Toussaint Louverture (French: [fʁɑ̃swa
dɔminik tusɛ̃ luvɛʁtyʁ] 20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also
known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known
leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military and political acumen
saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791. He
first fought for the Spanish against the French; then for France
against Spain and Great Britain; and finally, for Saint-Domingue
against Napoleonic France. He then helped transform the insurgency
into a revolutionary movement, which by 1800 had turned
Saint-Domingue, the most prosperous slave colony of the time, into the
first free colonial society to have explicitly rejected race as the
basis of social ranking.
Though Louverture did not sever ties with France, his actions in 1800
constituted a de facto autonomous colony. The colony's constitution
proclaimed him governor for life even against
wishes. He died betrayed before the final and most violent stage of
the armed conflict. However, his achievements set the grounds for the
Black army's absolute victory and for
Jean-Jacques Dessalines to
declare the sovereign state of
Haiti in January 1804. Louverture's
prominent role in the Haitian success over colonialism and slavery had
earned him the admiration of friends and detractors alike.
Toussaint Louverture began his military career as a leader of the 1791
slave rebellion in the French colony of Saint-Domingue; he was by then
a free black man and a Jacobin. Initially allied with the
Spaniards of neighboring
Santo Domingo (modern Dominican Republic),
Louverture switched allegiance to the French when they abolished
slavery. He gradually established control over the whole island and
used political and military tactics to gain dominance over his rivals.
Throughout his years in power, he worked to improve the economy and
security of Saint-Domingue. He restored the plantation system using
paid labour, negotiated trade treaties with the UK and the United
States, and maintained a large and well-disciplined army.
In 1801, he promulgated an autonomist constitution for the colony,
with himself as Governor-
General for Life. In 1802 he was forced to
resign by forces sent by
Napoleon Bonaparte to restore French
authority in the former colony. He was deported to France, where he
died in 1803. The
Haitian Revolution continued under his lieutenant,
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared independence on 1 January 1804.
The French had lost two-thirds of forces sent to the island in an
attempt to suppress the revolution; most died of yellow fever.
1 Early life
1.2 Marriage and children
1.3 Slavery, freedom and working life
1.4 Religion and spirituality
2 Haitian Revolution
2.1 The Rebellion: 1791–1794
2.2 Alliance with the French: 1794–1796
2.3 The Third Commission: 1796–97
2.4 Treaties with Britain and the United States: 1798
2.5 Expansion of territory: 1799–1801
2.6 The Constitution of 1801
2.7 Leclerc's campaign
2.8 Arrest and imprisonment
4 Cultural references
7 External links
General Toussaint Louverture, pictured here on a Haitian banknote
Almost nothing is known for certain about Toussaint Louverture's early
life, as there are contradictory accounts and evidence about this
period. The earliest records of his life are his recorded remarks and
the reminiscences of his second legitimate son Isaac Louverture.
Louverture's parents are not known. John Beard's biography of
Louverture claims that family traditions name his grandfather as Gaou
Guinou, a son of the King of Allada. Louverture was the eldest of
several children. Pierre Baptiste Simon is usually considered to
have been his godfather.
Louverture is thought to have been born on the plantation of Bréda at
Haut de Cap in Saint-Domingue, which was owned by the Comte de Noé
and later managed by Bayon de Libertat. His date of birth is
uncertain, but his name suggests he was born on All Saints Day. He was
probably about 50 at the start of the revolution in 1791. Various
sources have given birth dates between 1739 and 1746. Because of the
lack of written records, Louverture himself may not have known his
exact birth date. In childhood, he earned the nickname
Fatras-Bâton, suggesting he was small and weak, though he was to
become known for his stamina and riding prowess. An alternative
explanation of Louverture's origins is that he arrived at Bréda with
a new overseer (Bayon de Libertat) who took up his duties in 1772.
Louverture is believed to have been well educated by his godfather
Pierre Baptiste. Historians have speculated as to Louverture's
intellectual background. His extant letters demonstrate a command of
French in addition to Creole; he was familiar with Epictetus, the
Stoic philosopher who had lived as a slave; and his public speeches as
well as his life's work, according to his biographers, show a
familiarity with Machiavelli. Some cite Abbé Raynal, who wrote
against slavery, as a possible influence: The wording of the
proclamation issued by then rebel slave leader Louverture on 29 August
1793, which may have been the first time he publicly used the name
"Louverture", seems to refer to an anti-slavery passage in Abbé
Raynal's "A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and
Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies."
He may also have received some education from
Jesuit missionaries. His
medical knowledge is attributed to familiarity with African or Creole
herbal-medical techniques as well those techniques commonly found in
Jesuit-administered hospitals. A few legal documents signed on
Louverture's behalf between 1778 and 1781 raise the possibility that
he could not write at that time. Throughout his military and
political career, he made use of secretaries for most of his
correspondence. A few surviving documents in his own hand confirm that
he could write, though his spelling in the French language was
Marriage and children
19th century engraving of L'Ouverture
In 1782, Louverture married Suzanne Simone Baptiste, who is thought to
have been his cousin or his godfather's daughter. Towards the end
of his life, he told
General Caffarelli that he had fathered 16
children, of whom 11 had predeceased him. Not all his children can
be identified for certain, but his three legitimate sons are well
known. The eldest, Placide, was probably adopted by Louverture and
is generally thought to be Suzanne's first child with a mulatto,
Seraphim Le Clerc. The two sons born of his marriage with Suzanne
were Isaac and Saint-Jean.
Slavery, freedom and working life
"I was born a slave, but nature gave me the soul of a free man."
Until recently, historians believed that Louverture had been a slave
until the start of the revolution. The discovery of a marriage
certificate dated 1777 shows that he was freed in 1776 at the age of
33. This find retrospectively clarified a letter of 1797, in which he
said he had been free for twenty years. It seems he still
maintained an important role on the Breda plantation until the
outbreak of the revolution, presumably as a salaried employee. He
had initially been responsible for the livestock, but by 1791, his
responsibilities most likely included acting as coachman to the
overseer, de Libertat, and as a slave-driver, charged with organising
the work force.
