In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by
large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually
using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.
Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural
and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a
map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the
whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal
Natural Resources Canada
Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic
These maps depict in detail ground relief (landforms and terrain),
drainage (lakes and rivers), forest cover, administrative areas,
populated areas, transportation routes and facilities (including roads
and railways), and other man-made features.
Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another
type of map; they are distinguished from smaller-scale "chorographic
maps" that cover large regions, "planimetric maps" that do not
show elevations, and "thematic maps" that focus on specific
However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of
relief (contours) is popularly held to define the genre, such that
even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly (and erroneously, in
the technical sense) called "topographic".
The study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of
study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of
4 Publishers of national topographic map series
4.11 Hong Kong
4.16 New Zealand
4.22 South Africa
4.25 United Kingdom
4.26 United States
5 See also
7 External links
Topography § Etymology, Cadastre § History, and
Cartography § History
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at
large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense
of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This
is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show
property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet
topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique
de la France, was completed in 1789. The Great Trigonometric Survey
of India, started by the
East India Company
East India Company in 1802, then taken over
British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a
larger scale and for accurately determining heights of Himalayan peaks
from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant.
Global indexing system first developed for International
Map of the
Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in
planning for battle and for defensive emplacements (thus the name and
history of the United Kingdom's Ordnance Survey). As such, elevation
information was of vital importance.
As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in
modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation.
In the United States, the national map-making function which had been
shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the
Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey
in 1879, where it has remained since.
1913 saw the beginning of the International
Map of the World
initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas
at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering
four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude. Excluding
borders, each sheet was 44 cm high and (depending on latitude) up
to 66 cm wide. Although the project eventually foundered, it left
an indexing system that remains in use.
By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps
began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used
on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps
with arbitrary contents, coverage and scale. For example, the Federal
government of the United States'
TIGER initiative compiled interlinked
databases of federal, state and local political borders and census
enumeration areas, and of roadways, railroads, and water features with
support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER
was developed in the 1980s and used in the 1990 and subsequent
decennial censuses. Digital elevation models (DEM) were also compiled,
initially from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of
aerial photographs and then from satellite photography and radar data.
Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not
classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the
public domain and freely usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets greatly facilitated Geographic information
systems and made the
Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System much more useful by
providing context around locations given by the technology as
coordinates. Initial applications were mostly professionalized forms
such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems
tended by experts. By the mid-1990s, increasingly user-friendly
resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions,
integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation
systems appeared. As of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally
printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt.
Curvimeter used to measure the length of a curve
Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of
geographic planning or large-scale architecture; earth sciences and
many other geographic disciplines; mining and other earth-based
endeavours; civil engineering and recreational uses such as hiking and
Further information: contour lines § elevation and depth
The various features shown on the map are represented by conventional
signs or symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a
classification of roads. These signs are usually explained in the
margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic
Topographic maps are also commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized
by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are often called topo quads or
Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by
means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves that connect
contiguous points of the same altitude (isohypse). In other words,
every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m
above mean sea level.
These maps usually show not only the contours, but also any
significant streams or other bodies of water, forest cover, built-up
areas or individual buildings (depending on scale), and other features
and points of interest.
Today, topographic maps are prepared using photogrammetric
interpretation of aerial photography, lidar and other Remote sensing
techniques. Older topographic maps were prepared using traditional
Publishers of national topographic map series
It has been suggested that this section be split out into another
article titled National topographic map series. (Discuss) (July 2014)
National Mapping Agency
National Mapping Agency and
Although virtually the entire terrestrial surface of Earth has been
mapped at scale 1:1,000,000, medium and large-scale mapping has been
accomplished intensively in some countries and much less in
others. Nevertheless, national mapping programs listed below are
only a partial selection. Several commercial vendors supply
international topographic map series.
The NMIG (National Mapping Information Group) of Geoscience Australia
is the Australian Government's national mapping agency. It provides
topographic maps and data to meet the needs of the sustainable
development of the nation. The Office of Spatial Data Management
provides an online free map service MapConnect. These topographic
maps of scales 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 are available in printed form
from the Sales Centre. 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 maps are produced in
conjunction with the Department of Defence.
Austrian Maps (German: Österreichische Karte (ÖK)) is the government
agency producing maps of Austria, which are distributed by Bundesamt
für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV) in Vienna. The maps are
published at scales 1:25,000 1:50,000 1:200,000 and 1:500,000. Maps
can also be viewed online.
