HOME
The Info List - Trans-Pacific Partnership



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

The TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP (TPP), or the TRANS PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT (TPPA), is a trade agreement between Australia
Australia
, Brunei Darussalam , Canada
Canada
, Chile
Chile
, Japan
Japan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Mexico
Mexico
, New Zealand , Peru
Peru
, Singapore
Singapore
, the United States
United States
(until 23 January 2017) and Vietnam
Vietnam
. A final agreement was drafted on 5 October 2015, made public on 5 November 2015, and signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand, concluding seven years of negotiations. It is the largest trade agreement in history.

The TPP began as an expansion of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP or P4) signed by Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam , Chile
Chile
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, and Singapore
Singapore
in 2005. Beginning in 2008, additional countries joined the discussion for a broader agreement: Australia
Australia
, Canada
Canada
, Japan
Japan
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Mexico
Mexico
, Peru
Peru
, the United States , and Vietnam
Vietnam
, bringing the total number of countries participating in the negotiations to twelve. Current trade agreements between participating countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement , will be reduced to those provisions that do not conflict with the TPP or provide greater trade liberalization than the TPP. The Obama administration considered the TPP a companion agreement to the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), a broadly similar agreement between the U.S. and the European Union .

According to the Obama Administration
Obama Administration
, the agreement aimed to "promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in the signatories' countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labor and environmental protections." The TPP contains measures to lower both non-tariff and tariff barriers to trade , and establish an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism. On 21 November 2016, U.S. president-elect Donald Trump announced that he planned to withdraw the United States
United States
from the TPP after he took office; on 23 January 2017, President Trump signed a presidential memorandum to withdraw. The other 11 TPP countries agreed in May 2017 to revive the deal without US participation.

The U.S. International Trade Commission , the Peterson Institute for International Economics , the World Bank and the Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada
Canada
found that the final agreement would, if ratified, lead to net positive economic outcomes for all signatories, while a heterodox analysis by two Tufts University economists found that the agreement would adversely affect the signatories. Many observers have argued that the trade deal would have served a geopolitical purpose, namely to reduce the signatories' dependence on Chinese trade and bring the signatories closer to the United States.

CONTENTS

* 1 Membership

* 1.1 Potential members * 1.2 Withdrawn members

* 2 History

* 2.1 Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement
Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement
* 2.2 Negotiations

* 3 Ratification

* 3.1 Canada
Canada
* 3.2 Japan
Japan
* 3.3 New Zealand
New Zealand

* 3.4 United States
United States

* 3.4.1 Future after US withdrawal

* 4 Contents

* 4.1 Trade barriers * 4.2 Environmental protection * 4.3 Good governance * 4.4 Human rights

* 4.5 Intellectual property

* 4.5.1 Pharmaceuticals

* 4.6 Investor-state arbitration * 4.7 Labour standards * 4.8 Regulatory cooperation

* 5 Economic impact

* 5.1 Effects on economic equality

* 5.2 Macroeconomics

* 5.2.1 World Bank report * 5.2.2 U.S. International Trade Commission estimate * 5.2.3 Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada report * 5.2.4 Peterson Institute for International Economics
Peterson Institute for International Economics
report * 5.2.5 Tufts University report

* 5.3 Effects on the European Union * 5.4 Liberalization

* 6 Geopolitics

* 6.1 Non-TPP party opinions

* 7 Criticism

* 7.1 Currency manipulation * 7.2 Length and complexity * 7.3 Secrecy of negotiations * 7.4 Industry influence * 7.5 Non-compete clause * 7.6 Criticisms from politicians and activists

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

MEMBERSHIP

Twelve countries participated in negotiations for the TPP: the four parties to the 2005 Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement and eight additional countries. All twelve signed the TPP on 4 February 2016. The agreement will enter into force after ratification by all signatories, if this occurs within two years. If the agreement is not ratified by all before 4 February 2018, it will enter into force after ratification by at least 6 states which together have a GDP of more than 85% of the GDP of all signatories.

COUNTRY STATUS 2005 AGREEMENT SIGNATURE OF TPP Start of TPP Negotiations

Singapore
Singapore
Party (28 May 2006) 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-02-01-0000February 2008

Brunei
Brunei
Party (28 May 2006) 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-02-01-0000February 2008

New Zealand
New Zealand
Party (12 July 2006) 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-02-01-0000February 2008

Chile
Chile
Party (8 November 2006) 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-02-01-0000February 2008

Australia
Australia
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-11-01-0000November 2008

Peru
Peru
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-11-01-0000November 2008

Vietnam
Vietnam
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-11-01-0000November 2008

Malaysia
Malaysia
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002010-10-01-0000October 2010

Mexico
Mexico
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002012-10-01-0000October 2012

Canada
Canada
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002012-10-01-0000October 2012

Japan
Japan
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002013-05-01-0000May 2013

POTENTIAL MEMBERS

APEC
APEC
members may accede to the TPP, as may any other jurisdiction to which existing TPP members agree. After an application for membership is received, a commission of parties to the treaty negotiates conditions for accession.

South Korea
South Korea
did not participate in the 2006 agreement, but showed interest in entering the TPP, and was invited to the TPP negotiating rounds in December 2010 by the U.S. after the successful conclusion of its Free trade
Free trade
agreement between the United States
United States
of America and the Republic of Korea . South Korea
South Korea
already had bilateral trade agreements with some TPP members, but areas such as vehicle manufacturing and agriculture still needed to be agreed upon, making further multilateral TPP negotiations somewhat complicated. South Korea may join the TPP as part of a second wave of expansion for the trade agreement.

Other countries and regions interested in TPP membership include Taiwan, the Philippines, and Colombia
Colombia
as of 2010; Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
as of 2012; and Indonesia
Indonesia
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Bangladesh , and India
India
as of 2013. According to law professor Edmund Sim in 2013, many of these countries needed to change their protectionist trade policies in order to join the TPP.

The largest economy in the Pacific Rim not involved in the negotiations is China
China
. According to the Brookings Institution in 2013, the most fundamental challenge for the TPP project regarding China
China
was that "it may not constitute a powerful enough enticement to propel China
China
to sign on to these new standards on trade and investment. China
China
so far has reacted by accelerating its own trade initiatives in Asia." In 2013, it was thought China
China
might still be interested in joining the TPP eventually. An academic analysis has shown that while the TPP would be more successful if China participated in it, the benefits to China
China
are intangible.

In October 2015, Indonesian President Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo
declared Indonesia's intention to join the TPP.

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
has announced interest of joining the TPP and is currently studying its feasibility.

COUNTRY STATUS 2005 AGREEMENT STATUS TPP ANNOUNCED INTEREST

Colombia
Colombia
Non-party Announced Interest 000000002010-01-01-0000January 2010

Philippines
Philippines
Non-party Announced Interest 000000002010-09-01-0000September 2010

Thailand
Thailand
Non-party Announced Interest 000000002012-11-01-0000November 2012

Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) Non-party Announced Interest 000000002013-09-01-0000September 2013

South Korea
South Korea
Non-party Announced Interest 000000002013-11-01-0000November 2013

Indonesia
Indonesia
Non-party Declared Intent to Join 000000002015-10-01-0000October 2015

WITHDRAWN MEMBERS

On 23 January 2017, US President Donald Trump signed a presidential memorandum to withdraw the United States
United States
from the agreement, making its ratification virtually impossible.

COUNTRY STATUS 2005 AGREEMENT SIGNATURE OF TPP Start of TPP Negotiations WITHDRAWN

United States
United States
Non-party 000000002016-02-04-00004 February 2016 000000002008-02-01-0000February 2008 23 January 2017

HISTORY

TRANS-PACIFIC STRATEGIC ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

Main article: Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement
Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement

Brunei, Chile, Singapore
Singapore
and New Zealand
New Zealand
are parties to the Transpacific Economic Partnership Agreement, which was signed in 2005, and entered into force in 2006. The original TPSEP agreement contains an accession clause and affirms the members' "commitment to encourage the accession to this Agreement by other economies". It is a comprehensive agreement, affecting trade in goods, rules of origin, trade remedies, sanitary and phytosanitary measures , technical barriers to trade, trade in services, intellectual property, government procurement and competition policy. Among other things, it called for a 90 percent reduction of all tariffs between member countries by 1 January 2006, and reduction of all trade tariffs to zero by the year 2015.

Although original and negotiating parties are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the TPSEP is not an APEC initiative. However, the TPP is considered to be a pathfinder for the proposed Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific (FTAAP), an APEC initiative.

NEGOTIATIONS

Main article: Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations

In January 2008, the U.S. agreed to enter into talks with the Pacific 4 (P4) members regarding trade liberalisation in financial services. This led to 19 formal negotiation rounds and a subsequent series of additional meetings, such as Chief Negotiators Meetings and Ministers Meetings, and resulted in the agreement announced on 5 October 2015.

RATIFICATION

The text of the agreement will have to be ratified, according to the national procedures of the countries concerned and the instrument of ratification is to be deposited with the Government of New Zealand, the depositary of the agreement.

CANADA

On 5 October 2015 Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper indicated he expected "signatures on the finalized text and deal early in the new year, and ratification over the next two years." On 4 February 2016, at the TPP signing, Canadian International Trade Minister Chrystia Freeland said "There is a big difference between signing and ratifying". "Consultations in Canada
Canada
very much will include aboriginal communities, they are a very important part of the national discussion," she said. "We are committed to a full parliamentary committee study and a full parliamentary debate ahead of ratification."

