Toxicodendron succedaneum
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''Toxicodendron succedaneum'', the wax tree, Japanese Hazenoki tree (Sumac or wax tree), sơn in Vietnam or charão in Portuguese, is a flowering plant species in the genus ''
Toxicodendron ''Toxicodendron'' is a genus of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece ...
'' found in Asia, although it has been planted elsewhere, most notably Australia and New Zealand. It is a large shrub or tree, up to 8 m tall, somewhat similar to a sumac tree. Because of its beautiful autumn foliage, it has been planted outside Asia as an
ornamental plant Ornamental plants or garden plants are plants Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cel ...

ornamental plant
, often by gardeners who were apparently unaware of the dangers of allergic reactions. It is now officially classified as a noxious weed in Australia and New Zealand. It is one of the city tree symbols of
Kurume, Fukuoka is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...
, Japan. The larvae of the moths ''
Eteoryctis deversa ''Eteoryctis deversa'' is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from India (Meghalaya, Assam), Japan (Kyūshū, Shikoku, Hokkaidō, Honshū), Korea, the Russian Far East and Taiwan. The wingspan is 6.5–10 mm. The larvae feed on ...
'', ''
Caloptilia aurifasciata ''Caloptilia aurifasciata'' is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from China (Hainan, Guanxi, Fujian, Zhejiang), Hong Kong, Japan (Honshū, Kyūshū, Shikoku), Malaysia (West Malaysia) and Thailand. The wingspan is 9.8–11 mm. ...
'', ''
Caloptilia protiella ''Caloptilia protiella'' is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from China (Hong Kong, Guangdong, Jiangxi and Hainan), India, Java, Japan (Kyūshū and the Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia and Thailand. The wingspan is 10.5-12.5 mm. T ...
'', ''
Caloptilia rhois ''Caloptilia rhois'' is a moth Moths are a paraphyletic group of insects that includes all members of the Order (biology), order Lepidoptera that are not Butterfly, butterflies, with moths making up the vast majority of the order. There are th ...
'' and ''
Callidrepana patrana ''Callidrepana patrana'' is a moth in the family Drepanidae. It was described by Frederic Moore in 1866. It is found in Nepal, India, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, mainland China, Japan and Taiwan. Description The wingspan is 29–36 mm. Adu ...
'' feed on ''T. succedaneum''.


Chemistry

The plant produces hinokiflavone, a
cytotoxic Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxicity, toxic to cell (biology), cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the Bitis arietans, puff adder (''Bitis arietans'') or brown recluse spider (''Loxosceles r ...
biflavonoidBiflavonoids are a type of flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants, and thus commonly consumed in diets. Ch ...
. Its stems are also a commercial source of
fisetin Fisetin (7,3′,4′-flavon-3-ol) is a plant flavonol Flavonols are a class of flavonoid Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids; from the Latin word ''flavus'', meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of polyphenol Polyphenols () are ...

fisetin
, extracted in China.


Uses

It is used to produce
lacquer Lacquer is a type of hard and potentially shiny coating A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural e ...

lacquer
. In Vietnam, the lacquer is used to produce
lacquer painting Lacquer painting is a form of painting with lacquer which was practised in East Asia for decoration on lacquerware, and found its way to Europe and the Western World both via Persia and the Middle East and by direct contact with Continental Asia. Th ...
s, known as sơn mài, from resin of the tree. In East Asia, in particular in Japan, traditional candle fuel (also called
Japan wax Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an indi ...

Japan wax
) was produced, among other sumac plants, from ''Toxicodendron succedaneum'' crushed fruits rather than beeswax or animal fats. Japan wax is a byproduct of
lacquer Lacquer is a type of hard and potentially shiny coating A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural e ...

lacquer
manufacture. It is not a true
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prope ...
but a fat that contains 10–15%
palmitin Tripalmitin is a triglyceride A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester An ester is a derived from an (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH group is replaced by an –O– () group, as in th ...
,
stearin Stearin , or tristearin, or glyceryl tristearate is an odourless, white powder. It is a triglyceride A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an derived from and three (from ' and '). Triglycerides are the main con ...

stearin
, and
olein Triolein is a symmetrical triglyceride A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an derived from and three (from ' and '). Triglycerides are the main constituents of in humans and other vertebrates, as well as . Th ...
with about 1% japanic acid (1,21-heneicosanedioic acid). Japan wax is sold in flat squares or disks and has a rancid odor. It is extracted by expression and heat, or by the action of
solvent A solvent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

solvent
s. The fatty-acid methyl ester of the kernel oil meets all of the major
biodiesel Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy In physical sciences Physical science is a ...

biodiesel
requirements in the USA (ASTM D 6751-02, ASTM PS 121-99), Germany (DIN V 51606) and European Union (EN 14214). It is used as a medicinal plant in India. The fruits are edible though their consumption is not recommended because of the general toxicity of the plant.


Images gallery

File:Rhus succedanea - Jardim Botânico de São Paulo - IMG 0258.jpg, Wood sample at Jardim Botânico, São Paulo, Brazil File:Rhus succedanea-01.jpg, Leaves and flowers File:Rhus succedanea-03.jpg, Bark File:Rhus succedanea.jpg, A very common wild tree in Hong Kong File:Toxicodendron succedaneum.jpg, Detail of flowers


References


External links

succedaneum Plants described in 1891 {{Anacardiaceae-stub