As a free man, Louverture began to accumulate wealth and property.
Surviving legal documents show him renting a small coffee plantation
worked by a dozen of his slaves. He would later say that by the
start of the revolution, he had acquired a reasonable fortune, and was
the owner of a number of properties and slaves at Ennery.
Religion and spirituality
Throughout his life, Louverture was known as a devout Roman
Catholic. Although Vodou was generally practiced on Saint-Domingue
in combination with Catholicism, little is known for certain if
Louverture had any connection with it. Officially as ruler of
Saint-Domingue, he discouraged it.
Historians have suggested that he was a member of high degree of the
Masonic Lodge of Saint-Domingue, mostly based on a Masonic symbol he
used in his signature. The membership of several free blacks and white
men close to him has been confirmed.
Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) was a slave revolt in the French
colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of
slavery there and established the Republic of Haiti. It was the only
slave revolt which led to the founding of a state and is generally
considered the most successful slave rebellion ever to have occurred
in the Americas.
The Rebellion: 1791–1794
Toussaint Louverture, as depicted in an 1802 French engraving
Beginning in 1789, free people of color of
inspired by the
French Revolution to seek an expansion of their
rights. Initially, the slave population did not become involved in the
conflict. In August 1791, a Vodou ceremony at
Bois Caïman marked
the start of a major slave rebellion in the north. Louverture
apparently did not take part in the earliest stages of the rebellion,
but after a few weeks he sent his family to safety in Spanish Santo
Domingo and helped the overseers of the Breda plantation to leave the
island. He joined the forces of
Georges Biassou as doctor to the
troops, commanding a small detachment. Surviving documents show
him participating in the leadership of the rebellion, discussing
strategy, and negotiating with the Spanish supporters of the rebellion
In December 1791, he was involved in negotiations between rebel
leaders and the French Governor, Blanchelande, for the release of
their white prisoners and a return to work in exchange for a ban on
the use of the whip, an extra non-working day per week, and freedom
for a handful of leaders. When the offer was rejected, he was
instrumental in preventing the massacre of Biassou's white
prisoners. The prisoners were released after further negotiations
with the French commissioners and taken to
Le Cap by Louverture. He
hoped to use the occasion to present the rebellion's demands to the
colonial assembly, but they refused to meet with him.
Throughout 1792, as a leader in an increasingly formal alliance
between the black rebellion and the Spanish, Louverture ran the
fortified post of La Tannerie and maintained the Cordon de l'Ouest, a
line of posts between rebel and colonial territory. He gained a
reputation for running an orderly camp, trained his men in guerrilla
tactics and "the European style of war", and began to attract
soldiers who would play an important role throughout the
revolution. After hard fighting, he lost La Tannerie in January
1793 to the French
General Étienne Maynaud, but it was in these
battles that the French first recognised him as a significant military
Some time in 1792-93, he adopted the surname Louverture, from the
French word for "opening" or "the one who opened the way".
Although some modern writers spell his adopted surname with an
apostrophe, as in "L'Ouverture", he himself did not, as his extant
correspondence indicates. The most common explanation is that it
refers to his ability to create openings in battle, and it is
sometimes attributed to French commissioner Polverel's exclamation:
"That man makes an opening everywhere". However, some writers think it
was more prosaically due to a gap between his front teeth.
Despite adhering to royalist political views, Louverture had begun to
use the language of freedom and equality associated with the French
Revolution. From being willing to bargain for better conditions of
slavery late in 1791, he had become committed to its complete
abolition. On 29 August 1793 he made his famous declaration of
Camp Turel to the blacks of St Domingue:
Brothers and friends, I am Toussaint Louverture; perhaps my name has
made itself known to you. I have undertaken vengeance. I want Liberty
and Equality to reign in St Domingue. I am working to make that
happen. Unite yourselves to us, brothers and fight with us for the
Your very humble and obedient servant, Toussaint Louverture,
General of the armies of the king, for the public good.
Toussaint Louverture's signature
On the same day, the beleaguered French commissioner,
Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, proclaimed emancipation for all slaves in
French Saint-Domingue, hoping to bring the black troops over to
his side. Initially, this failed, perhaps because Louverture and
the other leaders knew that
Sonthonax was exceeding his authority.
However, on 4 February 1794, the French revolutionary government
proclaimed the abolition of slavery. For months, Louverture had
been in diplomatic contact with the French general Étienne Maynaud de
Bizefranc de Lavaux. During this time, competition between him and
other rebel leaders was growing, and the Spanish had started to look
with disfavour on his near-autonomous control of a large and
strategically important region. In May 1794, when the decision of
the French government became known in Saint-Domingue, Louverture
switched allegiance from the Spanish to the French and rallied his
troops to Lavaux.
Alliance with the French: 1794–1796
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Louverture joined the French in early May 1794, raising the republican
flag over the port of
Gonaïves and provoking an exodus of refugees.
In the first weeks, he eradicated all Spanish supporters from the
Cordon de l'Ouest, which he had held on their behalf. He faced
attack from multiple sides. His former colleagues in the black
rebellion were now fighting against him for the Spanish. As a French
commander, he was under attack from the British troops who had landed
Saint-Domingue in September. On the other hand, he was able to
pool his 4,000 men with Lavaux's troops in joint actions. By now
his officers included men who were to remain important throughout the
revolution: his brother Paul, his nephew Moïse, Jean-Jacques
Dessalines and Henri Christophe.
Before long, Louverture had put an end to the Spanish threat to French
Saint-Domingue. In any case, the Treaty of Basel of July 1795 marked a
formal end to hostilities between the two countries. Even then, the
black leaders Jean-François and
Biassou continued to fight against
Louverture until November, when they left for Spain and Florida,
respectively. At that point, most of their men joined Louverture's
forces. Louverture also made inroads against the British troops,
but was unable to oust them from Saint-Marc, so he contained them and
rendered them ineffective by returning to guerilla tactics.