JAPAN

Japan's main competition in the region is China, and the two nations have polar views on how the South-east Asia's economy should develop. Prior to the TPP Japan
Japan
tried to take dominance by establishing the Asian Monetary Fund (AMF), which the U.S blocked. By 2011 Japan managed to establish a cooperative agreement with China
China
and Korea called the "PRC–Japan–Republic of Korea Free trade
Free trade
agreement", also known as the CJK FTA, which did not include the U.S. Japan's intention with this was so that they could use the People's Republic of China
China
card in order to gain U.S support in order to have backing within the TPP, and shift the negotiations toward Japan's agendas with support of the United States. On 9 December 2016, resolution of participation was made in House of Councillors , and notified completion of domestic procedures for ratification to the depositary of the treaty (New Zealand) as the first ratified country on 20 January 2017. The same day later Donald Trump inaugurated president announced United States
United States
withdrawal from the TPP.

NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand
New Zealand
ratified the TPP on May 11, 2017.

UNITED STATES

Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Negotiations and Agreement (2017)

Most international agreements in the United States
United States
are approved using Trade Promotion Authority (also called fast track ) authorization, in which the US Congress is required to hold a yes/no vote on any agreements without modification. The US passed a law agreeing to this fast-track procedure in 2015.

The terms of the TPA stipulate that when a deal is formally submitted to Congress, they must act within 90 legislative days. Many expected Congress to vote on the bill either in mid-2016 or in the lame-duck session after the 2016 elections . However, in August 2016, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY ) stated that the vote would not occur that year but added, "It will still be around. It can be massaged, changed, worked on during the next administration."

During a speech on the 2016 presidential campaign , Republican Party nominee Donald Trump vowed to withdraw the United States
United States
from the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
if elected. He argued that the agreement would "undermine" the U.S. economy and their independence. On 21 November 2016, in a video message, Trump introduced an economic strategy of "putting America first", stating that he would negotiate "fair, bilateral trade deals that bring jobs and industry back onto American shores." As part of this plan, Trump confirmed his intent for the United States
United States
to withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
on his first day in office. McConnell affirmed that the TPP would not be considered during the lame-duck session of Congress preceding the inauguration of Trump.

President Trump signed a Presidential memorandum to withdraw the U.S. from the TPP on 23 January 2017. U.S. Senator John McCain criticized the withdrawal, saying "it will send a troubling signal of American disengagement in the Asia-Pacific region at a time we can least afford it."

Future After US Withdrawal

TPP's future was uncertain given US withdrawal, but several signatories signaled their intentions to rework TPP without US participation. For instance, Australia's Trade Minister Steven Ciobo responded to the US withdrawal by stating that he had spoken to other leaders of TPP member nations to discuss "ways to lock in the benefits from the TPP" without the US as a party to the agreement. New Zealand has proposed an alternative deal without US participation. Shinzo Abe has, however, stated that TPP without the US would be "meaningless".

CONTENTS

Wikisource has original text related to this article: WHAT IS THE TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT (TPP)?

A version of the text of the agreement "subject to legal review" was released by prospective member parties on 5 November 2015. Portions of drafts of the full agreement were previously leaked to the public. Many of the provisions in the leaked documents are modeled on previous trade agreements.

The contents of the TPP go far beyond the standards drafted by the World Trade Organization . The TPP includes a negative-list of all sectors covered for the liberalizing trade, except for those clearly stated. The TPP includes new regulation for online commerce, treatment of foreign investors, far more comprehensive protection for intellectual property, labor codes, and an agreement for neutrality regarding state-owned enterprises.

A 2016 study by University of Maryland political scientists Todd Allee and Andrew Lugg finds that out of the 74 previous trade agreements that TPP members signed since 1995, the text of the TPP most resembles that from earlier U.S. trade agreements. A 2017 study found that the TPP scored high relative to other trade agreements in terms of a government’s ability to freely legislate and implement regulations in given public policy domains.

TRADE BARRIERS

The agreement cuts over 18,000 tariffs. Tariffs on all U.S. manufactured goods and almost all U.S. farm products would be eliminated completely, with most eliminations occurring immediately. According to the Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service
, TPP "would be the largest U.S. FTA by trade flows ($905 billion in U.S. goods and services exports and $980 billion in imports in 2014)". The signatories represent roughly 40% of global GDP, and one-third of world trade.

In addition, the agreement mandates expedited customs procedures for express shipments and prohibits customs duties from being applied to electronic transmissions. It also requires additional privacy, security, and consumer protections for online transactions and encourages the publication of online customs forms. These provisions are expected to be particularly beneficial to small businesses.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

According to the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , the "TPP includes the most robust enforceable environment commitments of any trade agreement in history". The USTR notes that the TPP requires signatories to fulfill their obligations under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) to protect and conserve iconic species. According to the USTR, TPP is the first trade agreement to prohibit harmful fisheries subsidies, such as those that contribute to overfishing. The USTR asserts that TPP signatories are required to "combat illegal fishing", "promote sustainable fisheries management practices", and "protect wetlands and important natural areas", "combat wildlife trafficking, illegal logging , and illegal fishing" and "protect the marine environment from ship pollution, including by implementing their obligations under MARPOL (an international agreement to prevent marine pollution)".

Morin and Baumier of the Canada
Canada
Research Chair in International Political Economy (writing for the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development ) argue that while the TPP contains an impressive number of environmental provisions and a wide range of environmental protection areas, very few of these standards are innovative, most of which being copied from previous US agreements, and that the TPP missed an opportunity to be an original and progressive contribution to the environmental agenda. However, the TPP is innovative in its utilization of a combination of the American and the European approaches in environmental protection. Indeed, in doing so, the TPP became much more detailed and specific than regular US agreements while being legally more enforceable than European agreements.

In 2013 when TPP was still being negotiated, Sierra Club 's director of responsible trade, Ilana Solomon, argued that the TPP "could directly threaten our climate and our environment new rights that would be given to corporations, and new constraints on the fossil fuel industry all have a huge impact on our climate, water, and land." Upon the release of a draft of the Environment Chapter in January 2014, the Natural Resources Defense Council and the World Wide Fund for Nature joined with the Sierra Club in criticizing the TPP. After the announcement of the United Nations
United Nations
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on 25 September 2015 and the finalisation of the TPP a week later, critics discussed the interactions between the SDGs and the TPP. While one critic sees the TPP as providing a mixed bag of benefits and drawbacks to the SDGs, another regards the TPP as being incompatible with the SDGs, highlighting that if the development provisions clash with any other aspect of the TPP, the other aspect takes priority. The Friends of the Earth
Friends of the Earth
have spoken out against the TPP.

The White House has cited supportive statements from the World Wildlife Fund, the Nature Conservancy , the Humane Society , the Wildlife Conservation Society , Defenders of Wildlife , International Fund for Animal Welfare , World Animal Protection and other environmental groups in favor of the TPP. The Peterson Institute for International Economics argues that the TPP is "the most environmentally friendly trade deal ever negotiated." In regards to ISDS, PIIE analysts note that there is little evidence of constraints on environmental policies resulting from ISDS
ISDS
litigation.

A September 2016 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) predicts that "as countries take action to protect the climate, conflicts between trade rules and climate goals will escalate". :1 The report goes on to say that trade agreements like the TPP set broad-reaching rules for the economy and government policy, thereby expanding trade, often in extractive sectors, and protecting corporations and financial firms from future measures to stabilize the climate.

GOOD GOVERNANCE

According to the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , signatories are required to join the United Nations
United Nations
Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC); criminalize bribery of public officials; have in place a code of conduct for public officials; take measures to decrease conflicts of interest; effectively enforce anti-corruption laws and regulations; and involve private organizations in the fight against corruption.

HUMAN RIGHTS

According to the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , the TPP prohibits exploitative child labor and forced labor; ensures the right to collective bargaining; and prohibits employment discrimination. The USTR asserts that "research by the International Labor Organization and the World Trade Organization finds that combining expanded trade opportunities with strong protections for workers can help workers move from informal-sector jobs into formal work in wage-paying, regulated export industries which offer a minimum wage, benefits, and safety programs". The USTR asserts that "research also shows that trade improves human rights conditions by fostering pluralistic institutions and increasing open exchanges of information."

PolitiFact rates President Obama's claim that due to the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
"we've got a country like Malaysia
Malaysia
taking really serious efforts to crack down on human trafficking" as "mostly true". PolitiFact notes that Malaysia
Malaysia
began to comply with the TPP in June 2015, amending its law to improve the treatment of trafficking victims. Among the changes, Malaysia
Malaysia
gave victims better access to government shelters, transitional housing and more victim-friendly restitution procedures. Malaysia
Malaysia
has also taken steps to stop human trafficking within the construction industry.

In August 2017, Reuters
Reuters
reported that the Vietnamese government was intensifying repression of human rights, in part because of the Trump administration's decision to drop the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Membership of the TPP had previously encouraged Vietnam
Vietnam
to show a good human rights record.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Main article: Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
intellectual property provisions

The intellectual property section of a leaked draft of the TPP lays out a minimum level of protection parties to the Agreement must grant for trademarks , copyright , and patents . Copyright
Copyright
is granted at a length of life of the author plus 70 years, and requires countries to set criminal penalties for violating copyright protections such as Digital Rights Management .

According to the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , the TPP will spur innovation by requiring signatories to establish strong patentability standard and adopt strong copyright protections.

Walter Park, Professor of Economics at American University, argues, based on the existing literature, that the pharmaceutical protections in TPP will potentially enhance unaffiliated licensing in developing countries, lead to tech transfers that contribute to local learning-by-doing, stimulate new drug launches in more countries, expand marketing and distribution networks, and encourage early stage pharmaceutical innovations.