The Centre for Topographic Information produces topographic maps of
Canada at scales of 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. They are known as the
National Topographic System
National Topographic System (NTS). A government proposal to
discontinue publishing of all hardcopy or paper topographic maps in
favor of digital-only mapping data was shelved in 2005 after intense
The State Bureau of
Cartography compiles topographic
maps at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales. It is reported that these maps
are accurate and attractively printed in seven colors, and that
successive editions show progressive improvement in accuracy.
These large-scale maps are the basis for maps at smaller scales. Maps
at scales 1:4,000,000 or smaller are exported by Cartographic
Publishing House, Beijing while larger-scale maps are restricted as
state secrets, and prohibited from publishing by legislation, all
except Hong Kong and Macau. China's topographic maps follow the
international system of subdivision with 1:100,000 maps spanning 30
minutes longitude by 20 minutes latitude.
Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi is the government entity
responsible for producing and distributing topographic maps of
Colombia in 1:500,000 and 1:100,000 scales. These and several other
Geographic information services can be accessed using the Instituto
Geográfico Agustin Codazzi website in Spanish.
National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark
National Survey and Cadastre of Denmark is responsible for
producing topographic and nautical geodata of Denmark,
the Faroe Islands.
The National Land Survey of
Finland produces the Topographic Database
(accuracy 1:5000-1:10 000) and publishes topographic maps of Finland
at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. In addition topographics maps can be viewed
by using a free map service MapSite.
The Institut Géographique National (IGN) produces topographic maps of
France at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. In addition, topographic maps are
freely accessible online, through the
In principle, each federal state (Bundesland) is in charge of
producing the official topographic maps. In fact, the maps between
1:5,000 and 1:100,000 are produced and published by the land surveying
offices of each federal state, the maps between 1:200,000 and
1:1,000,000 by a federal house – the Bundesamt für Kartographie und
Geodäsie (BKG) in Frankfurt am Main.
Topographic maps for general use are available at 1:50,000 and
1:100,000 from the
Hellenic Military Geographical Service
Hellenic Military Geographical Service (HMGS).
They use a national projection system called EGSA'87, which is a
Transverse Mercatorial Projection mapping Greece in one zone. A few
areas are also available at 1:25,000. Some private firms sell
topographic maps of national parks based on HMGS topography.
The Department of Lands is the government agency responsible for
surveying and publishing topographic maps of Hong Kong. Commonly used
maps such as the HM20C series (1:20,000) are reviewed and updated
every year or two. Very large scale (1:600 in Urban area and the
1:1,000 HM1C series for all of HK) topographic maps are also available
to public for various uses.
Survey of India
Survey of India is responsible for all topographic control,
surveys and mapping of India.
Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Geographical Survey Institute of Japan is responsible for base
mapping of Japan. Standard map scales are 1:25,000, 1:50,000,
1:200,000 and 1:500,000.
From 1992 to 2002 a definitive series of large scale topographic maps
were surveyed and published through a joint project by Government of
Nepal Survey Department and
Finland's Ministry for Foreign Affairs
contracting through the Finn
Map consulting firm. Japan
International Cooperation Agency substituted for Finn
Topographic sheets at 1:25,000 scale covering 7.5 minutes latitude and
longitude map the densely populated
Terai and Middle Mountain regions.
Less populated high mountain regions are on 15-minute sheets at
1:50,000. JPG scans can be downloaded.
The Land Registry
Kadaster (formerly Topografische Dienst) collects,
processes and provides topographical information of the entire Dutch
territory. The history of the Land Registry goes back to the year
1815, that year was commissioned to create a large map, known as Map
of Krayenhoff. Around 1836 they began printing the topographic map on
a scale of 1: 50,000, followed in 1865 by the topographic map on a
scale of 1: 25,000. In 1951 began the start of production of the
topographic map on a scale of 1: 10,000. From various reorganizations
arose in 1932 the Topografische Dienst as national mapping agency of
the Netherlands, since January 2004 housed within the Land Registry
Land Information New Zealand is the government agency responsible for
providing up-to-date topographic mapping. LINZ topographic maps cover
all of New Zealand, offshore islands, some Pacific Islands and the
Ross Sea Region. The standard issue NZTopo map series was
published September 2009 at 1:50,000 (NZTopo50), and 1:250,000
(NZTopo250). Vector data from the New Zealand Topographic Database
(NZTopo) is also available.
The responsibility for topographic mapping and aerial photography lies
with the Surveyor General of Pakistan [SGP]. Established in 1947, the
Survey of Pakistan (SOP) is based in Rawalpindi with a number of
regional offices distributed at urban centers throughout Pakistan. SGP
is a civil organization which, for security reasons, is headed by a
Surveyor General and works under the strict control of Army General
Headquarters (GHQ). Colonel C.A.K. Innes-Wilson, a Royal Engineers
officer who joined the
Survey of India
Survey of India which mapped the subcontinent,
was the first Surveyor General of Pakistan.