Throughout 1795 and 1796, Louverture was also concerned with
re-establishing agriculture and keeping the peace in areas under his
control. In speeches and policy he revealed his belief that the
long-term freedom of the people of
Saint-Domingue depended on the
economic viability of the colony. He was held in general respect
and resorted to a mixture of diplomacy and force to return the field
hands to the plantations as emancipated and paid workers. Workers
regularly created small rebellions, protesting poor conditions, their
lack of real freedom or fearing a return to slavery.
Another of Louverture's concerns was to manage potential rivals for
power within the French part of the colony. The most serious of these
was the mulatto commander Jean-Louis Villatte, based in Cap-Français.
Louverture and Villate had competed over the command of some sections
of troops and territory since 1794. Villatte was thought to be
somewhat racist towards black soldiers such as Louverture and planned
to ally with André Rigaud, a free man of colour, after overthrowing
General Étienne Lavaux. In 1796 Villate drummed up popular
support by accusing the French authorities of plotting a return to
slavery. On 20 March, he succeeded in capturing the French Governor
Lavaux, and appointed himself Governor. Louverture's troops soon
Cap-Français to rescue the captured governor and drive
Villatte out of town. Louverture was noted for opening the warehouses
to the public, proving that they were empty of the chains supposedly
imported to prepare for a return to slavery. He was promoted to
commander of the West Province two months later, and was eventually
made Saint-Domingue's top-ranking officer in 1797. Lavaux also
proclaimed Louverture Lieutenant Governor, announcing at the same time
that he would do nothing without his approval, to which Louverture
replied "After God, Lavaux".
The Third Commission: 1796–97
A few weeks after the triumph over the Villate insurrection, France's
representatives of the third commission arrived in Saint-Domingue.
Among them was Sonthonax, the commissioner who had previously declared
abolition on the same day as Louverture's proclamation of Camp
Turel. At first the relationship between the two was positive.
Sonthonax promoted Louverture to general and arranged for his sons,
Placide and Isaac, to attend the school that had been established in
France for the children of colonials.
In September 1796, elections were held to choose colonial
representatives for the French national assembly. Louverture's letters
show that he encouraged Lavaux to stand, and historians have
speculated as to whether he was seeking to place a firm supporter in
France or to remove a rival in power.
Sonthonax was also elected,
either at Louverture's instigation or on his own initiative, but while
Saint-Domingue in October,
Sonthonax, a fervent revolutionary and fierce supporter of racial
equality, soon rivalled Louverture in popularity. Although their goals
were similar, there were several points of conflict. The worst of
these was over the return of the white planters who had fled
Saint-Domingue at the start of the revolution. To Sonthonax, they were
potential counter-revolutionaries, to be assimilated, officially or
not, with the ‘émigrés’ who had fled the
French Revolution and
were forbidden to return under pain of death. To Louverture, they were
bearers of useful skills and knowledge, and he wanted them back.
In summer 1797, Louverture authorised the return of Bayon de Libertat,
the ex-overseer of Breda, with whom he had a lifelong relationship.
Sonthonax wrote to Louverture threatening him with prosecution and
ordering him to get Bayon off the territory. Louverture went over his
head and wrote to the French
Directoire directly for permission for
Bayon to stay. Only a few weeks later, he began arranging for
Sonthonax's return to France that summer. Louverture had several
reasons to want to get rid of Sonthonax; officially he said that
Sonthonax had tried to involve him in a plot to make Saint-Domingue
independent, starting with a massacre of the whites of the island.
The accusation played on Sonthonax's political radicalism and known
hatred of the aristocratic white planters, but historians have varied
as to how credible they consider it.
On reaching France,
Sonthonax countered by accusing Louverture of
royalist, counter-revolutionary and pro-independence tendencies.
Louverture knew that he had asserted his authority to such an extent
that the French government might well suspect him of seeking
independence. At the same time, the French
was considerably less revolutionary than it had been. Suspicions began
to brew that it might reconsider the abolition of slavery. In
November 1797, Louverture wrote again to the Directoire, assuring them
of his loyalty but reminding them firmly that abolition must be
Treaties with Britain and the United States: 1798
General Thomas Maitland meets Louverture to discuss the secret treaty
For several months, Louverture found himself in sole command of French
Saint-Domingue, except for a semi-autonomous state in the south, where
the mulatto general, André Rigaud, had rejected the authority of the
third commission. Both generals continued attacking the British,
whose position on
Saint-Domingue was looking increasingly weak.
Louverture was negotiating their withdrawal when France's latest
commissioner, Gabriel Hédouville, arrived in March 1798, with orders
to undermine his authority.
On 30 April 1798, Louverture signed a treaty with the British general,
Thomas Maitland, exchanging the withdrawal of British troops from
Saint-Domingue for an amnesty for the French
counter-revolutionaries in those areas. In May,
returned to French rule in an atmosphere of order and celebration.
In July, Louverture and Rigaud met commissioner Hédouville together.
Hoping to create a rivalry that would diminish Louverture's power,
Hédouville displayed a strong preference for Rigaud, and an aversion
for Louverture. However,
General Maitland was also playing on
French rivalries and evaded Hédouville's authority to deal with
Louverture directly. In August, Louverture and Maitland signed
treaties for the evacuation of the remaining British troops. On 31
August, they signed a secret treaty which lifted the British blockade
Saint-Domingue in exchange for a promise that Louverture would not
export the black revolution to Jamaica.
As Louverture's relationship with Hédouville reached the breaking
point, an uprising began among the troops of his adopted nephew,
Hyacinthe Moïse. Attempts by Hédouville to manage the situation made
matters worse and Louverture declined to help him. As the rebellion
grew to a full-scale insurrection, Hedouville prepared to leave the
island, while Louverture and Dessalines threatened to arrest him as a
troublemaker. Hédouville sailed for France in October 1798,
nominally transferring his authority to Rigaud. Louverture decided
instead to work with Phillipe Roume, a member of the third commission
who had been posted to the Spanish parts of the colony. Though he
continued to protest his loyalty to the French government, he had
expelled a second government representative from the territory and was
about to negotiate another autonomous agreement with one of France's
The United States had suspended trade with France in 1798 because of
increasing conflict over piracy. The two countries were almost at war,
but trade between
Saint-Domingue and the United States was desirable
to both Louverture and the United States. With Hédouville gone,
Joseph Bunel to negotiate with the government of John
Adams. The terms of the treaty were similar to those already
established with the British, but Louverture continually resisted
suggestions from either power that he should declare independence.