As of December 2011 some provisions relating to the enforcement of patents and copyrights alleged to be present in the US proposal for the agreement had been criticised as being excessively restrictive, beyond those in the Korea–US trade agreement and Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA).

The Electronic Frontier Foundation was highly critical of the leaked draft chapter on intellectual property covering copyright, trademarks, and patents. In the US, they believed this was likely to further entrench controversial aspects of US copyright law (such as the Digital Millennium Copyright
Copyright
Act ) and restrict the ability of Congress to engage in domestic law reform to meet the evolving IP needs of American citizens and the innovative technology sector. Standardization of copyright provisions by other signatories would also require significant changes to other countries' copyright laws. These, according to EFF, include obligations for countries to expand copyright terms , restrict fair use , adopt criminal sanctions for copyright infringement that is done without a commercial motivation (ex. file sharing of copyrighted digital media), place greater liability on internet intermediaries , escalate protections for digital locks and create new threats for journalists and whistleblowers.

Both the copyright term expansion and the non-complaint provision (i.e., competent authorities may initiate legal action without the need for a formal complaint) previously failed to pass in Japan because they were so controversial. In early 2015, "a group of artists, archivists, academics, and activists ... in Japan
Japan
their negotiators to oppose requirements in the TPP that would require their country, and five of the other 11 nations negotiating this secretive agreement, to expand their copyright terms to match the United States' already excessive length of copyright." The final agreement nonetheless sets a term of copyright equal to the one that obtains under U.S. law—life of the author plus 70 years.

Ken Akamatsu , creator of Japanese manga series Love Hina
Love Hina
and Mahou Sensei Negima! , expressed concern the agreement could decimate the derivative dōjinshi (self-published) works prevalent in Japan. Akamatsu argued that the TPP "would destroy derivative dōjinshi. And as a result, the power of the entire manga industry would also diminish."

Pharmaceuticals

In May 2015, Nobel Memorial prize winning economist Paul Krugman expressed concern that the TPP would tighten the patent laws and allow corporations such as big pharmaceutical companies and Hollywood to gain advantages, in terms of increasing rewards, at the cost of consumers, and that people in developing countries would not be able to access the medicines under the TPP regime. However, Walter Park, Professor of Economics at American University, argues that it is far from clear in economic research that this would necessarily happen: clarifying intellectual property rights on drugs, for some developing countries, has not led to greater prices and less access to drugs. Park also argues, based on the existing literature, that the pharmaceutical protections in TPP will potentially enhance unaffiliated licensing in developing countries, lead to tech transfers that contribute to local learning-by-doing, stimulate new drug launches in more countries, expand marketing and distribution networks, and encourage early stage pharmaceutical innovations. The Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative notes that the TPP "aligns with the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health", which allows developing countries to circumvent patent rights for better access to essential medicines .

Pharmaceutical companies have criticized TPP for having too lenient intellectual property protections.

In July 2015, an editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine cited concerns by Médecins sans Frontières
Médecins sans Frontières
and Oxfam
Oxfam
that a spike in drug prices caused by patent extensions could threaten millions of lives. Extending "data exclusivity" provisions would "prevent drug regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration from registering a generic version of a drug for a certain number of years." The article alleged that TPP could theoretically require corporations be paid compensation for any "lost profits" found to result from a nation's health regulations. The article alleges that the provisions in the TPP concerning generic drugs seem to be directly targeting India\'s pharmaceutical industry . Doctors Without Borders said in November 2015 that it was "extremely concerned about the inclusion of dangerous provisions that would dismantle public health safeguards enshrined in international law and restrict access to price-lowering generic medicines for millions of people." The Australian Public Health Association (PHAA) published a media release in February 2014 that highlighted "the ways in which some of the expected economic gains from the TPPA may be undermined by poor health outcomes, and the economic costs associated with these poor health outcomes."

A number of United States
United States
Congressional members, including Senator Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
and Representatives Sander M. Levin
Sander M. Levin
, John Conyers
John Conyers
, Jim McDermott
Jim McDermott
and the now-retired Henry Waxman , as well as John Lewis , Charles B. Rangel , Earl Blumenauer , Lloyd Doggett
Lloyd Doggett
and then-congressman Pete Stark
Pete Stark
, have expressed concerns about access to medicine. By protecting intellectual property in the form of the TPP mandating patent extensions, access by patients to affordable medicine in the developing world could be hindered, particularly in Vietnam. Additionally, they worried that the TPP would not be flexible enough to accommodate existing non-discriminatory drug reimbursement programs and the diverse health systems of member countries. In February 2015, former U.S. Labor Secretary Robert Reich stated he opposed the TPP because it would delay cheaper generic versions of drugs and because of its provisions for international tribunals that can require corporations be paid "compensation for any lost profits found to result from a nation's regulations."

INVESTOR-STATE ARBITRATION

The TPP agreement establishes an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, which grants investors the right to sue foreign governments for treaty violations. For example, if an investor invests in country "A", a member of a trade treaty, and country A breaches that treaty, then the investor may sue country A's government for the breach. ISDS
ISDS
is meant to provide investors in foreign countries basic protections from foreign government actions such as "freedom from discrimination", "protection against uncompensated expropriation of property", "protection against denial of justice" and "right to transfer capital":

* Freedom from discrimination: An assurance that those doing business abroad will face a level playing field and will not be treated less favorably than local investors or competitors from other countries. * Protection against uncompensated seizure of property: An assurance that property of investors won’t be seized by the government without just compensation. * Protection against denial of justice: An assurance that investors will not be denied justice in criminal, civil, or administrative adjudicatory proceedings. * Right to transfer capital: An assurance that investors will be able to move capital relating to their investments freely, subject to safeguards to provide government flexibility, including to respond to financial crises and ensure the integrity and stability of the financial system.

ISDS
ISDS
cannot overturn local laws (unlike the World Trade Organization ) which violate trade agreements, but can grant monetary damages to investors adversely affected by such laws. As pointed out by the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , ISDS
ISDS
requires specific treaty violations, and does not allow corporations to sue solely over "lost profits".

The TPP specifically excludes tobacco industries from the ISDS process. The carve-out came as a response to concerns about ISDS cases against anti-smoking laws, including Philip Morris v. Uruguay . The exemption of tobacco from ISDS
ISDS
is a first for an international trade agreement.

On the basis of leaks, economists Joseph Stiglitz
Joseph Stiglitz
and Adam S. Hersh criticized the ISDS
ISDS
provisions of the TPP for interfering with the ability of governments to prevent public harm, alleging that if asbestos been discovered today, governments would have been unable to impose regulations without creating grounds for an ISDS
ISDS
suit. Stiglitz also claimed that the TPP would give oil companies the right to sue governments for efforts to reduce carbon emissions and global warming .

In November 2015, Columbia professor Jeffrey Sachs
Jeffrey Sachs
concluded that the ISDS
ISDS
system of the TPP grants huge power to investors, and damages the judicial systems of all the member countries. He alleges that ISDS
ISDS
has been already used by corporations to upset governments so as to weaken the regulations that have negative effects on their profits. In February 2016, Lise Johnson and Lisa Sachs of the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Jeffrey Sachs
Jeffrey Sachs
of the Earth Institute allege that foreign corporations can sue a national government in international arbitration over a government's actions if the measures (including those for public health, national security, environment, food and drug, and responses to economic crises) have a negative effect on their profits and economic interests. Lori Wallach
Lori Wallach
of Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch raised similar concerns while TPP was being negotiated.

In a February 2016 op-ed against the TPP, Senator Elizabeth Warren used the example of a French company suing Egypt because Egypt raised its minimum wage as an argument against the ISDS
ISDS
provisions of the TPP. The Washington Post editorial board has however challenged this characterization of the case, noting that " Veolia of France, a waste management company, invoked ISDS
ISDS
to enforce a contract with the government of Alexandria, Egypt , that it says required compensation if costs increased; the company maintains that the wage increases triggered this provision. Incidentally, Veolia was working with Alexandria
Alexandria
on a World Bank -supported project to reduce greenhouse gases, not some corporate plot to exploit the people. The case — which would result, at most, in a monetary award to Veolia, not the overthrow of the minimum wage — remains in litigation."

The Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative challenges the notion that ISDS
ISDS
challenges "the sovereign ability of governments impose any measure they wish to protect labor rights, the environment, or other issues of public welfare". The International Bar Association (IBA) mirrors these sentiments, noting that "while investment treaties limit states’ ability to inflict arbitrary or discriminatory treatment, they do not limit (and, in fact, expressly safeguard) a state’s sovereign right to regulate in the public interest in a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory manner." The White House notes that investment protections are a component of more than 3,000 trade agreements, the vast majority of which have some form of neutral arbitration. The United States
United States
is party to at least 50 such agreements, has only faced 13 ISDS
ISDS
cases and never lost an ISDS
ISDS
case. The White House asserts that the ISDS
ISDS
components of the TPP are an upgrade and improvement on ISDS
ISDS
in other trade agreements: TPP makes it absolutely clear that governments can regulate in the public interest (including with regard to health, safety and the environment); TPP includes the ability to dismiss frivolous claims quickly and award fees against the claimant to deter such suits; sham corporations will be prevented from accessing the investment protections; and arbitration proceedings under TPP will be open to the public and allow for inputs from non-parties.

