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Torbay
Torbay
/tɔːrˈbeɪ/ is a borough in Devon, England, administered by the unitary authority of Torbay
Torbay
Council. It consists of 62.87 square kilometres (24.27 sq mi) of land,[1] spanning the towns of Torquay, Paignton
Paignton
and Brixham, located around an east-facing natural harbour (Tor Bay) on the English Channel. A popular tourist destination with a tight conurbation of resort towns, Torbay's sandy beaches, mild climate and recreational and leisure attractions have given rise to the nickname of the English Riviera.

Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Geography 4 Settlements 5 Demography 6 Economy 7 Education 8 Transport 9 Notable people 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Devon That the Torbay
Torbay
area has been inhabited since Paleolithic
Paleolithic
times is shown by human bones and tools found in Kents Cavern
Kents Cavern
in Torquay. A maxilla fragment known as Kents Cavern
Kents Cavern
4 may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago.[2][3] Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay
Torquay
during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kent's Cavern, known as "The Face". Both Brixham
Brixham
and Paignton
Paignton
appear in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 and Paignton
Paignton
was given the status of a borough having a market and fair in 1294.[4] The first major building in Torquay
Torquay
was Torre Abbey, a Premonstratensian
Premonstratensian
monastery founded in 1196.[5] William Prince of Orange
Prince of Orange
(afterwards King William III) landed in Brixham
Brixham
on 5 November 1688, during the Glorious Revolution, and issued his famous declaration "The Liberties of England and The Protestant Religion I Will Maintain". Torquay's economy was, like Brixham's, initially based on fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort, initially frequented by members of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
while the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
anchored in Tor Bay
Tor Bay
and later, as the town's fame spread, by Victorian society. The historic part of Paignton
Paignton
is inland: the low-lying coastal fringe was originally salt marsh. Kirkham House
Kirkham House
is a late medieval stone house which is open to the public at certain times of year,[6] and the Coverdale Tower adjacent to Paignton
Paignton
Parish Church is named after Bishop Miles Coverdale, who published an English translation of the Bible in 1536. Paignton
Paignton
remained a small fishing village until the early 19th century; a new harbour was built here in 1837. The second phase in the urban expansion of the area began when Torre railway station was opened in December 1848. The railway was extended to Torquay
Torquay
Seafront station in 1858, Paignton
Paignton
in 1859 and to Brixham in 1861. As a result of its expansion, Torquay
Torquay
was granted borough status in 1872, and 1902 saw its first marketing campaign to summer tourists. Torbay
Torbay
Golf & Country Club (now defunct) opened in 1933. The club and course closed in the mid 1950s.[7] Tor Bay
Tor Bay
hosted the sailing events for the 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
in London.[8] The County Borough of Torbay
Torbay
was created in 1968 by the amalgamation of the Municipal Borough of Torquay, Urban District of Paignton
Paignton
and Urban District of Brixham, also taking in parts of the civil parishes of Coffinswell
Coffinswell
and Kerswells from Newton Abbot
Newton Abbot
Rural District and Churston Ferrers
Churston Ferrers
and Marldon
Marldon
from Totnes
Totnes
Rural District. The County Borough became the Borough of Torbay
Torbay
under local government reorganisation in 1974. It was made a unitary authority on 1 April 1998 making it responsible for its own affairs. Governance[edit] The area is represented nationally at the House of Commons by two MPs. Torquay
Torquay
(along with part of Paignton) is in the Torbay
Torbay
parliamentary constituency which was created in 1974 and was won by Kevin Foster for the Conservatives in 2015 having been held by Adrian Sanders
Adrian Sanders
of the Liberal Democrats from 1997-2015. Brixham
Brixham
and part of Paignton
Paignton
fall within the Totnes
Totnes
constituency, with Conservative Sarah Wollaston elected. Torbay
Torbay
is in the South West England
South West England
constituency of the European Parliament, together with the rest of South West England
South West England
and Gibraltar. Until May 2011, Torbay Council
Torbay Council
had been headed by the first directly elected mayor in the South West region. Conservative candidate Nicholas Bye
Nicholas Bye
who won in October 2005, under an electoral system which was later described as "a total failure" with Bye receiving votes from fewer than 7% of the electorate.[9] However, running as an independent he was defeated in the May 2011 election by Gordon Oliver who stood as a Conservative. Oliver was re-elected in 2015.[10] For local elections the district is divided into 15 wards.[notes 1] The Council elects 36 councillors in elections held every four years. Since the Torbay Council
Torbay Council
election, 2015, the council has a Conservative majority. The composition as of 9 May 2015:

Party[11] Seats

Conservative 25

Liberal Democrat 7

Independent 3

UKIP 1

Geography[edit]

Looking towards Paignton
Paignton
from Torquay. Torbay
Torbay
palms in the foreground.