All departments which require topographic maps make their request to
SGP and many are permanently registered with it for mapping and aerial
photographs procurement. The SOP performs these functions under the
auspices of the Ministry of Defence (MOD). Organisationally, the SOP
is overseen by the Surveyor General (SG) who is a direct military
appointee and a senior uniformed officer. The SG reports directly to
the Secretary of Defence. Under the SG are two Deputy SG’s (I and
II) who manage the operational departments of the agency and a Senior
Technical Advisor. These departments are divided into Regional
Directorates for Topographic Mapping including the Northern region
centred in Peshawar, Eastern region (Lahore), Western region (Quetta)
and finally, the Southern region in Karachi. Responsibility for fields
surveys and the maintenance/update of topographic maps are sub-divided
according to these geographic areas.
The Army's Geographical Institute - Instituto Geográfico do Exército
 - produces 1.25,000, 1:500,000 maps for public sale, as well as
lots of geographical services.
Until recently, the two major government mapping authorities in
Romania have been the Military Topographic Department (Directia
Topografica Militara (DTM)), and the Institute for Geodesy,
Cartography and Land Management (Institutul de
Geodezie, Fotogrammetrie, Cartografie, si Organizarea Teritoriului
(IGFCOT)). This situation has recently changed, following a decision
in 1996 by the Romanian Government to establish a combined civilian
National Office of Cadastre, Geodesy and
Cartography (Oficiul National
de Cadastru, Geodezie si Cartografie (ONCGC). Maps continued to be
published under the imprint of the previous organizations into the
late 1990s. From 1958, a number of town maps at scales of 1:5,000 or
1:10,000 were also made, initially on the Gauss-Krϋger projection,
but after 1970 on a stereographic projection. More than 100 such
sheets have been produced. There is also a street map of Bucharest in
four sheets at 1:15,000 derived from larger scale surveys, which is
The 1:50,000 series in 737 sheets is now regarded as the base map. It
was revised in the period 1965-72 using aerial photographs, and is
currently being updated again with the intention of establishing a
revision cycle of five to six years. The 1:25,000 will be retained,
but revision only at 15-20-year intervals, except for sheets covering
areas of rapid change.
Detailed, accurate topographic maps have long been a military
priority. They are currently produced by the Military-topographic
service of armed forces of the Russian Federation (Russian:
Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации
or ВТС ВС). Military topographic mapping departments held other
titles in the
Russian Empire since 1793 and in the Soviet Union
where these maps also came to be used for internal control and
When Germany invaded in 1941, detailed maps from the USSR's western
borders to the
Volga River became an urgent task, accomplished in less
than one year. After the war years the entire
Soviet Union was mapped
at scales down to 1:25,000—even 1:10,000 for the agriculturally
productive fraction. The rest of the world except Antarctica is
believed to have been mapped at scales down to 1:200,000, with regions
of special interest down to 1:50,000 and many urban areas to 1:10,000.
In all there may have been over one million map sheets of high
quality and detail. Soviet maps were also notable for
their consistent global indexing system. These advantages held
for Soviet military maps of other countries, although there were some
errors due to faulty intelligence.
Soviet maps for domestic civilian purposes were often of lower
quality. From 1919 to 1967 they were produced by Head geodesic
administration (Russian: Высшее геодезическое
управление or ВГУ), then by Chief administration of
geodesy and cartography (Russian: Главное управление
геодезии и картографии or ГУГК). Now (June
2011) civilian maps are produced by the Federal agency for geodesy and
cartography (Russian: Федеральное агентство
геодезии и картографии or
Soviet military maps were state secrets. After the 1991 breakup of the
Soviet Union, many maps leaked into the public domain and are
available for download.
Map scales 1:100.000 - 1:500.000 can be
The Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) is responsible for the
official topographic maps. It does use six scales that cover all the
Spanish territory: 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000, 1:500,000,
1:1,000,000 and 1:2,000,000. The most common scale is the first one,
which utilizes the UTM system.
The Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information (CD:NGI)
produces three topographic map series, each covering the whole
country, at scales 1:50 000, 1:250 000, and 1:500 000.
Swisstopo (the Federal Office of Topography) produces topographic maps
Switzerland at seven different scales.
Topographic maps for Taiwan had long been kept as confidential
information due to security concerns. It has only been recently made
available to public from the National Land
Surveying and Mapping
Center, the government agency responsible for surveying and publishing
Topographic maps of up to 1:25,000 is now available in
digital and printed format.