The Peterson Institute for International Economics
Peterson Institute for International Economics
argues that "the ISDS
ISDS
provisions in the TPP are a significant improvement over those in previous agreements". PIIE notes that the ISDS
ISDS
mechanism in the TPP respects environmental, health, and safety regulation; ensures the transparency of dispute proceedings; and eliminates forum shopping . PIIE asserts that some of the innovations in the ISDS
ISDS
provisions of TPP "are generally disliked by the US business community." PIIE claims that ISDS
ISDS
provisions are necessary, as they boost investment: "empirical evidence has shown that treaties including these provisions have a positive effect on foreign direct investment (FDI) flows between signatory countries." PIIE challenges the claim that ISDS "arbitrators lack integrity", noting that arbitrators take an oath of impartiality and both sides of a case choose arbitrators. PIIE agrees "that secrecy has gone too far" in many ISDS
ISDS
cases, but notes that "TPP negotiators heeded this criticism" and opened up ISDS
ISDS
cases to greater transparency.

According to the International Bar Association (IBA) , states have won a higher percentage of ISDS
ISDS
cases than investors, and that around one-third of all cases end in settlement. Claimant investors, when successful, recover on average less than half of what the amounts claimed. IBA notes that "only 8 per cent of ISDS
ISDS
proceedings are commenced by very large multinational corporations." IBA challenges the notion that ISDS
ISDS
is biased against developing countries, noting that there is "no correlation between the success rates of claims against states and their income levels or development status." IBA notes that ISDS
ISDS
is necessary even in countries with sophisticated domestic legal systems because those domestic courts rule according to domestic laws, not international law. IBA notes that "increasingly, awards require the losing party to pay arbitration costs and legal fees to the winning party", which deters investors from initiating unmeritorious cases.

LABOUR STANDARDS

According to the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative , the TPP imposes "binding and fully enforceable obligations" on signatories to "protect the freedom to form unions and bargain collectively" and "eliminate exploitative child labor and forced labor protect against employment discrimination". The obligations include "laws on acceptable conditions of work related to minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health." The USTR insists that if countries like Malaysia
Malaysia
and Vietnam
Vietnam
do not enforce provisions relating to forced labor, human trafficking and collective bargaining, they will cease to get the economic benefits of the TPP agreement.

The Peterson Institute for International Economics
Peterson Institute for International Economics
asserts that "the TPP includes more protections of labor rights than any previous US free trade agreement." In January 2016, Human Rights Watch said that the TPP side agreements with Vietnam, Malaysia, and Brunei
Brunei
"are a unique and significant step in efforts to protect labor rights in trade agreements" but noted that enforcement of these rules remains to be seen: "gauging compliance will require subjective assessments by the US that may take years to carry out and face obstacles arising from foreign policy objectives, commercial interests, and other political considerations."

In May 2015, U.S. congressman Sander Levin
Sander Levin
argued that it is difficult to enforce trade deals, as he questioned Vietnam's willingness to meet the labour standards of TPP. A report by U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren said that there was a huge gap between the labor standards of past US free trade agreements and the actual enforcement of those provisions. However, PIIE analysts note that research shows that the presence of "sticks" (a possible suspension of trade benefits) and "carrots" (technical assistance) in trade deals increase the likelihood that labor obligations in trade deals have a positive effect; there are both sticks and carrots present in TPP.

REGULATORY COOPERATION

Even though the TPP has yet to be passed, the agreement has already introduced forms of regulatory cooperation for agriculture beyond that found in the WTO. This means that regulators in different TPP signatories have been engaging with each other and building trust. Chad P. Bown, senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, argues that this regulatory cooperation meant that the US poultry industry was not as hard-hit by the 2015 bird flu outbreak , as regulators in TPP countries cooperated and continued to accept US exports of poultry.

ECONOMIC IMPACT

The U.S. International Trade Commission , the Peterson Institute for International Economics , the World Bank and the Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada
Canada
found that the final agreement would, if ratified, lead to net positive economic outcomes for all signatories, while a heterodox analysis by two Tufts University economists found that the agreement would adversely affect the signatories.

EFFECTS ON ECONOMIC EQUALITY

In 2013, Nobel Memorial prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz warned that, based on leaked drafts of the TPP, it "serves the interests of the wealthiest." Organised labour in the U.S. argued, during the negotiations, that the trade deal would largely benefit corporations at the expense of workers in the manufacturing and service industries. The Economic Policy Institute and the Center for Economic and Policy Research have argued that the TPP could result in job losses and declining wages.

Economists Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer challenge the view that TPP will primarily benefit the wealthy. Their analysis finds that "the gains from TPP appear to be fairly distributed—labour will gain relative to capital, and cost reductions will favour low-income households. Some workers will need to change jobs, but they constitute a small fraction of normal job churn in any given year, and the national benefits argue for generous compensation for their adjustment costs. The agreement will also benefit workers in TPP's poorest member countries." Research by Harvard economist Robert Z. Lawrence finds that the "percentage gains for labor income from the TPP will be slightly greater than the gains to capital income. Households in all quintiles will benefit by similar percentages, but once differences in spending shares are taken into account, the percentage gains to poor and middle-class households will be slightly larger than the gains to households at the top." An opinion piece by Ed Gerwin in the Wall Street Journal argues that the TPP agreement benefits small businesses in the US.

Economists David Autor , David Dorn and Gordon H. Hanson , who have extensively studied US labor markets adjustments to trade competition shocks caused by China, support TPP. They argue that TPP "would promote trade in knowledge-intensive services in which U.S. companies exert a strong comparative advantage", note that "killing the TPP would do little to bring factory work back to America" and argue that it would pressure China
China
to raise regulatory rules and standards to those of TPP members.

According to the U.S. International Trade Commission , the TPP will have positive effects on the U.S. economy as a whole, with unskilled labor reaping 25% of the gains, skilled workers 41% and business owners 34%.

MACROECONOMICS

World Bank Report

World Bank found that if ratified by signatories, the TPP "agreement could raise GDP in member countries by an average of 1.1 percent by 2030. It could also increase member countries' trade by 11 percent by 2030, and represent a boost to regional trade growth, which had slowed to about 5 percent, on average, during 2010-14 from about 10 percent during 1990-07." The World Bank finds that the agreement will raise real wages in all signatories: "In the United States, for example, changes in real wages are expected to be small as unskilled and skilled wages increase by 0.4 and 0.6 percent, respectively, by 2030. In contrast, in Vietnam, TPP could increase the real wages of unskilled workers by more than 14 percent by 2030, as production intensive in unskilled labor (e.g. textiles) shifts to Vietnam."

U.S. International Trade Commission Estimate

The U.S. International Trade Commission estimates that "TPP would have positive effects, albeit small as a percentage of the overall size of the U.S. economy". There will be 128,000 more full-time jobs. By 2032, U.S. annual real income would increase by 0.23%, real GDP would be $42.7 billion or 0.15% higher, employment would be 0.07% higher, US exports would increase 1%, and imports would increase 1.1%. The report added, "TPP would generally establish trade-related disciplines that strengthen and harmonize regulations, increase certainty, and decrease trade costs for firms that trade and invest in the TPP region." Vietnam
Vietnam
is often seen as the biggest beneficiary of TPP. The U.S. International Trade Commission identifies the following US industries as net beneficiaries of TPP: Passenger cars; Apparel, Dairy production; Retailers and Wholesalers; and Business services; and as net losers: Auto parts; Textiles; Soybean production; Transportation and tourism; and Chemicals and drugs.

Office Of The Chief Economist At Global Affairs Canada
Canada
Report

According to a report by the Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada, ratification of TPP would increase Canada's GDP by $4.3 billion by 2040. This is primarily due to the preferential access it would receive to markets in the Asia-Pacific rim. According to the report, ratification by the other TPP signatories but a failure by Canada
Canada
to ratify the agreement would lead Canada
Canada
to face estimated GDP losses of $5.3 billion by 2040.

Peterson Institute For International Economics Report

Economists Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer of the Peterson Institute for International Economics project that the TPP would increase incomes in the U.S. by $131 billion annually, or 0.5 percent of GDP. Exports from the U.S. would increase by $357 billion annually, or 9.1 percent, as a result of the agreement. However, two Tufts University economists argue that the research by Petri relies on unrealistic assumptions such as full employment: lost jobs will be immediately replaced in other industrial sectors. According to Harvard economist Dani Rodrik , "Petri and Plummer assume that labor markets are sufficiently flexible that job losses in adversely affected parts of the economy are necessarily offset by job gains elsewhere. Unemployment is ruled out from the start – a built-in outcome of the model that TPP proponents often fudge." Rodrik notes that "the Petri-Plummer model is squarely rooted in decades of academic trade modeling, which makes a sharp distinction between microeconomic effects (shaping resource allocation across sectors) and macroeconomic effects (related to overall levels of demand and employment). In this tradition, trade liberalization is a microeconomic "shock" that affects the composition of employment, but not its overall level."

Tufts University Report

Tufts University researchers project the TPP would have a negative impact on employment: 450,000 US jobs, 75,000 Japanese jobs, 58,000 Canadian jobs and 5,000 New Zealand
New Zealand
jobs would be lost by 2025. According to the report, 771,000 jobs would be lost in total and positive economic effects would be negligible for participating countries.

Harvard economist Robert Z. Lawrence says that the model used by the Tufts researchers "is simply not suited for credibly predicting the effects of the TPP" and argues that the model used by Petri and Plummer is superior. Lawrence argues that the model used by the Tufts researchers "does not have the granularity that allows it to estimate variables such as exports, imports, foreign direct investment, and changes in industrial structure. As a result, its predictions ignore the benefits to the TPP economies that occur through increased specialization, the realization of scale economies, and improved consumer choice." Lawrence also notes that the model used by the Tufts researchers finds that the TPP will cause GDP to fall by 5.24% in non-TPP developing countries, such as China, India, and Indonesia, which Lawrence is highly skeptical of: "It is not believable that a trade agreement of this magnitude could cause the rest of the world to plummet into recession." Harvard economist Dani Rodrik , a well-known skeptic of globalization, says that the Tufts researchers do "a poor job of explaining how their model works, and the particulars of their simulation are somewhat murky... the Capaldo framework lacks sectoral and country detail; its behavioral assumptions remain opaque; and its extreme Keynesian assumptions sit uneasily with its medium-term perspective."