As long as France maintained the abolition of slavery, it seems that
he was content that the colony remain French, at least in name.
Expansion of territory: 1799–1801
In 1799, the tensions between Louverture and
André Rigaud came to a
head. Louverture accused Rigaud of trying to assassinate him to gain
Saint-Domingue for himself. Rigaud claimed Louverture was
conspiring with the British to restore slavery. The conflict was
complicated by racial overtones which escalated tension between blacks
and mulattoes. Louverture had other political reasons for bringing
down Rigaud. Only by controlling every port could he hope to prevent a
landing of French troops if necessary.
After Rigaud sent troops to seize the border towns of
Grand-Goave in June 1799, Louverture persuaded Roume to declare Rigaud
a traitor and attacked the southern state. The resulting civil
war, known as the War of Knives, lasted over a year, with the defeated
Rigaud fleeing to Guadeloupe, then France, in August 1800.
Louverture delegated most of the campaign to his lieutenant,
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who became infamous, during and after the
war, for massacring mulatto captives and civilians. The number of
deaths is contested: the contemporary French general François Joseph
Pamphile de Lacroix suggested 10,000 deaths, while the 20th-century
C.L.R. James later claimed only a few hundred
deaths in contravention of the amnesty.
In November 1799, during the civil war,
Napoleon Bonaparte gained
power in France and passed a new constitution declaring that the
colonies would be subject to special laws. Although the colonies
suspected this meant the re-introduction of slavery,
Napoleon began by
confirming Louverture's position and promising to maintain the
abolition. But he also forbade Louverture to invade Spanish Santo
Domingo, an action that would put Louverture in a powerful defensive
position. Louverture was determined to proceed anyway and coerced
Roume into supplying the necessary permission. In January 1801,
Louverture and Hyacinthe Moïse invaded the Spanish territory, taking
possession from the Governor, Don Garcia, with few difficulties. The
area had been wilder and less densely populated than the French
section. Louverture brought it under French law which abolished
slavery, and embarked on a program of modernization. He was now master
of the whole island.
The Constitution of 1801
An early engraving of Louverture
Napoleon had made it clear to the inhabitants of
France would draw up a new constitution for its colonies, in which
they would be subjected to special laws. Despite his initial
protestations to the contrary, it seemed likely all along that he
might restore slavery, which obviously worried the former slaves in
Saint-Domingue. In March 1801, Louverture appointed a constitutional
assembly, mainly composed of white planters, to draft a constitution
for Saint-Domingue. He promulgated the Constitution on 7 July 1801,
officially establishing his authority over the entire island of
Hispaniola. It made him Governor-
General for Life with near absolute
powers and the possibility of choosing his successor. However,
Louverture was careful enough as to not explicitly declare
Saint-Domingue's independence, immediately acknowledging that it was
just a single colony of the French Empire in Article 1 of the
Constitution. Article 3 of the constitution states: "There cannot
exist slaves [in Saint-Domingue], servitude is therein forever
abolished. All men are born, live and die free and French." The
constitution guaranteed equal opportunity and equal treatment under
the law for all races, but also confirmed Louverture's policies of
forced labour and the importation of workers through the slave
trade. Louverture was not willing to compromise the dominant
Vodou faith for Catholicism. Article 6 clearly states that "the
Catholic, Apostolic, Roman faith shall be the only publicly professed
Louverture charged Colonel Vincent with the task of presenting the new
constitution to Napoleon, even though Vincent himself was horrified to
discover that the general had gone so far. Several aspects of the
constitution were damaging to France: the absence of provision for
French government officials, the lack of advantages to France in trade
with its own colony, and Louverture's breach of protocol in publishing
the constitution before submitting it to the French government.
Despite his disapproval, Vincent attempted to submit the constitution
Napoleon in a positive light, but was briefly exiled to Elba for
Louverture professed himself a Frenchman and strove to convince
Bonaparte of his loyalty. He wrote to
Napoleon but received no
Napoleon eventually decided to send an expedition of
20,000 men to
Saint-Domingue to restore French authority, and possibly
to restore slavery as well. Given the
Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens (March
Napoleon was suddenly able to plan this operation
without the risk of interception by the Royal Navy.
Napoleon's troops, under the command of his brother-in-law, General
Charles Emmanuel Leclerc, were to seize control of the island by
diplomatic means, proclaiming peaceful intentions, and keeping secret
his orders to deport all black officers. Meanwhile, Louverture
was preparing for defence and ensuring discipline. This may have
contributed to a rebellion against forced labor led by his nephew and
top general, Moïse, in October 1801. It was violently repressed with
the result that when the French ships arrived not all of
Saint-Domingue was automatically on Louverture's side. In late
January 1802, while Leclerc sought permission to land at Cap-Français
and Christophe held him off, the Vicomte de Rochambeau suddenly
attacked Fort-Liberté, effectively quashing the diplomatic
Louverture's plan in case of war was to burn the coastal cities and as
much of the plains as possible, retreat with his troops into the
inaccessible mountains and wait for fever to decimate the European
troops. The biggest impediment to this plan proved to be
difficulty in internal communications. Christophe burned Cap-Français
and retreated, but Paul Louverture was tricked by a false letter into
allowing the French to occupy Santo Domingo; other officers believed
Napoleon's diplomatic proclamation, while some attempted resistance
instead of burning and retreating. French reports to Napoleon
show that in the months of fighting that followed, the French felt
their position was weak, but that Louverture and his generals were not
fully conscious of their strength.
With both sides shocked by the violence of the initial fighting,
Leclerc tried belatedly to revert to the diplomatic solution.
Louverture's sons and their tutor had accompanied the expedition with
this end in mind and were now sent to present Napoleon's proclamation
to Louverture. When these talks broke down, months of
inconclusive fighting followed. On 6 May 1802, Louverture rode into
Cap-Français to treat with Leclerc. He negotiated an amnesty for all
his remaining generals, then retired with full honors to his
plantations at Ennery.
