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(i) (i) (i) (i)

The traditional beliefs and practices of African people are highly diverse and include various ethnic religions . Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead , use of magic and traditional medicine . The role of humanity is generally seen as one of harmonising nature with the supernatural.

While adherence to traditional religion in Africa is hard to estimate, due to syncretism with Christianity
Christianity
, Islam
Islam
and Judaism
Judaism
, practitioners are estimated to number over 100 million, or at least 10 percent of the population of the continent. Afro-American religions are practiced in the Americas and include Candomblé
Candomblé
, Santería and Haitian Vodou
Haitian Vodou
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Statistics * 2 Ceremonies * 3 Spirits

* 4 Practices and rituals

* 4.1 Divination
Divination

* 5 Virtue and vice * 6 Sacred places * 7 Religious persecution
Religious persecution

* 8 Traditions by region

* 8.1 Central Africa * 8.2 East African * 8.3 Southern Africa * 8.4 West Africa * 8.5 African Diaspora * 8.6 North Africa * 8.7 Horn of Africa

* 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 Notes * 12 External links

STATISTICS

An early 20th century Igbo medicine man in Nigeria
Nigeria
, West Africa

Practitioners of traditional religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
are distributed among 43 countries, and were estimated to number over 100 million, although the largest religions in Africa are Christianity and Islam
Islam
.

CEREMONIES

West and Central African religious practices generally manifest themselves in communal ceremonies or divinatory rites in which members of the community, overcome by force (or ashe, nyama, etc.), are excited to the point of going into meditative trance in response to rhythmic or mantric drumming or singing. One religious ceremony practiced in Gabon
Gabon
and Cameroon
Cameroon
is the Okuyi , practiced by several Bantu ethnic groups. In this state, depending upon the region, drumming or instrumental rhythms played by respected musicians (each of which is unique to a given deity or ancestor), participants embody a deity or ancestor, energy or state of mind by performing distinct ritual movements or dances which further enhance their elevated consciousness. When this trance-like state is witnessed and understood, practitioners are privy to a way of contemplating the pure or symbolic embodiment of a particular mindset or frame of reference. This builds skills at separating the feelings elicited by this mindset from their situational manifestations in daily life. Such separation and subsequent contemplation of the nature and sources of pure energy or feelings serves to help participants manage and accept them when they arise in mundane contexts. This facilitates better control and transformation of these energies into positive, culturally appropriate behavior, thought, and speech. Further, this practice can also give rise to those in these trances uttering words which, when interpreted by a culturally educated initiate or diviner, can provide insight into appropriate directions which the community (or individual) might take in accomplishing its goal.

SPIRITS

Main article: List of African mythological figures

Followers of traditional African religions pray to various spirits as well as to their ancestors. These secondary spirits serve as intermediaries between humans and the primary God. Most African societies believe in a single Supreme Creator God
God
( Chukwu
Chukwu
, Nyame
Nyame
, Olodumare , Ngai , Roog
Roog
, etc.). Some recognize a dual God
God
and Goddess such as Mawu-Lisa .

PRACTICES AND RITUALS

Bakongo masks from the Kongo Central
Kongo Central

There are more similarities than differences in all traditional African religions. Often, the supreme God
God
is worshiped through consultation or communion with lesser deities and ancestral spirits. The deities and spirits are honored through libation , sacrifice (of animals, vegetables, cooked food, flowers, semi-precious stones, precious metals, etc.). The will of God
God
is sought by the believer also through consultation of oracular deities, or divination . In many traditional African religions, there is a belief in a cyclical nature of reality. The living stand between their ancestors and the unborn. Traditional African religions embrace natural phenomena – ebb and tide, waxing and waning moon, rain and drought – and the rhythmic pattern of agriculture. According to Gottlieb and Mbiti:

The environment and nature are infused in every aspect of traditional African religions and culture. This is largely because cosmology and beliefs are intricately intertwined with the natural phenomena and environment. All aspects of weather, thunder, lightning, rain, day, moon, sun, stars, and so on may become amenable to control through the cosmology of African people. Natural phenomena are responsible for providing people with their daily needs.