Ordnance Survey (OS) produces topographic map series covering the
United Kingdom at 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales. The 1:25,000 scale
is known as the "Explorer" series, and include an "OL" (Outdoor
Leisure) sub-series for areas of special interest to hikers and
walkers. It replaced the "Pathfinder" series, which was less colourful
and covered a smaller area on each map. The 1:50,000 scale is known as
the "Landranger" and carries a distinctive pink cover. More detailed
mapping as fine as 1:10,000 covers some parts of the country. The
1:25,000 and 1:50,000 scales are easily coordinated with standard
romer scales on currently available compasses and plotting tools. The
Ordnance Survey maintains a mapping database from which they can print
specialist maps at virtually any scale.
Ordnance Survey National Grid divides the U.K. into cells
500 km, 100 km, 10 km and 1 km square on a
Transverse Mercator grid aligned true North-South along the 2°W
meridian. OS map products are based on this grid.
United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey (USGS), a civilian federal agency,
produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in
scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the
complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their
equivalent. The largest (both in terms of scale and quantity) and
best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute or 1:24,000
quadrangle. This scale is unique to the United States,[citation
needed] where nearly every other developed nation has introduced a
metric 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 large scale topo map. The USGS also
publishes 1:100,000 maps covering 30 minutes latitude by one degree
longitude, 1:250,000 covering one by two degrees, and state maps at
1:500,000 with California,
Montana needing two sheets
Texas has four.
Alaska is mapped on a single sheet, at scales
ranging from 1:1,584,000 to 1:12,000,000.
Mount Marcy area of New York State in 1892 in a 15-minute
quadrangle at 1:62,500.
The same area about a century later (1979) in a 7.5- by 15-minute
metric map at 1:25,000.
Recent USGS digital US Topo 1:24,000 topo maps based on the National
Map omit[why?] several important geographic details that were featured
in the original USGS topographic map series (1945-1992). Examples
of omitted details and features include power transmission lines,
telephone lines, railroads, recreational trails, pipelines, survey
marks, and buildings. For many of these feature classes, the USGS
is working with other agencies to develop data or adapt existing data
on missing details that will be included in The National
Map and to US
Topo. In other areas USGS digital map revisions may omit
geographic features such as ruins, mine locations, springs, wells, and
even trails in an effort to protect natural resources and the public
at large, or because such features are not present in any public
Map of the World
(List of) national mapping agencies
^ Government of
Canada (8 April 2016). "National Topographic System
Maps". Earth Sciences – Geography. Natural Resources Canada.
Retrieved 16 May 2016.
^ P. D. A. Harvey, The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols,
Pictures and Surveys, Thames and Hudson, 1980,
ISBN 0-500-24105-8, p. 9. "By a topographical map, we mean a
large-scale map, one that sets out to convey the shape and pattern of
landscape, showing a tiny portion of the earth's surface as it lies
within one's own direct experience, and quite distinct from the
small-scale maps that show us the features of whole provinces, nations
^ a b Art &
Architecture Thesaurus entry for topographic maps.
^ Committee on Nomenclature of the American Society of Photogrammetry,
"Definitions of terms used in photogrammetric surveying and mapping:
preliminary report", Photogrammetric Engineering, 8, 247-283, 1942.
"Topographic Map. A map that presents the horizontal and vertical
positions of the features represented; distinguished from a
planimetric map by the addition of relief in measurable form." This
definition is used in many glossaries of map terminology.
^ M.-J. Kraak and F. Ormeling, Cartography: Visualization of Spatial
Data, Longman, 1996, ISBN 0-582-25953-3, p. 44. "Traditionally,
the main division of maps is into topographic and thematic maps.
Topographic maps supply a general image of the earth's surface: roads,
rivers, buildings, often the nature of the vegetation, the relief and
the names of the various mapped objects."
^ The range of information is indicated by the title of a map produced
in 1766: A Topographical
Map of Hartfordshire from an Actual Survey in
which is Express'd all the Roads, Lanes, Churches, Noblemen and
Gentlemen's Seats, and every Thing remarkable in the County, by Andrew
Dury and John Andrews, reprinted by Hertfordshire Publications in
1980. This showed the relief by using hachures.
^ Library of Congress,
Geography and Maps: General Collections
^ Dickey, Parke A (October 1985). "Who discovered Mount Everest?".
Eos. 66 (41): 54–59. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
^ Peter Barber, The
Map Book, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005,
ISBN 0-297-84372-9, pp. 232, 250.