Arrest and imprisonment
Anne Whitney, Toussaint Louverture, 1870
Jean-Jacques Dessalines was at least partially responsible for
Louverture's arrest, as asserted by several authors, including
Louverture's own son Isaac. On 22 May 1802, after Dessalines "learned
that Louverture had failed to instruct a local rebel leader to lay
down his arms per the recent ceasefire agreement, he immediately wrote
to Leclerc to denounce Louverture’s conduct as “extraordinary.”
For this action, Dessalines and his spouse received gifts from Jean
Leclerc originally asked Dessalines to arrest Louverture, but he
declined. The task then fell to Jean Baptiste Brunet. However accounts
differ as to how he accomplished this. One account has it that Brunet
pretended that he planned to settle in
Saint-Domingue and was asking
Louverture's advice about plantation management. Louverture's memoirs
however suggest that Brunet's troops had been provocative, leading
Louverture to seek a discussion with him. Either way, Louverture had a
letter in which Brunet described himself as a "sincere friend" to take
with him to France. Embarrassed about his trickery, Brunet absented
himself during the arrest. Brunet deported Louverture and his
aides to France on the frigate Créole and the 74-gun Héros, claiming
that he suspected the former leader of plotting an uprising. Boarding
Toussaint Louverture famously warned his captors that
the rebels would not repeat his mistake:
In overthrowing me you have cut down in Saint Domingue only the trunk
of the tree of liberty; it will spring up again from the roots, for
they are numerous and they are deep.
The ships reached France on 2 July 1802 and, on 25 August, Louverture
was sent to the jail in
Fort-de-Joux in the Doubs. While in prison, he
died on 7 April 1803. Suggested causes of death include exhaustion,
malnutrition, apoplexy, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis.
In his absence,
Jean-Jacques Dessalines led the Haitian rebellion
until its completion, finally defeating the French forces in 1803.
Toussaint Louverture in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
1938: Haiti. A drama of the Black
Napoleon by William DuBois. Poster
Federal Theater Project
Federal Theater Project presentation in Boston; showing bust
portrait of Louverture.
On 29 August 1954, the Haitian ambassador to France, Léon Thébaud,
inaugurated a stone cross memorial for
Toussaint Louverture at the
foot of the fort. Years afterward, the French government
ceremoniously presented a shovelful of soil from the grounds of
Fort-de-Joux to the Haitian government as a symbolic transfer of
Louverture's remains. An inscription in his memory, installed in 1998,
can be found on the wall of the Panthéon in Paris, inscribed with the
Combattant de la liberté, artisan de l'abolition de l'esclavage,
héros haïtien mort déporté au
Fort-de-Joux en 1803.
(Combatant for liberty, artisan of the abolition of slavery, Haitian
hero died in deportation at
Fort-de-Joux in 1803.)
The inscription is opposite a wall inscription, also installed in
1998, honoring Louis Delgrès, a mulatto military leader who died
leading the resistance against Napoleonic reoccupation and
re-institution of slavery in Guadeloupe; the location of Delgrès'
body is also a mystery. Both inscriptions are located near the coffins
of Jean Jaurès, Félix Éboué, Marc Schoelcher and Victor
Louverture influenced John Brown to invade Harpers Ferry.[citation
needed] John Brown and his band captured citizens, and for a small
time the federal armory and arsenal. Brown's goal was that the local
slave population would join the raid. But things did not go as
planned. He was eventually captured and put on trial, and was hanged
on 2 December 1859. Brown and his band of brothers shows the devotion
to the violent tactics of the Haitian Revolution. During the 19th
century African Americans used Louverture as an example of how to
reach freedom. Also during the 19th century, British writers focused
on Louverture's domestic life and ignored his militancy to show him as
a non-threatening rebel slave.
William Wordsworth published his sonnet "To Toussaint
L'Ouverture" in January 1803.
Frank J. Webb
Frank J. Webb references Louverture in his
1857 novel The Garies and Their Friends about free African Americans.
Louverture's portrait is a source of inspiration for the real estate
tycoon Mr. Walters.
In 1934, Trinidadian historian
C. L. R. James
C. L. R. James wrote a play entitled
Toussaint L'Ouverture, which was performed at the Westminster Theatre
in London in 1936 and starred actors including
Paul Robeson (in the
title role), Robert Adams and Orlando Martins. The play was later
revised in 1967 as The Black Jacobins, after James's classic 1938
history of that name.
In 1938, American artist
Jacob Lawrence created a series of paintings
about the life of Louverture, which he later adapted into a series of
prints. His painting, titled Toussaint L’Ouverture, hangs in
Butler Institute of American Art
Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio, US.
In 1944, the African-American writer
Ralph Ellison wrote the story
"Mister Toussan", in which two African-American youths exaggerate the
story of Louverture. In this story, he is seen as a symbol of Blacks
asserting their identities and liberty over White dominance.
Kenneth Roberts' best-selling novel
Lydia Bailey (1947) is set during
Haitian Revolution and features Louverture, Dessalines, and
Cristophe as the principal historical characters. The 1952 American
film based on the novel was directed by Jean Negulesco; Louverture is
portrayed by the actor Ken Renard.
The 1971 album Santana features an instrumental song titled "Toussaint
L'Overture". It has remained a staple of the band's concert repertoire
since that time. Officially released live instrumental versions
are included on the 1974 album Lotus as well as the 1998 CD
re-issue of Abraxas.
In 1977 the opera Toussaint by David Blake was produced by English
National Opera at the
Coliseum Theatre in London, starring Neil
Howlett in the title role.
In 1983, Jean-Michel Basquiat, the Brooklyn-born New York painter of
the 1980s, whose father was from Haiti, painted the monumental work
Toussaint L'Ouverture vs Savonarola, with a portrait of
David Rudder's calypso "Haiti", first recorded in 1988, begins with a
reference to Louverture.