For example, in the Serer religion , one of the most sacred stars in the cosmos is called Yoonir the (Star of Sirius
Sirius
). With a long farming tradition, the Serer high priests and priestesses ( Saltigue
Saltigue
) deliver yearly sermons at the Xoy Ceremony (divination ceremony) in Fatick before Yoonir's phase in order to predict winter months and enable farmers to start planting.

DIVINATION

Main article: African divination Early 20th century Yoruba divination board

Since Africa is a large continent with many ethnic groups and cultures, there is not one single technique of casting divination. The practice of casting may be done with small objects, such as bones, cowrie shells, stones, strips of leather, or flat pieces of wood. Traditional healer of South Africa performing a divination by reading the bones

Some castings are done using sacred divination plates made of wood or performed on the ground (often within a circle).

In traditional African societies, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Those who divine for a living are also sought for their wisdom as counselors in life and for their knowledge of herbal medicine.

VIRTUE AND VICE

Virtue in traditional African religion is often connected with carrying out obligations of the communal aspect of life. Examples include social behaviors such as the respect for parents and elders, raising children appropriately, providing hospitality, and being honest, trustworthy, and courageous.

In some traditional African religions, morality is associated with obedience or disobedience to God
God
regarding the way a person or a community lives. For the Kikuyu , according to their primary supreme creator, Ngai , acting through the lesser deities, is believed to speak to and be capable of guiding the virtuous person as one's conscience. Traditionally, as now, the Kikuyu were monotheists, believing in a unique and omnipotent God
God
whom they called Ngai. The word, is related to the Maasai word Enkai, and was borrowed by both the Kikuyu and Kamba. God
God
is also known as Mungu, Murungu, or Mulungu (a variant of a word meaning God
God
which is found as far south as the Zambesi of Zambia), and is sometimes given the title Mwathani or Mwathi (the greatest ruler), which comes from the word gwatha, meaning to rule or reign with authority. Ngai is the creator and giver of all things, 'the Divider of the Universe and Lord of Nature'. He gave birth to the human community, created the first Kikuyu communities, and provided them with all the resources necessary for life: land, rain, plants and animals. He - for Ngai is male - cannot be seen, but is manifest in the sun, moon, stars, comets and meteors, thunder and lighting, rain, in rainbows and in the great fig trees ( mugùmò ) that served as places of worship and sacrifice, and which marked the spot at Mukurue wa Gathanga where Gikuyu and Mumbi - the ancestors of the Kikuyu in the oral legend - first settled. Yet Ngai is not the distant God
God
that we know in the West. He had human characteristics, and although some say that he lives in the sky or in the clouds, they also say that he comes to earth from time to time to inspect it, bestow blessings and mete out punishment. When he comes he rests on Mount Kenya and four other sacred mountains. Thunder is interpreted to be the movement of God, and lightning is God's weapon by means of which he clears the way when moving from one sacred place to another. Other people believed that Ngai's abode was on Mount Kenya, or else 'beyond' its peaks. Ngai, says one legend, made the mountain his resting place while on an inspection tour of earth. He then took the first man, Gikuyu, to the top to point out the beauty of the land he was giving him.In traditional African religions, such as the Azande religion, a person is said to have a good or bad conscience, depending on whether he does the bidding of God
God
or malevolent spirits.

In many cases, Africans who have converted to other religions have still kept up their traditional customs and practices, combining them in a syncretic way.

SACRED PLACES

Some sacred or holy locations for traditional religions include Nri-Igbo , the Point of Sangomar
Point of Sangomar
, Ife
Ife
, Oyo , Dahomey
Dahomey
, Benin City , Ouidah
Ouidah
, Nsukka
Nsukka
, Kanem-Bornu , and Igbo-Ukwu among others.

RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION

Main article: Persecution of traditional African religion

TRADITIONS BY REGION

This list is limited to a few well-known traditions.