Fredrik Erixon and Matthias Bauer of the European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE) write that the Tufts analysis has such serious flaws "that its results should neither be regarded reliable nor realistic." They write that Tufts model is "by and large a demand-driven model that does not make efforts to capture the supply-side effects of trade, which are the effects that are proven to be the core positive effects of trade liberalisation. Equally problematic, the model is not designed to assess the effect on trade from trade agreements – in fact, the model is profoundly ill suited for such an exercise. No trade economist, regardless what school of thought he or she comes from, has ever used this model to make estimates of trade. The reason is simple: if a model cannot predict the effects on the flows and profile of trade as a consequence of trade liberalisation, it is of no use at all." They add, "In Capaldo’s analysis, structural change and the emergence of new industries do not play a role at all. Capaldo implicitly assumes that an economy with its labour and capital does not respond and adjust to new circumstances. New competition only leads to new unemployment. In addition, the impact of lower barriers on international commerce on product and process innovation is neglected. Finally, Capaldo does not account for the impact of competition on the cost of production and final consumer prices."

According to the Congressional Research Service, "The Tufts study has drawn particular criticism as an unconventional framework for analyzing trade agreements, whereas Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models, such as that used in the Peterson study are standard in trade policy analysis." Fabio Ghironi, Professor in Economics at the University of Washington
University of Washington
, describes the models used by the World Bank and the Peterson Institute in more favorable terms than the Tufts analysis.

EFFECTS ON THE EUROPEAN UNION

The EU is trying to form trade agreements with each country that is part of the TPP: since 2013, there have been talks of a free trade agreement between the EU and Japan, and in 2015 the EU presented its new strategy to improve trade in the Asia-Pacific entitled "Trade for All."

LIBERALIZATION

According to an analysis by the Cato Institute of the chapters of the TPP, 15 chapters have a liberalizing impact, 5 have a protectionist impact, and 2 have a neutral impact. Considered as a whole, the terms of the TPP are net liberalizing.

There have been conflicting arguments on whether or not the TPP aims to increase the liberalization of trade. For arguments that propose that the TPP succeeds at liberalizing trade among the participating nations, there is a question of whether or not this causes a positive or a negative net change. Some scholars argue that participatory members of the TPP believe that such membership is a utilitarian and practical method toward new trade liberalization. Scholars Peter Petri and Michael Plummer describe the TPP as a "dynamic process - and example of competitive liberalization," and this liberalization described can result in a new type of governance for the Asia-Pacific, as well as transnational trade.

According to analyst and economist B.R. Williams, the United States has a large role in the reduction of trade barriers and increased U.S. investment. Williams explains that the U.S. aims to create a "broader platform for trade liberalization, particularly throughout the Asia-Pacific region." Scholars C. Li and J. Whalley explore a numerical approach in explaining the liberalizing effects of the TPP. Li and Whalley uses a quantitative equilibrium simulation to explore the effects of the TPP on the liberalization of trade and new markets.

GEOPOLITICS

TPP is likely to bring China's neighbours closer to the United States and reduce their dependence on Chinese trade. If ratified, TPP strengthens American influence on future rules for the global economy. TPP also increases the likelihood that Japan
Japan
undertakes economic reforms to revive its economy, which coupled with potential South-Korean accession to the TPP, might have an economic impact on China. By making the Chinese economy less competitive and Chinese leadership less likely to write the rules of trade in East and Southeast Asia, the Chinese regime will be under great internal and external pressure to liberalize its economy. Japan's prime minister, Shinzo Abe , believes that future Chinese accession to TPP would have a major pacifying impact on the Asia-Pacific region. U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman
Michael Froman
has said that a failure to ratify TPP would give China
China
the opportunity to boost its exports and set labor and environmental standards in the fast-growing Asia Pacific region through the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
(RCEP).

Secretary of Defense Ash Carter has claimed the passage of TPP to be as valuable to the United States
United States
as the creation of another aircraft carrier. President Obama has argued "if we don't pass this agreement—if America doesn't write those rules—then countries like China
China
will". According to the Congressional Research Service, "many Asian policymakers—correctly or not—could interpret a failure of TPP in the United States
United States
as a symbol of declining U.S. interest in the region and inability to assert leadership... failure to conclude TPP could, in effect, allow China
China
to shape regional rules of commerce and diplomacy through its own trade and investment initiatives, potentially creating regional rules and norms less beneficial for U.S. interests." Michael J. Green and Matthew P. Goodman argue that "history will be unforgiving if TPP fails... If Congress rejects TPP, trying to negotiate a similar arrangement in Asia would reopen demands on the United States—and in the meantime, would likely give impetus to alternative arrangements like RCEP that exclude the United States. Momentum behind the U.S.-led international order would shift to momentum against it. Future generations of historians will take note of U.S. leadership at this moment." Dan Ikenson, director of Cato's Herbert A. Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies, argued in July 2016 that the "failure of Congress to ratify the Trans-Pacific Partnership this year would do more to subvert U.S. regional and global interests than anything China
China
is capable of doing." Stephen M. Walt , professor of international relations at Harvard University, writing after the Trump Administration abandoned the TPP, described the TPP as "a key institution that would have bound a number of Asian countries more tightly to the United States".

South Korea
South Korea
did not participate in TPP "largely out of a concern to maintain balance in its economic relations with China
China
and the United States" but have shown greater interest in joining TPP after Japan, its biggest economic competitor, decided to participate. Also, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan
Taiwan
have reportedly been considering and implementing various domestic reforms to improve their prospects for eventually joining.

Since formal TPP negotiations began in 2010, China's attitude towards TPP has:

swung from disdain to suspicion to cautious embrace... Conclusion of a TPP agreement in early October has sparked a lively debate in Beijing, with the weight of elite opinion seeming to tilt toward eventual membership; for example, the head of the Chinese-sponsored Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), Jin Liqun, announced his support during a speech in Washington shortly after the TPP deal was announced.

TPP may give renewed impetus to trade negotiations among China, Japan, and Korea, and increase the likelihood of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) which could provide a possible pathway to a free trade area of the Asia-Pacific.

In January 2016, the National Association of Manufacturers announced its support for TPP, saying "without such an agreement, the United States would be ceding economic leadership to other global powers, letting them set the rules of economic engagement in the region".

A 2016 study by University of Maryland political scientists Todd Allee and Andrew Lugg suggests that if the TPP becomes standard legal text, it will shape future trade cooperation and agreements.

An October 2016 survey of International Relations scholars showed that the overwhelming majority supported the TPP.

NON-TPP PARTY OPINIONS

On 30 January 2015 Philip Hammond , the former Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom , described the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
as "potentially important liberalising steps forward".

The European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE), a think tank on European policies, predicted in 2012 that the TPP would be a "deadly threat to European exporters of agricultural products in TPP countries".

ECIPE has said in 2014 that TPP "will be the first 'competing' economic integration that is large enough to have a considerable negative impact on Europe. In the long-term, the negative effects will come from dynamic impact, e.g. on investment, productivity and competitiveness". Pascal Lamy called the TPP "the last of big old-style trade agreements". :2

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has been critical of TPP, saying that "the WTO is being encroached upon" and this might lead to the "destruction of world trade".

CRITICISM

Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Paul Krugman
Paul Krugman
has said that "there isn't a compelling case for this deal, from either a global or a national point of view."

Dartmouth economics Professor Emily J. Blanchard argues that while the TPP has been roundly criticized on the political left, progressives should actually be supportive of the TPP: "The TPP’s promise of a new progressive rule book – one that includes enforceable agreements against child labor and workplace discrimination, measures to punish illegal logging and trade in protected species, and protections against consumer fraud – would mark a substantial step forward in the progressive policy agenda on the global stage."

In February 2016, United Nations
United Nations
' human rights expert Alfred de Zayas argued that the TPP was fundamentally flawed and was based on an outdated model of trade pacts, and that governments should not sign or ratify the TPP. According to de Zayas, the international human rights regime imposes binding legal obligations on countries, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , and trade must be done under the human rights regime. Under the ISDS in the TPP, investors can sue a government, while a government cannot sue investors. De Zayas argued that this asymmetry made the system unfair. He added that international law, including accountability and transparency, must prevail over trade pacts.

CURRENCY MANIPULATION

Some critics and even supporters of the TPP wanted the deal to contain measures that would crack down on nations who engage in currency manipulation , notably China. However, Daniel Drezner , professor of international politics at Tufts University, has argued that the trade deal was never likely to include restrictions on currency manipulation, as it would have restricted U.S. monetary policy. Harvard economist Jeffrey Frankel has argued that the inclusion of currency manipulation language in TPP would be a mistake. Frankel noted that currency manipulation would be hard to enforce (in part because it is impossible to tell whether a currency is overvalued or undervalued); "currency manipulation" can often be legitimate; China, often alleged to be a major currency manipulator, is not party to the TPP; currency manipulation accusations are often meritless; and because it would restrict U.S. monetary policy.

LENGTH AND COMPLEXITY

President Donald Trump has criticized the TPP agreement for being too long and complicated, saying, "t’s 5,600 pages long, so complex that nobody’s read it." Senator Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
has charged that the "TPP is much more than a ‘free trade’ agreement."