Madison Smartt Bell published a trilogy of novels
inspired by the slave uprising and Haitian Revolution, with Louverture
a key figure. All Souls' Rising (1995) was shortlisted for both the
PEN/Faulkner and National Book awards. Master of the Crossroads (2000)
and The Stone That the Builder Refused (2004) completed the
trilogy. Bell also wrote a biography of Louverture
Hakim Adi published a book about great political figures from
Africa since 1787, which included Louverture as one of the greatly
influential political leaders in those years.
John Agard published Half-Caste and Other Poems (Hodder
Children's, 2004), which features the poem "Checking Out Me History"
that references Louverture and "Nanny de Maroon". 
Kimathi Donkor painted Toussaint L'Ouverture at Bedourete.
Wyclef Jean created an album in 2009 referencing Louverture's life and
influence on Haiti. The album is called From the Hut, to the Projects,
to the Mansion.
Derick Alexander directed The Last Days of Toussaint L'Ouverture,
starring Joseph Ademola Adeyemo as Louverture (2009).
Nick Lake referred to many incidents in Louverture's life in his young
adult novel In Darkness (2012).
Jimmy Jean-Louis starred as the title role in the 2012
French miniseries Toussaint Louverture.
Experimental rock group Swans named the track "Bring the Sun /
Toussaint L'Ouverture" on their 2014 album
To Be Kind
To Be Kind after
^ Stephen, James (1814). The history of Toussaint Louverture.
Butterworth and son. p. 82.
^ Taylor, David (2002). "Martini". p. 95.
^ Knight C., ed. (1843). "The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; Volume 25". p. 96. Retrieved 15
Henri Christophe (King of Haiti) (1952). Griggs, Earl Leslie;
Prator, Clifford H., eds. "Henry Christophe & Thomas Clarkson: A
Correspondence". University of California Press. p. 17. Retrieved
15 December 2015.
^ Fombrun, Odette Roy, ed. (2009). "History of The Haitian Flag of
Independence" (PDF). The Flag Heritage Foundation Monograph And
Translation Series Publication No. 3. p. 13. Retrieved 24
^ J. Clavin, Matthew (2012).
Toussaint Louverture and the American
Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution.
University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 229.
^ Popkin, Jeremy D. (2012). A Concise History of the Haitian
Revolution. John Wiley & Sons. p. 114.
^ Matthewson; "Abraham Bishop, "The Rights of Black Men", and the
American Reaction to the Haitian Revolution"; The Journal of Negro
History, Vol 67, No 2, Summer 1982, pp.148–154
^ Elliott, Charles Wyllys (1855). St. Domingo, its revolution and its
hero, Toussaint. New York: J.A. Dix. p. 38.
^ Vulliamy, Ed, ed. (28 August 2010). "The 10 best revolutionaries".
The Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
^ a b Cauna, pp.7–8
^ Bell, pp.57–58
^ Beard, pp.23–24
^ Korngold, page number needed.
^ Bell, pp.59–60, 62
^ Bell, p.60
^ Bell, pp.59–60.
^ Beard, pp.26–27; Bell, p.60, 62
^ Bell, pp.66, 70, 72
^ Bell, p.61
^ Bell, p.61; Beard, pp.30–36
^ Bell, p.18. Robin Blackburn. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery
1776–1848. New York: Verso, 2000, p.54.
^ Bell, pp. 64–65
^ Cauna, pp.61–67; Bell, pp.60, 80
^ Bell, p.61; James, p.104
^ Cauna, p.263
^ a b c d Cauna, pp.264–267
^ Parkinson, p.37
^ Up to, for example, C.L.R. James, writing in 1938
^ Cauna, pp.62–62
^ a b Bell, pp.24–25
^ Bell, p.62
^ Bell, p.76,
^ Cauna, pp.63–65
^ Bell, pp.72–73
^ Bell, p.194
^ Bell, pp.56, 196
^ Bell, p.63
^ Bell, pp.12–15; James, pp.81–82
^ James, p.90; Bell, pp.23–24
^ Bell, p.32-33
^ Bell, p.33
^ Bell, pp.34–35
^ Bell, pp.42–50
^ Bell, pp.46
^ Bell, pp.28, 55
^ Bell, p.50
^ Langley, Lester (1996). The Americas in the Age of Revolution:
1750-1850. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 111.
^ Bell, p.56
^ James, pp.125–126
^ Bell, pp.86–87; James, p.107
^ Bell, p.18
^ Bell, p.19
^ James, pp.128–130
^ James, p.137
^ James, pp.141–142
^ Bell, pp.92–95
^ James pp.143–144
^ Bell, pp.104–108
^ Bell, p.109
^ James, p.143
^ James, p.147
^ Bell, p.115
^ Bell, pp.110–114
^ Bell, pp.113, 126
^ James, pp.155–156
^ James, pp.152–154
^ Laurent Dubois and John Garrigus, Slave Revolution in the Caribbean,
1789–1804: A Brief History with Documents. Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2006, p.31
^ a b Dubois and Garrigus, p.31
^ Bell, pp.132–134; James, pp.163–173
^ Bell, p.136
^ Bell, pp.137, 140–141
^ Bell, pp.147–148
^ Bell, p.145, James, p.180
^ James, pp.174–176; Bell, pp. 141–142, 147
^ Bell, pp.145–146
^ Bell, p.150
^ Bell, pp.150–153
^ James, pp.190, Bell, pp.153–154
^ Bell, p.153
^ Bell, pp.153, 155
^ James, p.179
^ Bell, p.155
^ Bell, pp.142–143
^ James, p.201
^ James, pp.201–202
^ James, pp.202, 204
^ James, pp.207–208
^ James, pp.211–212
^ Bell, pp.159–160
^ James, pp.219–220
^ Bell, pp.165–166
^ Bell, pp.166–167
^ Philippe Girard, "Black Talleyrand: Toussaint L'Ouverture’s Secret
Diplomacy with England and the United States,” William and Mary
Quarterly 66:1 (Jan. 2009), 87–124.