CENTRAL AFRICA

* Bantu mythology (Central, Southeast, Southern Africa)

* Bushongo mythology (Congo) * Lugbara mythology (Congo) * Baluba mythology (Congo) * Mbuti mythology (Congo)

* Dinka religion (South Sudan) * Hausa animism ( Chad
Chad
, Gabon
Gabon
) * Lotuko mythology (South Sudan)

EAST AFRICAN

* Bantu mythology (Central, Southeast, Southern Africa)

* Akamba mythology (Kenya)

* Maasai mythology (Kenya, Tanzania, Ouebian) * Kalenjin Religion
Religion
(Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania) * Dini Ya Msambwa (Bungoma, Trans Nzoia, Kenya)

SOUTHERN AFRICA

* Bantu mythology (Central, Southeast, Southern Africa)

* Lozi mythology (Zambia) * Tumbuka mythology (Malawi) * Zulu mythology (South Africa)

* San religion (South Africa) * Traditional healers of South Africa * Manjonjo Healers of Chitungwiza of Zimbabwe

WEST AFRICA

* Akan religion (Ghana, Ivory Coast) * Dahomean religion (Benin, Togo) * Efik mythology (Nigeria, Cameroon) * Edo religion (Benin kingdom, Nigeria) * Hausa animism (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Togo) * Odinani ( Igbo people
Igbo people
, Nigeria
Nigeria
) * Serer religion (Senegal, Gambia) * Yoruba religion
Yoruba religion
(Nigeria, Benin, Togo) * West African Vodun (Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria) * Dogon religion (Mali)

AFRICAN DIASPORA

Main article: Afro-American religion

NORTH AFRICA

* Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
(Egypt, Sudan) * Traditional Berber religion (Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Burkina Faso) * Hausa animism ( Sudan
Sudan
)

HORN OF AFRICA

* Cushitic mythology (Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea, Djibouti)

REFERENCES

* Information presented here was gleaned from World Eras Encyclopaedia, Volume 10, edited by Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure (New York: Thomson-Gale, 2003), in particular pp. 275–314. * Baldick, J (1997) Black God: The Afroasiatic Roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Religions. New York: Syracuse University Press. * Doumbia, A. & Doumbia, N (2004) The Way of the Elders: West African Spirituality
Spirituality
& Tradition. Saint Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. * Ehret, Christopher, (2002) The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. * Ehret, Christopher, An African Classical Age: Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400, page 159, University of Virginia Press, ISBN 0-8139-2057-4 * Karade, B (1994) The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts. York Beach, MA: Samuel Weiser Inc. * P\'Bitek, Okot . African Religions and Western Scholarship. Kampala: East African Literature Bureau , 1970. * Princeton Online, History of Africa * Wiredu, Kwasi Toward Decolonizing African Philosophy And Religion in African Studies Quarterly, The Online Journal for African Studies, Volume 1, Issue 4, 1998

FURTHER READING

* Encyclopedia of African Religion, - Molefi Asante , Sage Publications, 1412936365 * Julian Baldick (1997). Black God: the Afroasiatic roots of the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions. Syracuse University Press:ISBN 0-8156-0522-6 * West African Traditional Religion
Religion
Kofi Asare Opoku Publisher: FEP International Private Limited (1978), ASIN: B0000EE0IT * John Mbiti African Religions and Philosophy (1969) African Writers Series , Heinemann ISBN 0-435-89591-5 * Wade Abimbola, ed. and trans. Ifa Divination
Divination
Poetry (New York: NOK, 1977). * Ulli Beier , ed. The Origins of Life and Death: African Creation Myths (London: Heinemann, 1966). * Herbert Cole, Mbari: Art and Life among the Owerri Igbo (Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1982). * J. B. Danquah , The Akan Doctrine of God: A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics and Religion, second edition (London: Cass, 1968). * Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dietterlen, Le Mythe Cosmogonique (Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, 1965). * Rems Nna Umeasigbu, The Way We Lived: Ibo Customs and Stories (London: Heinemann, 1969). * Sandra Barnes, Africa's Ogun: Old World and New (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989). * Segun Gbadagesin, African Philosophy: Traditional Yoruba Philosophy and Contemporary African Realities (New York: Peter Lang, 1999). * Judith Gleason, Oya, in Praise of an African Goddess (Harper Collins, 1992). * Bolaji Idowu , God
God
in Yoruba Belief (Plainview: Original Publications, rev. and enlarged ed., 1995) * Wole Soyinka , Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge University Press, 1976). * E. Geoffrey Parinder, African Traditional Religion, Third ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1974). ISBN 0-85969-014-8 pbk. * E. Geoffrey Parinder, "Traditional Religion", in his Africa's Three Religions, Second ed. (London: Sheldon Press, 1976, ISBN 0-85969-096-2 ), p. . * S. Solagbade Popoola, Ikunle Abiyamo: It is on Bent Knees that I gave Birth (2007 Asefin Media Publication) * David Chidester, "Religions of South Africa" pp. 17–19 * Alisa LaGamma (2000). Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-933-8 . Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. * Peavy, D., (2009)."Kings, Magic & Medicine". Raleigh, NC: SI. * Peavy, D., (2016). The Benin Monarchy, Olokun & Iha Ominigbon. Umewaen: Journal of Benin -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Dr J.O. Awolalu, Studies in Comparative Religion
Religion
Vol. 10, No. 2. (Spring, 1976). Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "African religions". * ^ A B Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford Handbook Of Global Religions. ISBN 0-19-513798-1 . * ^ S. Mbiti, John (1991). Introduction to African religion. ISBN 0-435-94002-3 . * ^ An African Story BBC
BBC
Archived November 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ A B Encyclopedia of African Religion
Religion
(Sage, 2009) Molefi Kete Asante * ^ What is religion? An African understanding Archived May 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.

