Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
1 Etymology 2 Meaning and history 3 Issues 4 Noted toponymists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos
(τόπος) "place" and ónoma (ὄνομα) "name".
itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds.
Meaning and history
Toponym is the general name for any place or geographical entity.
Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of
water and oronym for a mountain or hill. A toponymist is one who
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "toponymy" first
appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace
"place-name" in professional discourse among geographers.[citation
needed] It can be argued that the first toponymists were the
storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place
names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the
basis for the etiological legends. The process of folk etymology
usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name
based on its structure or sounds. Thus, the toponym of
Marcel Aurousseau William Bright Richard Coates Albert Dauzat Eilert Ekwall Margaret Gelling Michel Grosclaude Ernest Nègre W. F. H. Nicolaisen Oliver Padel Robert L. Ramsay Adrian Room Charles Rostaing Henry Schoolcraft Walter Skeat Albert Hugh Smith Frank Stenton George R. Stewart Isaac Taylor Simon Taylor James Hammond Trumbull William J. Watson
Labeling (map design)
Demonymy Ethnonymy Etymology Exonym and endonym Tolkiennymy
Toponymic surname Planetary nomenclature German toponymy Germanic toponymy List of continent name etymologies List of country name etymologies List of etymologies of country subdivision names
Latin names of European rivers Latin names of rivers List of river name etymologies Old European hydronymy
Biblical toponyms in the United States Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom List of British places with Latin names List of generic forms in British place names List of places in the United Kingdom List of Roman place names in Britain Welsh place names Territorial designation
Place names in Irish Celtic toponymy Historical African place names Japanese place names Korean toponymy and list of place names List of English exonyms for German toponyms List of English exonyms for Italian toponyms List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms List of French exonyms for German toponyms List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms List of German exonyms for places in Italy German placename etymology List of Latin place names in Europe List of U.S. place names connected to Sweden List of U.S. state name etymologies List of U.S. state nicknames Maghreb toponymy Names of European cities in different languages New Zealand place names Place names in Sri Lanka Roman place names Toponyms of Finland
List of adjectival forms of place names List of double placenames List of long place names List of names in English with counterintuitive pronunciations List of places named after peace List of places named after Lenin List of places named after Stalin List of places named for their units of production List of political entities named after people List of renamed places in the United States List of short place names List of tautological place names List of words derived from toponyms Lists of things named after places List of geographic names derived from acronyms and initialisms List of geographic names derived from portmanteaus United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names UNGEGN Toponymic Guidelines
^ United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, London, 10–31 May 1972. 1974. New York: United Nations. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, p. 68. ^ Stewart, George Rippey (7 August 1975). Names on the Globe (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-501895-0. ^ Powicke, reviewing Armstrong, Mawer, Stenton and Dickins The Place-Names of Cumberland (1950–53) in The English Historical Review 69 (April 1954), p 312. ^ McDavid, R.I. (1958). "Linguistic Geographic and Toponymic Research". Names (6): 65–73. ^ Kaups, M. (1966). "Finnish Place Names in Minnesota: A Study in Cultural Transfer". The Geographical Review. Geographical Review, Vol. 56, No. 3. 56 (56): 377–397. doi:10.2307/212463. JSTOR 212463. ^ Kharusi, N. S. & Salman, A. (2011) The English Transliteration of Place Names in Oman. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies Vol. 1(3) September 2011, pp. 1–27 Available online at www.academians.org ^ "Eighth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names". United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2002. ^ Pinchevski, Amit; Torgovnik, Efraim (May 2002). "Signifying passages: the signs of change in Israeli street names". Media, Culture & Society. doi:10.1177/016344370202400305. ^ Azaryahu, Maoz (2009). "Naming the past: The significance of commemorative street names". Critical Toponymies: The Contested Politics of Place Naming. Routledge. ^ Lincoln, Bruce (2000). Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. Basic Books. ^ Rose-Redwood, Reuben; et al. (2009). "Geographies of toponymic inscription: new directions in critical place-name studies" (PDF). Progress in Human Geography: p. 460. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ " Toponymy and Geopolitics: The Political Use — and Misuse — of Geographical Names" (PDF). The Cartographic Journal. 2004. doi:10.1179/000870404X12897.
Berg, Lawrence D. and Vuolteenaho, Jani (2009). Critical Toponymies (Re-Materialising Cultural Geography). Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0754674535 Cablitz, Gabriele H. 2008. When “what” is “where”: A linguistic analysis of landscape terms, place names and body part terms in Marquesan (Oceanic, French Polynesia). Language Sciences Volume 30, Issues 2–3, Pages 200–226. Desjardins, Louis-Hébert (1973). Les nons géographiques: lexique polyglotte, suivi d'un glossaire de 500 mots. Leméac. Without ISBN Hercus, Luise, Flavia Hodges, Jane Simpson. 2009. The Land is a Map: Placenames of Indigenous Origin in Australia. Pandanus Books. Kadmon, Naftali. 2000. Toponymy: the lore, laws, and language of geographical names. Vantage Press.
Look up Appendix:Terms derived from toponyms in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Who Was Who in North American Name Study Forgotten Toponymy Board (German) The origins of British place names An Index to the Historical Place Names of Cornwall Planetary Maps: Visualization and Nomenclature Cartographica 41/2 2006 Development of a Local Toponym System at the Mars Desert Research Station Cartographica 42/2 2007 Celtic toponymy MyDanishRoots.com. "Place Name Etymology: Common Elements in Danish Place Names". by Anders Buch-Jepsen. Archived from the original on 2009-04-30. O'Brien, Francis J. Jr. (Moondancer) “Indian Place Names—Aquidneck Indian Council” Ghana Place Names Index Anatolicus: Toponyms of Turkey The University of Nottingham's: Key to English Place-names searchable map.