^ Bell, pp.173–174
^ Bell, pp.174–175
^ Bell, pp.175–177, 178–179; James, pp.229–230
^ James, pp.224, 237
^ Bell, p.177
^ Bell, pp.182–185
^ Bell, pp.179–180
^ James, p.236-237
^ Bell, p.180
^ Bell, p.184
^ Bell, p.186
^ Bell, pp.180–182, 187
^ Bell, pp.189–191
^ Alexis, Stephen. Black Liberator. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1949,
^ "Constitution de la colonie français de Saint-Domingue", Le Cap,
^ Ogé, Jean-Louis. Toussaint L'Ouverture et l'Indépendence d'Haïti.
Brossard: L’Éditeur de Vos Rêves, 2002, p.140
^ Bell, pp.210–211
^ Ogé, Jean-Louis. Toussaint L'Ouverture et l'Indépendence d'Haïti.
Brossard: L’Éditeur de Vos Rêves, 2002, p.141
^ Philippe Girard, The Slaves Who Defeated Napoléon: Toussaint
L'Ouverture and the Haitian War of Independence (Tuscaloosa:
University of Alabama Press, November 2011).
^ James, p.263
^ Philippe Girard, "Napoléon Bonaparte and the Emancipation Issue in
Saint-Domingue, 1799–1803," French Historical Studies 32:4 (Fall
^ James, pp.292–294, Bell, pp.223–224
^ Bell, pp.206–209, 226–229, 250
^ Bell, pp.232–234
^ Bell, pp.234–236
^ Bell, pp.234, 236–237
^ Bell, p.256-260
^ Bell, pp.237–241
^ Bell, pp.261–262
^ Girard, Philippe R. (July 2012). "
Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the
Atlantic System: A Reappraisal" (PDF). The William and Mary Quarterly.
Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture. 69 (3):
559. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0549. Retrieved 10 December 2014. a
list of “extraordinary expenses incurred by
General Brunet in
regards to [the arrest of] Toussaint” started with “gifts in wine
and liquor, gifts to Dessalines and his spouse, money to his officers:
^ Girard, Philippe R. (2011), The Slaves who Defeated Napoléon:
Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801–1804,
University of Alabama Press
^ Le rêve américain et caraïbe de Bonaparte : Le destin de la
Louisiane française. L'expédition de Saint-Domingue, Napoleon.org
^ Abbott, Elizabeth (1988). Haiti: An insider's history of the rise
and fall of the Duvaliers. Simon & Schuster. p. viii
^ John Bigelow: The last days of Toussaint Louverture
^ Pike, Tim. Toussaint Louverture: helping Bordeaux come to terms with
its slave trade past (part 1) ~ Invisible Bordeaux
^ Yacou, Alain, ed. (1 March 2007). "Vie et mort du général
Toussaint-Louverture selon les dossiers conservés au Service
Historique de la Défense, Château de Vincennes". Saint-Domingue
espagnol et la révolution nègre d'Haïti (in French). KARTHALA
Editions. p. 346. ISBN 9782811141516. Retrieved 5 April
^ le Cadet, Nicolas (21 October 2010). "Le portrait du juge idéal
selon Noël du Fail dans les Contes et Discours d'Eutrapel". Centre
d’Études et de Recherche Éditer/Interpréter (in French).
University of Rouen. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
^ Hutchins, Rachel D. (26 February 2016). Nationalism and History
Education: Curricula and Textbooks in the United States and France.
Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 9781317625360. Retrieved 6 April
^ Clavin, Matthew (2008). "A Second Haitian Revolution". Civil War
History. liv (2).
^ Gardner, Eric (2001). "'A Gentleman of Superior Cultivation and
Refinement': Recovering the Biography of Frank J. Webb". African
American Review. 35 (2): 297–308.
^ McLemee, Scott. "C.L.R. James: A Biographical Introduction."
American Visions, April/May 1996. mclemee.com
^ Alitashkgallery.com Archived 11 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Tracy, Steven C. (13 May 2004). A Historical Guide to Ralph Ellison.
Oxford University Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 9780199727322.
Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Lydia Bailey at AllMovie
^ Santana III (Legacy Edition) at AllMusic
^ Lotus at AllMusic
^ Abraxas at Discogs
^ Griffel, Margaret Ross (21 December 2012). Operas in English: A
Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. p. 501. ISBN 9780810883253.
Retrieved 6 April 2018.
^ Emmerling, Leonhard (2003). Jean-Michel Basquiat: 1960-1988.
Taschen. p. 88. ISBN 9783822816370. Retrieved 5 April
^ "‘Haiti’ sung by David Rudder", When Steel Talks, 2008.
^ Nzengou-Tayo, Marie-José (June 2007). "Haitian Gothic and History:
Madison Smartt Bell's Trilogy on
Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian
Revolution". Small Axe. Indiana University Press. 11 (2):
^ Adi, Hakim; Sherwood, Marika (2003). Pan-African history: political
figures from Africa and the diaspora since 1787 (1. publ. ed.). London
[u.a.]: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-17352-3.
^ Agard, John (2004). Half-caste and other poems. Hodder Children's
Books. ISBN 9780340893821. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
^ More Bottles Songfacts
^ Dumont, Hervé. "La révolte des esclaves noirs aux Antilles
(Toussaint L'Ouverture)". ENCYCLOPÉDIE DU FILM HISTORIQUE (in
French). Retrieved 5 April 2018.
^ Ness, Patrick (20 January 2012). "In Darkness by Nick Lake –
review". Retrieved 5 April 2018.
^ Sepinwall, Alyssa Goldstein (13 October 2013). "Happy as a Slave:
Toussaint Louverture miniseries". Fiction and Film for French
Historians. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
To Be Kind
To Be Kind at AllMusic
Alexis, Stephen, Black Liberator: The Life of Toussaint Louverture
(London: Ernest Benn, 1949).
Beard, J. R., The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Negro Patriot of
Hayti (1853). ISBN 1-58742-010-4
Beard, J. R., Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography
(1863). Out of print, but published online. Consists of the earlier
"Life", supplemented by an autobiography of Toussaint written by
Bell, Madison Smartt. Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography, New York:
Pantheon, 2007 (Vintage Books, 2008). ISBN 1-4000-7935-7
de Cauna, Jacques. "Toussaint L'Ouverture et l'indépendance d'Haïti.