* ^ A B Britannica Book of the Year (2003), Encyclopædia Britannica (2003) ISBN 978-0-85229-956-2 p.306 According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, as of mid-2002, there were 480,453,000 Christians, 329,869,000 Muslims and 98,734,000 people who practiced traditional religions in Africa. Ian S. Markham, A World Religions Reader (1996) Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. is cited by Morehouse University as giving the mid-1990s figure of 278,250,800 Muslims in Africa, but still as 40.8% of the total. These numbers are estimates, and remain a matter of conjecture (see Amadu Jacky Kaba). The spread of Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
in Africa: a survey and analysis of the numbers and percentages of Christians, Muslims and those who practice indigenous religions. The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol 29, Number 2, (June 2005), discusses the estimations of various almanacs and encyclopediae, placing Britannica's estimate as the most agreed on figure. Notes the figure presented at the World Christian Encyclopedia, summarized here Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine ., as being an outlier. On rates of growth, Islam
Islam
and Pentecostal Christianity
Christianity
are highest, see: The List: The World\'s Fastest-Growing Religions, Foreign Policy, May 2007. * ^ Anthony Appiah, Kwame; Louis Gates, Henry (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. ISBN 0-19-533770-0 . * ^ Karade, B. The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts, pages 39–46. Samuel Weiser Inc, 1994 * ^ Annemarie De Waal Malefijt (1968) Religion
Religion
and Culture: an Introduction to Anthropology of Religion, p 220–249, Macmillan * ^ Willie F. Page (2001) Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, Volume 1, p55. Published by Facts on File, ISBN 0-8160-4472-4

* ^ Peter C. Rogers (2009) Ultimate Truth, Book 1, p100. Published by AuthorHouse, ISBN 1-4389-7968-1 * ^ John S. Mbiti (1990) African Religions "> * Baba Alawoye.com Baba'Awo Awoyinfa Ifaloju, showcasing Ifa using web media 2.0 (blogs, podcasting, video ">

* Traditional African religion portal * Religion
Religion
portal

* v * t * e

Religion in Africa

* Akan mythology
Akan mythology
* Akamba mythology * Bahá\'í Faith
Faith
* Bantu mythology * Berber mythology * Bambuti mythology * Buddhism
Buddhism
* Bushongo mythology * Christianity
Christianity
* Dahomey
Dahomey
(Fon) mythology * Dinka mythology * Efik mythology * Egyptian religion * Hinduism
Hinduism
* Irreligion * Islam
Islam
* Isoko mythology * Jainism
Jainism
* Judaism
Judaism
* Khoe/ San religion * Lotuko mythology * Lozi mythology * Lugbara mythology * Malagasy mythology * Masai mythology * Igbo religion * Serer creation myth * Serer religion * Tumbuka mythology * Waaq * Yoruba religion
Yoruba religion
* Zulu religion