However, Georgetown University
Georgetown University
Professor Marc L. Busch and McGill University Professor Krzysztof J. Pelc note that modern trade deals are long and complex because they often tackle non-tariff barriers to trade , such as different standards and regulations, in addition to tariffs . Due to steadily decreasing tariff barriers since WWII, countries have become increasingly likely to enact trade barriers in the form of non-tariff barriers. National firms often lobby their own governments to enact regulations that are designed to keep out foreign firms. The TPP addresses many of these "disguised restrictions on trade" by, for instance, "basing these measures on agreed-upon science; making the process of formulating regulations more transparent; and giving foreign exporters opportunities to offer substantive input in the formulation of these measures."

SECRECY OF NEGOTIATIONS

As with many trade agreements, until being finalized, negotiations for the TPP were conducted with significant secrecy. Drafts of the agreement were kept classified during negotiations, and access to the working text was significantly restricted even for government officials and business representatives involved in the talks. Despite this, some sections of TPP drafts were leaked to the public by WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
, which published an intellectual property chapter draft in 2013, an environmental chapter draft in 2014, and the final intellectual property chapter in 2014.

In 2012, critics such as Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch , a consumer advocacy group, called for more open negotiations in regard to the agreement. U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk responded that he believes the Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative (USTR) conducted "the most engaged and transparent process as we possibly could", but that "some measure of discretion and confidentiality" are needed "to preserve negotiating strength and to encourage our partners to be willing to put issues on the table they may not otherwise." He dismissed the "tension" as natural and noted that when the Free Trade Area of the Americas drafts were released, negotiators were subsequently unable to reach a final agreement.

On 23 May 2012, U.S. Senator Ron Wyden , Democrat of Oregon, introduced S. 3225, which would have required the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to disclose its TPP documents to all members of Congress. Had it passed, Wyden said that the bill would increase Congressional access to information about USTR activity.

Michael R. Wessel , former commissioner on the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission claimed in May 2015 that "cleared advisors" like himself were "prohibited from sharing publicly the criticisms we’ve lodged about specific proposals and approaches". He claimed that only portions of the text had been provided, "to be read under the watchful eye of a USTR official", that access on secure government-run website did not contain the most-up-to-date information, and that for cleared advisors to get that information, he had "to travel to certain government facilities and sign in to read the materials" and "even then, the administration determines what we can and cannot review and, often, they provide carefully edited summaries rather than the actual underlying text, which is critical to really understanding the consequences of the agreement."

In June 2015, U.S. Senator Rand Paul , Republican of Kentucky, opposed the bill to fast-track the congressional ratification of the TPP on the basis of the trade agreement's secrecy.

INDUSTRY INFLUENCE

U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren , Democrat of Massachusetts, has alleged that corporations and industry exert disproportionate influence on U.S. trade negotiators. She asserted in July 2016 that 85% of seats on U.S. trade advisory committees were held by "senior corporation executives or industry lobbyists", and that the members of the committees "whisper in the ear" of negotiators.

Michelle Ye Hee Lee, a fact-checker for The Washington Post, wrote that Warren used "misleading language" in describing the TPP. While Warren implied that "28 trade advisory committees were formed" specifically to influence the TPP, the advisory committees were actually created as part of the Trade Act of 1974 ; only the membership of the trade committees had changed during the Obama administration and the early phases of the TPP. Regarding Warren's claim that trade advisers secretly "whisper in the ear of our trade negotiators", Lee wrote: "while the direct meetings take place in private, committees still have to submit written reports to Congress and provide written recommendations and advice that are made public." Furthermore, Lee wrote, "it is true that industry representatives make up a large number of the total membership, but it is worth noting that there is a labor committee in the second tier, labor representatives in the first tier and that the industry groups have a narrow focus (to give technical advice)."

In response to criticisms about transparency and the large representation from industry representatives, USTR announced it would create a Public Interest Trade Advisory Committee.

NON-COMPETE CLAUSE

Dean Baker argued that Article 18.78, under which countries should ensure that they protect trade secrets and impose criminal procedures for violators, could be used to enforce non-compete agreements . Baker points out that California
California
's success can partly be attributed to the fact that the state did not allow for the enforcement of non-compete agreements, making it easy for tech workers to quit their jobs and start to work for another company.

CRITICISMS FROM POLITICIANS AND ACTIVISTS

In 2014, linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
warned that the TPP is "designed to carry forward the neoliberal project to maximize profit and domination, and to set the working people in the world in competition with one another so as to lower wages to increase insecurity." Senator Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
(I -VT ) argues that trade agreements like the TPP "have ended up devastating working families and enriching large corporations." Professor Robert Reich contends that the TPP is a "Trojan horse in a global race to the bottom ."

SEE ALSO

* Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act
Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act
(COICA) * Counterfeit * Digital rights * Foreign trade of the United States
United States
* Free trade
Free trade
* Free Trade Area * Generic drug * Non-tariff barriers to trade * Office of the United States
United States
Trade Representative * Protect IP Act (PIPA) * Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
(RCEP) - ASEAN plus 6 * Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) * Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) * Tariff * Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) * Trade Promotional Authority * Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement
Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement

NOTES

* ^ The official title of the document is: Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States
United States
from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement

REFERENCES

* ^ "Trans-Pacific free trade deal agreed creating vast partnership". BBC News
BBC News
. 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. * ^ Handley, Paul (5 October 2015). "12 Pacific countries seal huge free trade deal". Yahoo! News. AFP. Retrieved 7 October 2015. * ^ "US and 11 nations seal Pacific trade deal". Financial Times. the TPP must still be signed formally by the leader of each country and ratified by their parliaments (subscription required) * ^ "Here\'s What Needs to Happen in Order for the Trans-Pacific Partnership to Become Binding". The Diplomat. * ^ A B "Presidential Memorandum Regarding Withdrawal of the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Negotiations and Agreement". whitehouse.gov. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017. * ^ Riley, Charles (23 January 2017). "Trump\'s decision to kill TPP leaves door open for China". CNN. Retrieved 23 January 2017. * ^ https://www.facebook.com/nakamuradavid. "U.S., 11 nations formally sign largest regional trade deal in history". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ Granville, Kevin (2016-08-20). "What Is TPP? Behind the Trade Deal That Died". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2017-07-07. * ^ Isfeld, Gordon (12 October 2015). "Forget NAFTA, the TPP is the new ‘gold standard’ of global trade". Financial Post. Toronto
Toronto
: National Post. Retrieved 31 December 2015. * ^ Russel, Daniel. "Transatlantic Interests In Asia". U.S Department of State. Retrieved 3 August 2015. * ^ A B "Summary of the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement". USTR. 4 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015. * ^ " Australia
Australia
and the Trans-Pacific Partnership: what we do and don\'t know". The Guardian
The Guardian
. 6 October 2015. * ^ "What is the Trans-Pacific Partnership?". Vox. Retrieved 2 July 2015. * ^ "Withdrawal of the United States
United States
From the Trans- Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Agreement". 25 January 2017. * ^ Shaffer, Sri Jegarajah, Craig Dale, Leslie (2017-05-21). "TPP nations agree to pursue trade deal without US". CNBC. Retrieved 2017-05-21. * ^ hermesauto (2017-05-21). "Saving the Trans-Pacific Partnership: What are the TPP\'s prospects after the US withdrawal?". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2017-05-21. * ^ A B C D E F " Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement: Likely Impact on the U.S. Economy and on Specific Industry Sectors" (PDF). United States International Trade Commission. * ^ "Potential Macroeconomic Implications of the Trans-Pacific Partnership" (PDF). World Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-12. * ^ Hufbauer, Gary Clyde (5 February 2016). "Column: Why the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
isn\'t a bum deal". PBS. Retrieved 7 February 2016. * ^ Trading Down:Unemployment, Inequality and Other Risks of the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement J. Capaldo and A. Izurieta, Global Development and Environment Institute, Working Paper No. 16–01 Jan (2016) * ^ A B C D Staff. " Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
would boost GDP by $4.3 billion: study". Retrieved 10 September 2016. * ^ A B C D Rodrik, Dani (10 February 2016). "The Trade Numbers Game". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 22 May 2016. * ^ A B C D "Studies of TPP: Which Is Credible? PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 22 May 2016. * ^ A B C D ""Splendid Isolation" as Trade Policy: Mercantilism and Crude Keynesianism in "the Capaldo Study" of TTIP - ECIPE". Retrieved 10 August 2016. * ^ A B C D "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP): In Brief" (PDF). Congressional Research Ser vice. * ^ A B "TPP is a structural reform: Let\'s evaluate it with structural models". VoxEU.org. Retrieved 3 July 2016. * ^ A B C D E F G H Green, Michael J.; Goodman, Matthew P. (2 October 2015). "After TPP: the Geopolitics of Asia and the Pacific". The Washington Quarterly. 38 (4): 19–34. ISSN 0163-660X . doi :10.1080/0163660X.2015.1125827 . * ^ A B C "What Will the TPP Mean for China?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B C Perlez, Jane (6 October 2015). "U.S. Allies See Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
as a Check on China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B Magnusson, Earl Anthony Wayne, Oliver. "The Death of TPP: The Best Thing That Ever Happened to China". The National Interest. Retrieved 2017-01-31. * ^ "Trans Pacific Partnership trade deal signed in Auckland". BBC News. * ^ " Canada
Canada
Joins Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Round" (Press release). Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2012. Canada
Canada
formally joined the TPP on October 8, 2012. * ^ Nishikawa, Yoko (13 November 2010). " South Korea
South Korea
mulling U.S.-led TPP trade initiative: report". Reuters. Retrieved 15 November 2010. * ^ "US requests Korea\'s joining of regional FTA". The Donga-A Ilbo. 18 December 2010. * ^ "Seoul appears set to join Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations". The Hankyoreh . 4 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013. * ^ Fifield, Anna (15 April 2015). " South Korea
South Korea
asks to join Pacific trade deal. Washington says not so fast.". Washington Post. Retrieved 13 May 2015. * ^ " Taiwan
Taiwan
aims to join Trans-Pacific Partnership: minister". 10 November 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010. * ^ "Speech of President Aquino at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York City". 23 September 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2010. * ^ " Colombia
Colombia
Hopes To Join TPP Negotiations". 19 March 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2014. * ^ "Thailand\'s quest to join the TPPA \'will strengthen opposition\'". Retrieved 4 February 2013. * ^ "Current Status of the TPP Negotiations". Canon Institute for Global Studies. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2014. * ^ "US- ASEAN businessmen lobby Indonesia
Indonesia
on TPP". The Jakarta Post. 25 June 2013. * ^ Theara, Khoun (22 November 2013). "\'No Rush\' For Cambodia
Cambodia
on Trans-Pacific Trade Agreement, Experts Say". Voice of America Khmer. Retrieved 12 December 2013. * ^ Sobhan, Md Abus (15 September 2013). "Trans Pacific Partnership the way forward". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2013. * ^ Kumar, Arun (2 August 2013). "\'India\'s admission to TPP would be an economic coup\'". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 September 2013. * ^ Hookway, James; Brereton-Fukui, Natasha (28 June 2013). "Trade Is Also Key to Influence in East Asia". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 May 2015. * ^ Mireya, Solis. "The Containment Fallacy: China
China
and the TPP". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 26 June 2014. * ^ Needham, Vicki (17 September 2013). "China\'s interest grows in joining an Asia-Pacific trade deal". TheHill.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013. * ^ Devadason, Evelyn S. (17 January 2014). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): the Chinese perspective". Journal of Contemporary China
China
. 23 (87): 462–479. doi :10.1080/10670564.2013.843890 . * ^ A B Agence France-Presse in Washington (27 October 2015). " Indonesia
Indonesia
will join Trans-Pacific Partnership, Jokowi tells Obama World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ "Colombo contemplating joining Trans-Pacific Partnership: Samaraweera". The Hindu. 26 February 2016. ISSN 0971-751X . Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ "Govt pushing for GSP+, TPP membership - Dr. Harsha Daily News". dailynews.lk. Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ "Trump signs order withdrawing from TPP, reinstate \'Mexico City policy\' on abortion". CNN.com. 23 January 2017. * ^ "Trump executive order pulls out of TPP trade deal". BBC News. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017. * ^ "History of the Trans-Pacific SEP Agreement P4". mfat.govt.nz. * ^ "TRANS-PACIFIC STRATEGIC ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT" (PDF). mfat.govt.nz. Retrieved 5 October 2015. * ^ " Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement" (PDF). NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2012. * ^ Daniels, Chris (10 February 2008). "First step to wider free trade". The New Zealand
New Zealand
Herald. Retrieved 9 February 2008. * ^ Jason Fakete (5 October 2015). "\'Historic day\' says Stephen Harper as Canada
Canada
signs on to Trans-Pacific trade deal". Ottawa Citizen . * ^ Janyce McGregor (3 February 2016). " Chrystia Freeland signs Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
deal in New Zealand". CBS News
CBS News
. * ^ Shintaro Hamanaka (January 2014). "Trans-Pacific Partnership versus Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Control of Membership and Agenda setting" (PDF). * ^ "Notification of Completion of Domestic Procedures for the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP) Agreement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan) . 20 January 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2017. * ^ "Government ratifies TPP as Bill English heads to Japan
Japan
for trade talks". Stuff. Retrieved 2017-05-11. * ^ Palmer, Anna; Bresnahan, John (14 October 2015). "Trade pact may not come up in House until after 2016 election". Politico. Retrieved 14 October 2015. * ^ Carney, Jordain (25 August 2016). "McConnell: Senate won\'t take up TPP this year". The Hill. Retrieved 30 August 2016. * ^ " Donald Trump vows to cancel Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
as president, puts NAFTA on notice". The Washington Times . Retrieved 15 November 2016. * ^ "TPP’s Death Won’t Help
Help
the American Middle Class". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 January 2017. * ^ "Trump: US to quit TPP trade deal on first day in office". BBC News. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016. * ^ Shear, Michael D.; Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (21 November 2016). "Trump, on YouTube, Pledges to Create Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2016. * ^ "Trump vows to withdraw from TPP deal, silent on NAFTA". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 January 2017. * ^ Calmes, Jackie (11 November 2016). "What Is Lost by Burying the Trans-Pacific Partnership?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 15 November 2016. * ^ "Trump executive order pulls out of TPP trade deal". BBC News. Retrieved 23 January 2017. Mr Trump's executive order on TPP is seen as mainly symbolic since the deal was never ratified by a divided US Congress. * ^ " China
China
eyes opportunity as US pulls out of Trans-Pacific Partnership". Bloomberg / Sydney Morning Herald. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017. * ^ "After U.S. exit, Asian nations try to save TPP trade deal". Reuters. 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-24. * ^ " Donald Trump withdraws US from Trans-Pacific Partnership". AAP. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017. * ^ A B "TPP: What is it and why does it matter?". BBC News. 2017-01-23. Retrieved 2017-01-24. * ^ Text of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 5 November 2015, retrieved 5 November 2015 * ^ "Leaked: What\'s in Obama\'s trade deal". The Agenda. Retrieved 5 November 2015. * ^ "Potential Macroeconomic Implications of the Trans-Pacific Partnership" (PDF). Global Economic Prospect. January 2016. * ^ A B Allee, Todd; Lugg, Andrew (1 July 2016). "Who wrote the rules for the Trans-Pacific Partnership?". Research & Politics. 3 (3): 2053168016658919. ISSN 2053-1680 . doi :10.1177/2053168016658919 . * ^ Broude, Tomer; Haftel, Yoram Z.; Thompson, Alexander (2017-06-01). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
and Regulatory Space: A Comparison of Treaty Texts". Journal of International Economic Law. 20 (2): 391–417. ISSN 1369-3034 . doi :10.1093/jiel/jgx016 . * ^ "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership @ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B C Ed Gerwin (27 November 2015). "Small Businesses With a Big Stake in the Pacific Trade Deal". The Wall Street Journal. * ^ Granville, Kevin (26 July 2016). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Accord Explained". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 27 July 2016. * ^ A B C D "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ Morin, Jean-Frederic and Guillaume Baumier, TPP environmental commitments: Combining the US legalistic and the EU sectoral approaches, ICTSD, 2016, http://www.chaire-epi.ulaval.ca/sites/chaire-epi.ulaval.ca/files/publications/tpp_environmental_commitments.pdf * ^ Ibrahim Balkhy (9 December 2013). "Obama\'s Trans-Pacific Partnership May Undermine Public Health, Environment, Internet All At Once". The Huffington Post . Retrieved 10 January 2014. * ^ Howard, Brian Clark (17 January 2014). 4 Ways Green Groups Say Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Will Hurt Environment. National Geographic . Retrieved 23 January 2014. * ^ Shuaihua Wallace Cheng (23 October 2015). "Pacific Trade Deal Needs To Harmonize With Sustainable Development Goals". YaleGlobal Online. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ Matthew Rimmer. "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
poses a grave threat to sustainable development". The Conversation Australia
Australia
. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ Cam Walker (2 October 2015). "Briefing on the TPP and Sustainable Development Goals Friends of the Earth
Friends of the Earth
Australia". Friends of the Earth
Friends of the Earth
Australia. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ Rowena Dela Rosa Yoon (6 October 2015). "TPP irreconcilable with UN sustainable development goals, say critics". Asian Correspondent . Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ "What They\'re Saying: Environmental Advocates Point to the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
as a Historic Opportunity to Protect Our Oceans, Forests, and Wildlife". whitehouse.gov. * ^ "The Trans-Pacific Partnership". The White House. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ "TPP and the Environment PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ A B C D E F G "Assessing the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Volume 1: Market Access and Sectoral Issues PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B Lilliston, Ben (September 2016). The climate cost of free trade: how the TPP and trade deals undermine the Paris climate agreement (PDF). Minneapolis, MN, USA: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP). Retrieved 25 September 2016. * ^ "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership @ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B C "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B C D "Checking an Obama claim on TPP and Malaysian human rights". Retrieved 7 August 2016. * ^ A B "Trump factor weighs as Vietnam
Vietnam
intensifies crackdown on dissidents". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-03. * ^ A B Carlos A. Primo Braga (24 March 2016). "TPP: The New Gold Standard for Intellectual Property Protection in Trade Agreements?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ Claire Reilly (5 November 2015). "Spotlight on digital rights as full Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
text finally revealed". Cnet. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B C D "The TPP and Pharmaceutical Protections: Too Strong, Too Weak, or Just Right?". 25 May 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016. * ^ Flynn, Sean; Kaminski, Margot E.; Baker, Brook K.; Koo, Jimmy H. (6 December 2011). "Public Interest Analysis of the US TPP Proposal for an IP Chapter". Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property. * ^ A B C " Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement". Retrieved 13 May 2015. * ^ A B "Massive Coalition of Japanese Organizations Campaigns Against TPP Copyright
Copyright
Provisions". Retrieved 13 May 2015. * ^ "Negima\'s Akamatsu Warns Against Changing Japan\'s Copyright Law", Anime News Network , 31 October 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011 * ^ "Trade and Trust" Paul Krugman, The New York Times, 22 May 2015 * ^ DoniBloomfield, Anna Edney annaedney Doni Bloomfield. "Drugmakers Say Pacific Trade Agreement to Stifle Investment". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ Lee, Timothy B. (5 October 2015). "The just-completed Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
deal, explained". Vox. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ "TPP’s Pharmaceutical Provisions Likely To Draw Criticism From Industry, Aid Agencies". Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ A B C Kapczynski, Amy (16 July 2015). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership — Is It Bad for Your Health?". New England Journal of Medicine . 373 (3): 201–203. doi :10.1056/NEJMp1506158 . * ^ "Statement by MSF on the Official Release of the Full Text of the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trade Agreement". Doctors Without Borders. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015. * ^ Goodman, Amy ; González, Juan ; Wallach, Lori (6 November 2015), Full Text of TPP Trade Deal Revealed -- and Critics Say It\'s Even Worse Than They Thought, Democracy Now, retrieved 6 November 2015

