-way migration.

Politically the United States
United States
tried to keep a distance from European affairs, and Canada
Canada
was subordinate to British foreign policy.

During the First World War however both North American states found themselves fighting in Europe
Europe
and engrossed in European politics. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
's Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
helped to redraw the map of Europe.

Although the Roosevelt administration wanted to enter the war against Germany, the vast majority of Americans were too isolationist and disillusioned at their experience in World War I
World War I
to seek involvement in the World War II
World War II
, at least until the U.S. was attacked by Japan at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and Adolf Hitler declared war on the United States
United States
on December 11, 1941. Once involved, the US became pivotal to the war effort and therefore European politics. Further information: Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
and Allies of WWII

After the second war the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
both desired a permanent role in the defence of Europe, and European states wanted protection from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The result was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization , which became the lynchpin of Transatlantic relations during the Cold War .

Atlanticism is a philosophy which advocates for close cooperation between North America and Europe.

SEE ALSO

* Atlanticism * Atlantic Community * Atlantic Council * United States–European Union relations * German Marshall Fund * South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone * Transatlantic Economic Council * Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Transatlantic Free Trade Area
(TAFTA) * Canada– European Union relations * Canada– NATO relations * Western World

REFERENCES

* ^ EFTA * ^ Foreign Affairs Department, Canada

EXTERNAL