There are three main towns around the marine inlet of Tor Bay: Torquay in the north, Paignton
Paignton
in the centre, and Brixham
Brixham
in the south. These have become connected over the years, swallowing up villages and towns such as St Marychurch, Cockington, Churston Ferrers
Churston Ferrers
and Galmpton, though the latter maintains a rural feel thanks to tight conservation measures. The borough of Torbay
Torbay
is bordered by the South Hams
South Hams
to the south and west, and by Teignbridge
Teignbridge
to the north. Nearby towns include Totnes
Totnes
and Dartmouth in the South Hams, and Newton Abbot
Newton Abbot
and Teignmouth
Teignmouth
in Teignbridge. The southern limit of Tor Bay
Tor Bay
is Berry Head, and the northern limit is Hope's Nose, although Torquay
Torquay
itself stretches further north into Babbacombe
Babbacombe
Bay, where the beaches at Oddicombe, Babbacombe
Babbacombe
and Maidencombe
Maidencombe
can be found; these are noted for their interesting Breccia
Breccia
cliffs. Torbay's many geological features have led to the establishment of the English Riviera Geopark; as of July 2008, this is the sole urban geopark of the 53 geoparks worldwide.[12] Because of the mild climate, Torbay
Torbay
palm trees are a common sight along the coast. However, these are in fact not palms but Cordyline australis, originating from New Zealand
New Zealand
where it is known as "cabbage tree". These trees also flourish elsewhere in the UK. It is suggested that the popularity of cabbage trees in Torbay
Torbay
is attributable to their first being introduced to the UK in that region. Settlements[edit] Torbay
Torbay
includes:

Torquay
Torquay
including suburbs Paignton
Paignton
including suburbs Brixham
Brixham
including suburbs Maidencombe Yalberton Blagdon Churston Ferrers Galmpton

Demography[edit] The 2011 census confirmed Torbay's reputation as a retirement area, with a higher proportion of all age groups over the age of 50 than nationally. However compared to 2001, age groups 75-79 and 80-85 both showed a decline of around 4%, compared to increases of 1.5% and 14% for the whole country.[1] Some other statistics from the 2011 census:

Marital status Number of people.[13]

Single (never married) 31,809

Married or remarried 50,891

Separated or divorced 16,207

Widowed 10,030

Religion Number of people.[14]

Christian 82,924

Buddhist 389

Hindu 128

Jewish 109

Muslim 521

Sikh 41

Other 702

No religion 36,035

Religion not stated 10,110

Economy[edit] Torbay's main industry is tourism. It has a large number of European students learning English. The fishing port of Brixham
Brixham
is home to one of England and Wales' most successful fishing fleets and regularly lands more value than any UK port outside Scotland.[citation needed] It is also a base for Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Torbay
Torbay
Lifeboat Station. Torbay
Torbay
has been twinned with Hameln
Hameln
in Lower Saxony, Germany since 1973; and with Hellevoetsluis
Hellevoetsluis
in the Netherlands since 1989. Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in Torbay Transport[edit] Torbay
Torbay
lacks direct motorway links and is primarily served by the A380 road from Exeter
Exeter
to Tweenaways Cross, Paignton, which is dual carriageway, with a single carriageway flyover at Penn Inn roundabout, as far as Churscombe Cross. The rest of the road to Tweenaways Cross is single carriageway.

An open top bus advertising the "English Riviera"

Torbay's other main road links are the A379, which follows a coastal route from Teignmouth, passes through Torquay
Torquay
and Paignton, then goes on to Dartmouth; and the A385 road
A385 road
which goes inland to Totnes
Totnes
and the A38. The A3022 road
A3022 road
serves all three towns and varies from dual carriageway and single carriageway. The bus franchise is largely operated by Stagecoach South West. The other bus company operating throughout Torbay
Torbay
is Local Link. Torbay
Torbay
has three stations on the National Rail
National Rail
network, operated by First Great Western: Torre railway station
Torre railway station
is inland on the road from Torquay
Torquay
to Newton Abbot, Torquay
Torquay
railway station is close to Torre Abbey Sands and Paignton
Paignton
railway station serves that town and links with the heritage Dartmouth Steam Railway
Dartmouth Steam Railway
to Kingswear, connecting via the Dart ferry to Dartmouth. A new station at Edginswell is planned to open in December 2018 as part of the Devon
Devon
Metro scheme.[15] Notable people[edit] Famous former residents of Torbay
Torbay
include authors Agatha Christie
Agatha Christie
(who set many of her novels in a thinly disguised version of the borough), Charles Kingsley, Edmund Gosse
Edmund Gosse
and Rudyard Kipling. Peter Cook, comic, (half of a famous comedy team with Dudley Moore); the industrialist and architect of the nearby Atmospheric railway, Isambard Kingdom Brunel; Prog-rock band Wishbone Ash, supermodel Lily Cole
Lily Cole
and comedian Jim Davidson. Tennis player/TV presenter Sue Barker
Sue Barker
originates from the area. Notes[edit]

^ Torbay's wards are Berry Head-with-Furzeham (3 councillors), Blatchcombe (3 councillors), Churston Ferrers-with-Galmpton (2 councillors), Clifton-with-Maidenway (2 councillors), Cockington-with-Chelston (3 councillors), Ellacombe (2 councillors), Goodrington-with-Roselands (2 councillors), Preston (3 councillors), Roundham-with-Hyde (2 councillors), St Marychurch
St Marychurch
(3 councillors), St. Mary's-with-Summercombe (2 councillors), Shiphay-with-The Willows (2 councillors), Tormohun (3 councillors), Watcombe (2 councillors), and Wellswood (2 councillors)