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Algeria * Angola * Benin * Botswana * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cameroon
Cameroon
* Cape Verde * Central African Republic * Chad
Chad
* Comoros * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Republic of the Congo * Côte d\'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) * Djibouti * Egypt * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Ethiopia * Gabon
Gabon
* The Gambia * Ghana * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Kenya * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Madagascar * Malawi * Mali * Mauritania * Mauritius * Morocco * Mozambique * Namibia * Niger * Nigeria
Nigeria
* Rwanda * São Tomé and Príncipe * Senegal * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Somalia * South Africa * South Sudan
Sudan
* Sudan
Sudan
* Swaziland * Tanzania * Togo * Tunisia * Uganda * Zambia * Zimbabwe

Dependencies , autonomies and other territories

* Canary Islands (Spain) * Ceuta (Spain) * Madeira (Portugal) * Mayotte (France) * Melilla (Spain) * Puntland * Réunion (France) * Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic * St. Helena (UK) * Socotra (Yemen) * Somaliland * Western Sahara * Zanzibar (Tanzania)

See also: Afro-American religion

* v * t * e

Religion
Religion

MAJOR RELIGIOUS GROUPS AND RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS

ABRAHAMIC

JUDAISM

* Orthodox

* Haredi * Hasidic * Modern

* Conservative * Reform * Karaite * Reconstructionist * Renewal * Humanistic * Haymanot

CHRISTIANITY

* Catholicism

* Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches

* Eastern Christianity
Christianity

* Church of the East
Church of the East

* Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East

* Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy

* Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy

* Ethiopian Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy

* Independent Catholicism

* Old Catholicism

* Protestantism
Protestantism

* Adventism
Adventism
* Anabaptism
Anabaptism
* Anglicanism
Anglicanism
* Baptists
Baptists

* Calvinism
Calvinism

* Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
* Congregationalism * Continental Reformed

* Lutheranism
Lutheranism
* Methodism
Methodism
* Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
* Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism

* Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism

* Jehovah\'s Witnesses * Mormonism
Mormonism
* Jesuism
Jesuism

* Nondenominational

ISLAM

* Sunni

* Hanafi
Hanafi
* Maliki
Maliki
* Hanbali
Hanbali
* Shafi\'i

* Shia

* Twelver
Twelver
* Isma\'ilism * Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah

* Ahmadi * Ibadi
Ibadi
* Non-denominational * Quranism * Zahirism

* Salafism

* Wahhabism
Wahhabism
* Ahl al-Hadith

* Mahdavia * European Islam
Islam
* Nation of Islam
Islam

OTHERS

* Bábism
Bábism

* Azáli Bábism
Bábism
* Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

* Druze
Druze
* Mandaeism
Mandaeism
* Rastafari
Rastafari
* Samaritanism
Samaritanism

DHARMIC

HINDUISM

* Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
* Shaktism
Shaktism
* Shaivism
Shaivism
* Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
* Smartism * Balinese

BUDDHISM

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan

* Zen
Zen
* Thiền * Seon

* Pure Land * Nichiren * Madhyamaka * Tiantai
Tiantai

* Theravada
Theravada

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Newar * Bon
Bon

* Navayana
Navayana

OTHERS

* Jainism
Jainism

* Digambara
Digambara
* Śvētāmbara

* Sikhism
Sikhism
* Gurung shamanism * Bon
Bon
Lamaism * Kirant Mundhum

IRANIAN

* Manichaeism
Manichaeism

* Yazdânism

* Yazidism * Ishikism * Ali-Illahism * Yarsanism
Yarsanism

* Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism

EUROPEAN

* Armenian

* Baltic

* Dievturība * Druwi * Romuva

* Caucasian

* Celtic

* Druidry

* Germanic * Hellenism * Italo-Roman * Romanian * Slavic

URALIC

* Finnish * Hungarian

* Uralic

* Mari * Mordvin * Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

* Burkhanism * Chuvash * Manchu * Mongolian * Siberian * Tengrism
Tengrism

EAST ASIAN

* Confucianism
Confucianism
* Faism * Taoism
Taoism
* Luoism * Neo- Confucianism
Confucianism
* Shenism * Wuism * Shinto
Shinto
* Ryukyuan religion
Ryukyuan religion
* Cheondoism
Cheondoism
* Muism * Jeungsanism * Benzhuism * Bimoism
Bimoism
* Bon
Bon
* Dongbaism * Hmongism * Meishanism * Mileism * Shigongism * Yiguandao
Yiguandao