Témoignages pour une commémoration", Paris: Ed. Karthala, 2004
Cesaire, Aimé, Toussaint L'Ouverture (Présence africaine, Paris,
1981). ISBN 2-7087-0397-8
Davis, David Brion. "He changed the New World." Review of M.S. Bell's
"Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography", The New York Review of Books, 31
May 2007, pp. 54–58.
Dubois, Laurent, and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the
Caribbean, 1789–1804: A Brief History with Documents (St. Martin's
Press, 2006). ISBN 0-312-41501-X
Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and
Underdevelopment since 1700 (West View Press, 1989).
Foix, Alain. "Toussaint L'Ouverture", Paris, Ed. Gallimard, 2007
Foix, Alain . "Noir de Toussaint L'Ouverture à Barack Obama", Paris:
Ed. Galaade, 2008
Forsdick, Charles, and Christian Høgsbjerg (eds), The Black Jacobins
Reader (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2017).
Forsdick, Charles, and Christian Høgsbjerg, Toussaint Louverture: A
Jacobin in the Age of Revolutions (London: Pluto Press, 2017).
Girard, Philippe. "Black Talleyrand: Toussaint L'Ouverture’s Secret
Diplomacy with England and the United States," William and Mary
Quarterly 66:1 (January 2009), 87–124.
Girard, Philippe. "Napoléon Bonaparte and the Emancipation Issue in
Saint-Domingue, 1799–1803," French Historical Studies 32:4 (Fall
Girard, Philippe R. (2011), The Slaves who Defeated Napoléon:
Toussaint L'Ouverture and the Haitian War of Independence,
1801–1804, The University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817317325.
Girard, Philippe R. (2016), Toussaint Louverture: A Revolutionary Life
(New York, Basic Books).
Girard, Philippe. "
Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the Atlantic System: A
Reappraisal," William and Mary Quarterly (July 2012).
Graham, Harry. "The
Napoleon of San Domingo", The Dublin Review, Vol.
CLIII, July/October 1913.
Heinl, Robert, and Nancy Heinl – Written in Blood: The story of the
Haitian people, 1492–1971 (Houghton Mifflin, 1978).
Hunt, Alfred N., Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering
Volcano in the Caribbean (Louisiana State University Press, 1988).
James, C. L. R. Toussaint Louverture: The story of the only successful
slave revolt in history: A Play in Three Acts, 1934. (Duke University
James, C. L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San
Domingo Revolution, Vintage Books, 1963. (Penguin Books, 2001)
Johnson, Ronald Angelo, Diplomacy in Black and White: John Adams,
Toussaint Louverture, and Their Atlantic World Alliance. Athens, GA:
University of Georgia Press, 2014.
Joseph, Celucien L., Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution:
Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization (CreateSpace Independent
Publishing Platform, 2012)
Joseph, Celucien L., From Toussaint to Price-Mars: Rhetoric, Race, and
Religion in Haitian Thought (CreateSpace Independent Publishing
Korngold, Ralph, Citizen Toussaint (1944, Greenwood Press, reissued
1979). ISBN 0-313-20794-1
de Lacroix, F. J. Pamphile, La révolution d'Haïti (1819, reprinted
Norton, Graham Gendall – Toussaint L'Ouverture, in History Today,
Ott, Thomas, The Haitian Revolution: 1789–1804 (University of
Tennessee Press, 1973). ISBN 0-87049-545-3
Parkinson, Wenda, 'This Gilded African': Toussaint L'Ouverture
(Quartet Books, 1978).
Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and
Rebellion. (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 2006).
Ros, Martin, The Night of Fire: The Black
Napoleon and the Battle for
Haiti (in Dutch, 1991). 1994, Published by Sarpedon, New York,
Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr., World leaders, past & present –
Toussaint L'ouverture .
Schoelcher, Victor, Vie de Toussaint-L'Ouverture (1889).
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. Sugar Island
Slavery in the Age of
Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (Princeton
University Press, 1995). ISBN 1-4008-0777-8
The Collective Works of Yves. Book I explains Haiti's past to be
recognized. Book 2 culminates Haiti's scared present day epic history.
Thomson, Ian. 'Bonjour Blanc: A Journey Through Haiti' (London, 1992).
Toussaint L'Ouverture – The
Haitian Revolution (New York: Verso,
2008). A collection of L'Ouverture's writings and speeches, with an
introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ISBN 1-84467-261-1
Tyson, George F., ed. – Great Lives Considered: Toussaint
L'Ouverture (Prentice Hall, 1973). A compilation, includes some of
Toussaint's writings. ISBN 0-13-925529-X
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toussaint Louverture.
Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography by J. R. Beard,
A section of Bob Corbett's on-line course on the history of Haïti
that deals with Toussaint's rise to power.
The Louverture Project
Toussaint on IMDb
"Égalité for All:
Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution".
Noland Walker. PBS documentary. 2009.
Spencer Napoleonica Collection at Newberry Library
Black Spartacus by Anthony Maddalena (Thee Black Swan Theatre
Company); a radio play in four parts which tells the story of
Toussaint L'Ouverture and the Haitian Slave Uprising of 1791–1803
Paul Foot on
Toussaint Louverture (lecture from 1991)
"Toussaint, Dominique François". Appletons' Cyclopædia of
American Biography. 1889.
Elliott, Charles Wyllys. St. Domingo, its revolution and its hero,
Toussaint Louverture, New York, J. A. Dix, 1855. Manioc
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Toussaint l'Ouverture,
Pierre-Dominique". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge
Toussaint L'Ouverture by Wendell Phillips (hardcover edition,
published in English, French and Kreyòl Ayisyen).
Slavery in Haiti
War of Knives
Blockade of Saint-Domingue
Rebels and allies
Suzanne Simone Baptiste Louverture
Thomas-Antoine de Mauduit du Plessis
Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume
Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau
Philibert François Rouxel de Blanchelande
Jean Augustin Ernouf
Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron
Louis Jean Nicolas Abbé
Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville
Law of 20 May 1802
Haitian Declaration of Independence
United States and the Haitian Revolution
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