* ^ "Protecting the Health of Australians in the TPPA". Scoop Independent News. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014. * ^ A B "Letter from 10 Representatives asking for a meeting to discuss IP policies that could "undermine public health and access to medicines."" (PDF). infojustice.org. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012. * ^ "Letter from Senator Sanders to US Trade Representative Ron Kirk" (PDF). keionline.org. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012. * ^ "Letter from Representatives Levin, Waxman, McDermott and Conyers to US Trade Representative Ron Kirk" (PDF). 19 October 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012. * ^ A B "Letter from Reps. Lewis, Stark, Rangel, Blumenauer, and Doggett asking that the May 10th agreement serve as a \'non-negotiable starting point\' for access to medicines" (PDF). 8 September 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012. * ^ Robert Reich: A Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Would Be Devastating. Salon.com, 5 February 2015 * ^ "TPP Final Text Chapter 9 Investment" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2016. * ^ Hernando Otero and Omar García-Bolívar, "International Arbitration between Foreign Investors and Host States" Hauser Global Law School Program. NYU, December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2014 * ^ "FACT SHEET: Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) United States Trade Representative". ustr.gov. Retrieved 22 May 2016. * ^ A B C "ISDS: Important Questions and Answers United States Trade Representative". ustr.gov. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ A B C D E F G H "Investor-state dispute settlement: the importance of an informed, fact-based debate". International Bar Association. * ^ Claire Provost and Matt Kennard (10 June 2015). "The obscure legal system that lets corporations sue countries". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B "TPP Tobacco Exception Proves the New Rule in Trade". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 17 June 2016. * ^ Thomas J. Bollyky (13 February 2016). "The War on Tobacco Makes It Into the TPP Free Trade Deal". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ Stiglitz, Joseph ; Hersh, Adam S. (5 October 2015), Opinion: The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
charade: TPP isn\'t about \'free\' trade at all, MarketWatch, retrieved 28 October 2015 * ^ Goodman, Amy ; Stiglitz, Joseph (27 October 2015), Joseph Stiglitz: Under TPP, Polluters Could Sue U.S. for Setting Carbon Emissions Limits, retrieved 27 October 2015 * ^ Why the TPP Is Too Flawed for a \'Yes\' Vote in Congress J. Sachs, The Huffington Post, 11 November 2015 * ^ The real danger in TPP L. Johnson, L. Sachs and J. Sachs, CNN, 19 February 2016 * ^ Wallach, Lori (16 July 2012). "NAFTA on Steroids". The Nation. Retrieved 10 July 2014. * ^ Warren, Elizabeth (25 February 2015). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership clause everyone should oppose". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ Board, Editorial (11 March 2015). "Don’t buy the trade deal alarmism". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286 . Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ A B C "Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) Questions and Answers". 26 February 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ "What Do the Data Say about the Relationship between Investor-State Dispute Settlement Provisions and FDI? PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov". The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
@ USTR.gov. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ Representative, U. S. Trade (5 November 2015). ""Will TPP promote higher labor standards?"". Medium. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ "Labor Standards in the TPP PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ "Q&A: The Trans-Pacific Partnership". Human Rights Watch. 12 January 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016. * ^ A B Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
won\'t improve workers\' rights in Asia, critics warn S. Greenhouse, The Guardian, 21 May 2015 * ^ "Assessing the Trans-Pacific Partnership, Volume 2: Innovations in Trading Rules PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B C "The sky fell on the U.S. poultry industry last year. But NAFTA and the TPP helped protect U.S. exports.". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2016. * ^ A B C "Potential Macroeconomic Implications of the Trans-Pacific Partnership" (PDF). World Bank. * ^ A B Hufbauer, Gary Clyde (5 February 2016). "Column: Why the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
isn\'t a bum deal". PBS. Retrieved 7 February 2016. * ^ A B C D Trading Down:Unemployment, Inequality and Other Risks of the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement J. Capaldo and A. Izurieta, Global Development and Environment Institute, Working Paper No. 16–1 Jan (2016) * ^ Stiglitz, Joseph E. (15 March 2014). "On the Wrong Side of Globalization". The New York Times . Retrieved 17 March 2014. * ^ "Secrecy surrounds Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
talks". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. * ^ "Fighting TPP to protect workers\' rights". The Ed Show
The Ed Show
. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013. * ^ "No Jobs from Trade Pacts: The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Could Be Much Worse than the Over-Hyped Korea Deal". Economic Policy Institute . 18 July 2013 * ^ "Gains from Trade? The Net Effect of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement on U.S. Wages". Center for Economic and Policy Research . September 2013 * ^ "Economics of the Trans-Pacific Partnership: Distributional impact". VoxEU.org. Retrieved 22 May 2016. * ^ "Adjustment and Income Distribution Impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
PIIE". piie.com. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ "Why the TPP has benefits for workers that far outweighs its costs". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ Autor, David H.; Dorn, David; Hanson, Gordon H. (1 January 2016). "The China
China
Shock: Learning from Labor Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade". National Bureau of Economic Research. * ^ A B "Why Obama\'s key trade deal with Asia would actually be good for American workers". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B Porter, Eduardo (26 July 2016). "Why Dropping the Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
May Be a Bad Idea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 27 July 2016. * ^ A B svwriter, John Boudreau. "The Biggest Winner From TPP Trade Deal May Be Vietnam". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B Diplomat, Dien Luong, The. "Why Vietnam
Vietnam
Loves the Trans-Pacific Partnership". The Diplomat. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ Mauldin, William. "Ten Winning and Losing Industries from the Pacific Trade Deal". WSJ. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B C "Not joining TPP will cost Canada
Canada
billions in economic growth: report". Retrieved 10 September 2016. * ^ Economists Sharply Split Over Trade Deal Effects J. Calmes, The New York Times, 1 February 2016 * ^ Krisztina Binder (May 2016). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Potential regional and global impacts" (PDF). * ^ A B "Should Free Traders Support the Trans- Pacific Partnership? An Assessment of America’s Largest Preferential Trade Agreement". 12 September 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016. * ^ Lewis, Meredith (2011). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: New Paradigm or Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?". Boston College International & Comparative Law Review. 34. SSRN 1908411  . * ^ Petri, Peter; Plummer, Michael (2012). "The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Asia-Pacific Integration: Policy Implications". Peterson Institute for International Economics
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Policy Brief. * ^ Williams, B.R. (2013). " Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
(TPP) countries: Comparative trade and economic analysis". Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. * ^ Li, C; Whalley, J (2014). " China
China
and the Trans-Pacific Partnership: A Numerical Simulation Assessment of the Effects Involved". World Economics. 37: 169–192. * ^ "Trade Is a National Security Imperative - Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs". belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu. Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ Boot, Max. "The Geopolitical Necessity of Trade". * ^ A B "This Isn’t Realpolitik. This Is Amateur Hour.". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-05-04. * ^ "Killing TPP would hand China
China
\'keys to the castle\': U.S. trade representative". Reuters. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016. * ^ Calmes, Jackie (5 November 2015). "Trans-Pacific Partnership Text Released, Waving Green Flag for Debate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 24 May 2016. * ^ A B "The Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Is Essential to Regional Peace and Global Prosperity". 14 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ Needham, Vicki. "Big Endorsement for Obama Trade Deal". The Hill. Retrieved 4 January 2016. * ^ "TRIP Data Viewer". trip.wm.edu. Retrieved 26 October 2016. * ^ Hammond, P., "Foreign Secretary\'s speech on the UK in Asia Pacific" Foreign ">\'". sputniknews.com. Retrieved 3 August 2016. * ^ Krugman, Paul (27 February 2014). "No Big Deal". The New York Times . Retrieved 28 February 2014. * ^ Blanchard, Emily J. "Why progressives should rescue the TPP trade deal". Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ A B TPP \'fundamentally flawed,\' should be resisted - UN human rights expert RT, 2 February 2016 * ^ UN expert urges Pacific Rim countries not to sign the TPP without committing to human rights and development OHCHR, 2 February 2016 * ^ "China\'s impact looms large as U.S. debates its own trade deals". Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ "Is Hillary Clinton right about the Trans-Pacific Partnership?". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ A B ""The Top Ten Reasons Why Trade Agreements Should Not Cover Currency Manipulation" Econbrowser". econbrowser.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ " Donald Trump Is Upset". Wall Street Journal. 13 November 2015. ISSN 0099-9660 . Retrieved 2 August 2016. * ^ FeelTheBern.org. " Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
on Trade". Retrieved 2 August 2016. * ^ "Yes, the TPP agreement is over 5,000 pages long. Here’s why that’s a good thing.". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2016. * ^ Edward-Isaac Dovere (4 May 2015). "Extreme secrecy eroding support for Obama\'s trade pact". Politico. Retrieved 22 July 2016. * ^ "Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership
Trans-Pacific Partnership
Agreement (TPP)". WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. * ^ Musil, Steven (12 November 2013). " WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
publishes secret draft chapter of Trans-Pacific Partnership".