SOUTHEAST ASIAN

* Burmese * Caodaism
Caodaism
* Satsana Phi * Malaysian * Marapu (Sumba) * Indonesian * Kaharingan
Kaharingan
* Hoahaoism * Javanism * Philippine

* Vietnamese

* Đạo Mẫu

AFRICAN

TRADITIONAL

* Akan * Akamba * Baluba * Bantu * Berber * Bushongo * Cushitic * Dinka * Efik * Fon and Ewe * Guanche * Igbo * Isoko * Lotuko * Lozi * Lugbara * Maasai * Mbuti * San * Serer * Tumbuka * Waaq * Yoruba * Zulu

DIASPORIC

* Candomblé
Candomblé
* Kumina * Obeah
Obeah
* Quimbanda * Palo * Santería * Umbanda * Vodou * Voodoo * Winti

OTHER GROUPS

* Bathouism * Bongthingism * Donyi-Polo * Dravidian * Kiratism * Sanamahism * Sarnaism * Aboriginal Australian * Native American * Mesoamerican * Hawaiian * Polynesian

RECENT

* Discordianism
Discordianism
* Pastafarianism
Pastafarianism
* Eckankar * Jediism * New Age
New Age
* New Thought
New Thought
* Raëlism * Satanism
Satanism
* Scientology
Scientology
* Thelema
Thelema
* Unitarian Universalism
Unitarian Universalism
* Wicca
Wicca

HISTORICAL RELIGIONS

PREHISTORIC

* Paleolithic

NEAR EAST

* Arabian * Egyptian * Mesopotamian * Semitic

INDO-EUROPEAN

ASIA

* Proto-Indo-Iranian * Armenian * Ossetian * Vedic

* Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism

* Mithraism
Mithraism
* Zurvanism

* Gnosticism
Gnosticism

* Manichaeism
Manichaeism

EUROPE

* Celtic

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Greek

* Gnosticism
Gnosticism
* Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism

* Manichaeism
Manichaeism
* Balkan * Roman * Slavic

TOPICS

ASPECTS

* Apostasy / Disaffiliation * Behaviour * Beliefs * Clergy
Clergy
* Conversion * Deities * Entheogens * Ethnic religion
Ethnic religion
* Denomination * Faith
Faith
* Fire * Folk religion
Folk religion
* God
God
* Meditation
Meditation

* Monasticism
Monasticism

* monk * nun

* Mysticism
Mysticism
* Mythology * Nature * Ordination
Ordination
* Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
* Orthopraxy
Orthopraxy
* Prayer
Prayer
* Religious experience

* Ritual
Ritual

* liturgy * sacrifice

* Spirituality
Spirituality
* Supernatural
Supernatural
* Symbols * Truth * Water * Worship
Worship

THEISM

* Animism
Animism
* Deism
Deism
* Dualism
Dualism
* Henotheism * Monotheism
Monotheism
* Nontheism * Panentheism * Pantheism
Pantheism
* Polytheism
Polytheism
* Transtheism

RELIGIOUS STUDIES

* Anthropology * Cognitive science * Comparative * Development * Evolutionary origin * Evolutionary psychology * History * Philosophy * Neurotheology * Psychology * Sociology * Theology
Theology
* Theories * Women

Religion
Religion
and society

* Agriculture * Business

* Clergy
Clergy

* monasticism * ordination

* Conversion

* evangelism * missionary * proselytism

* Education * Fanaticism

* Freedom

* pluralism * syncretism * toleration * universalism

* Fundamentalism * Growth * Happiness * Homosexuality * Minorities * National church
National church
* National religiosity levels * Religiocentrism * Political science * Populations * Schism
Schism
* Science * State * Theocracy
Theocracy
* Vegetarianism * Video games

* Violence

* persecution * terrorism * war

* Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

* Antireligion * Deism
Deism
* Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Atheism
Atheism
* Criticism * LaVeyan Satanism
Satanism
* Deconstruction * Humanistic Judaism
Judaism
* Irreligion by country * Objectivism * Secular humanism * Secular theology * Secularization
Secularization
* Separation of church and state