^ "Organizing the U.S. Geological Survey". The United States
Geological Survey: 1879-1989. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department
of the Interior. 10 April 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
^ "The Four Great Surveys of the West". The United States Geological
Survey: 1879-1989. U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the
Interior. 10 April 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
^ Ramirez, J. Raul. "Maps for the Future: A Discussion" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 1 July
^ Hurst, Paul (2010), Will we be lost without paper maps in the
digital age? (PDF) (M.S. thesis), U.K.: University of Sheffield,
pp. 1–18, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011,
retrieved 1 July 2011
^ Ordnance Survey, Explorer
Map Symbols; Swisstopo, Conventional Signs
Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.; United States
Geological Survey, Topographic
^ Pickles, John. Cartography, Digital Transitions, and Questions of
History (PDF). International Cartographic Association, 1999. Ottawa.
p. 17. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
^ Geoscience Australia: MapConnect Archived 15 May 2009 at the Wayback
Geoscience Australia Sales Centre Archived 15 May 2009 at the
Map Online". Retrieved 29 June 2011.
^ Centre for Topographic Information website Archived 24 December 2007
at the Wayback Machine..
Canada shreds plan to scrap paper maps". CBC News. 12 October
^ Chen, Cheng-siang; Au, Kam-nin. Some Recent Developments in
Geoscience in China (PDF) (Report). pp. 37–41. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
^ "Chen and Au, op. cit." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Instituto Geográfico Agustin Codazzi website
^ Kort & Matrikelstyrelsens website (in Danish).
^ 2010 Maanmittauslaitos
^ National Land Survey of
Finland Archived 26 October 2007 at the
^ Institut Géographique National website (in French, English and
^ Government topographic maps in
Germany[better source needed]
^ Αρχικη σελιδα
^ Department of Scientific and Technology:
Survey of India
Survey of India Archived 11
January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Omni Resources catalog page
^ "Government of Nepal, Survey Department". Archived from the original
on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
^ "Land Administration & Management, Mapping,
Surveying and Aerial
Photography, Major Reference Projects" (PDF). FinnMap. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February
^ "Japan International Cooperation Agency". Retrieved 4 February
^ "Nepal-Topo Maps". PAHAR Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
MyPublisher. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
^ Land Information New Zealand Archived 6 July 2006 at Archive.is
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 May 2008.
Retrieved 16 February 2008.
^ ru:Топографическая служба
Вооружённых сил Российской
Федерации[better source needed]
^ David Watt (December 2005). "Soviet Military Mapping" (PDF).
Sheetlines. London: Charles Close Society. 74: 9–12. Retrieved 5
^ John Davies (April 2005). "Uncle Joe knew where you lived. Soviet
mapping of Britain (part 1)" (PDF). Sheetlines. London: Charles Close
Society. 72: 26–38. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
^ J. Davies (August 2005). "...(part 2)" (PDF). Sheetlines. 73:
^ Department of the Army, ed. (1958). Soviet topographic map symbols
(PDF). Technical manual. 30-548. Washington DC: USGPO. Retrieved 5
June 2011. [permanent dead link]
^ U.S. Army, 1958, op. cit. (PDF). pp. 2–9. [permanent
^ ru:Советская система разграфки и
карт[better source needed]
^ "J. Davies (part 2), op. cit." (PDF): 11ff.
^ Charles Close Society (ed.), Soviet Military Mapping of Britain -
Study Day Cambridge 8th October 2005 (PDF) (exhibition guide),
p. 15, retrieved 5 June 2011
^ ru:Федеральное агентство геодезии и
картографии[better source needed]
^ "J. Davies (part 2), op. cit." (PDF): 6–7.
^ "Карты" [Maps] (in English and Russian). Archived from the
original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
^ "Soviet Military Maps" [Online Viewer]. Retrieved 13 July
^ "Collection of Soviet Military
Map Country Mosaics 1:200,000 Scale"
[Online Viewer]. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
Ordnance Survey website
^ 1:10,000 Scale Raster: mid-scale high-resolution detailed mapping
Archived 10 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ The Master
Topography Layer contains information about buildings,
roads, woodland, administrative boundaries, etc., with just a few spot
heights along the roads. For contours or a digital terrain model, a
separate product called OS
Terrain Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback
Machine. is required.
Map Booklet". USGS. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
^ a b c d Moore, Larry, US Topo – A New National
Directions Magazine, 16 May 2011, retrieved 18 April 2012
Topographic maps are downloadable as pdf files from a searcheable
map or by a search if the map name is known.
How a Topographic
Map is Manufactured, History, and Other Information
Early world maps
History of cartography
List of cartographers