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Census 2011 - Torbay
Torbay
Profile". Torbay
Torbay
Council. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  (Word document) ^ John R. Pike, Torquay
Torquay
(Torquay: Torbay
Torbay
Borough Council Printing Services, 1994), 5-6 ^ Rincon, Paul (27 April 2005). "Jawbone hints at earliest Britons". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2006-11-07.  ^ Parnell, Peggy (2007). A Paignton
Paignton
Scrapbook. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-4739-8.  ^ Percy Russell, A History Of Torquay
Torquay
(Torquay: Devonshire Press Limited, 1960), p.19 ^ Kirkham House : Devon : South West : View properties : Properties : Days Out & Events : English Heritage ^ “ Torbay
Torbay
Golf & Country Club”, “Golf’s Missing Links”. ^ 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
official report. p. 50. ^ "Mayor voting system is condemned". BBC News. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-03.  ^ "BBC News". Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ Final result. "Herald express". Retrieved 26 June 2015.  ^ Global status for Torbay
Torbay
(retrieved 7 July 2008) ^ "2011 Census: KS103UK Marital and civil partnership status, local authorities in the United Kingdom (Excel sheet 222Kb)". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 270Kb)". Office for National Statistics. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ Abbot, HEC. "Herald Express". Retrieved 8 January 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Torbay.

Torbay
Torbay
Council The Official Tourist Board Torbay
Torbay
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

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Districts of South West England

Devon

East Devon Exeter Mid Devon North Devon South Hams Teignbridge Torridge West Devon

Dorset

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Gloucestershire

Cheltenham Cotswold District Forest of Dean District Gloucester Stroud District Tewkesbury Borough

Somerset

Mendip Sedgemoor South Somerset Taunton Deane West Somerset

Unitary authorities

Bath and North East Somerset Bournemouth Bristol Cornwall Isles of Scilly North Somerset Plymouth Borough of Poole South Gloucestershire Borough of Swindon Torbay Wiltshire

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Ceremonial county of Devon

Devon
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Unitary authorities

Plymouth Torbay

Boroughs or districts

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Major settlements

Ashburton Axminster Bampton Barnstaple Bideford Bovey Tracey Bradninch Brixham Buckfastleigh Budleigh Salterton Chagford Chudleigh Chulmleigh Crediton Cullompton Dartmouth Dawlish Exeter Exmouth Great Torrington Hartland Hatherleigh Holsworthy Honiton Ilfracombe Ivybridge Kingsbridge Kingsteignton Lynton Modbury Moretonhampstead Newton Abbot North Tawton Northam Okehampton Ottery St Mary Paignton Plymouth Plympton Salcombe Seaton Sidmouth South Molton Tavistock Teignmouth Tiverton Topsham Torquay Totnes See also: List of civil parishes in Devon

Rivers

Ashburn Avon Axe Barle Bovey Bray Burn Clyst Creedy Culm Dart East Dart West Dart Erme Exe Heddon Lemon Lew Lumburn Lyd East Lyn West Lyn Meavy Mole Okement East Okement West Okement Otter Plym Sid Swincombe Tamar Tavy Taw Teign Thrushel Torridge Walkham Wallabrooke East Webburn West Webburn Wolf Yealm

Topics

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Districts

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Local elections

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Venues of the 1948 Summer Olympics

Aldershot Arsenal Stadium Bisley National Rifle Association Ranges Champion Hill Craven Cottage Empire Pool Empire Stadium Empress Hall, Earl's Court Finchley Lido Green Pond Road Griffin Park Guinness Sports Club Harringay Arena Henley Royal Regatta Herne Hill Velodrome Lynn Road Lyons' Sports Club Polytechnic Sports Ground Royal Military Academy Selhurst Park Tweseldown Racecourse Torbay Wembley Palace of Engineering White Hart Lane Windsor Great Park

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Olympic venues in sailing

1900: Meulan, Le Havre 1908: Ryde, Hunters Quay 1912: Nynäshamn 1920: Ostend, Buiten Y 1924: Le Havre, Meulan 1928: Buiten Y, Zuiderzee 1932: Los Angeles Harbor 1936: Kiel Bay 1948: Torbay 1952: Harmaja, Liuskasaari 1956: Port Phillip 1960: Gulf of Naples 1964: Enoshima 1968: Club de Yates de Acapulco 1972: Bay of Kiel 1976: Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Olympic Harbour 1980: Olympic Regatta in Tallinn 1984: Long Beach Shoreline Marina 1988: Busan Yachting Center 1992: Olympic Harbour 1996: Wassaw Sound 2000: Rushcutters Bay 2004: Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre 2008: Qingdao International Sailing Centre 2012: Weymouth and Portland
Weymouth and Portland
National Sailing Academy 2016: Marina da Glória 2020: Enoshima 2024: Old Port of Marseille 2028: Belmont Veterans M

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