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The RANK ORGANISATION was a British entertainment conglomerate founded by industrialist J. Arthur Rank in April 1937. It quickly became the largest and most vertically integrated film company in Britain, owning production, distribution and exhibition facilities. It also diversified into the manufacture of radios, TVs and photocopiers (as one of the owners of Rank Xerox ). The company name lasted until February 1996 when the name and some of the remaining assets were absorbed into the newly structured the Rank Group Plc .

The company logo, the Gongman , first used in 1935 by the group's distribution company General Film Distributors and seen in the opening titles of the films, became a celebrated and enduring film emblem.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin * 2 Growth * 3 Film making in the 1940s * 4 Crisis and diversification * 5 Declining involvement in the film industry

* 6 1970s

* 6.1 Temporary revival and final cessation of production

* 7 Select filmography * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

ORIGIN

J. Arthur Rank , born in Kingston upon Hull , UK, was already a wealthy industrialist through his father's flour milling business, Joseph Rank Ltd , when he made his somewhat unlikely start in film-making, financing short religious subjects in line with his Methodist
Methodist
beliefs. From these modest origins, the British film company emerged in 1937 as Rank sought to consolidate his film-making interests.

GROWTH

The company grew quickly, largely through acquisition. Significant developments included:

* 1938 – Odeon Cinemas
Odeon Cinemas
was purchased * 1939 – Denham Film Studios
Denham Film Studios
were merged with the facilities at Pinewood and the Amalgamated Studios in Borehamwood were acquired, but not used for making films. * 1939 – UK sites of Paramount Cinemas purchased * 1941 – Purchase of the Gaumont-British Picture Corporation , which also owned Gainsborough Pictures , 251 cinemas and the Lime Grove Studios . * In the mid-1940s Two Cities Films became part of the Rank Organisation producing key films such as Odd Man Out (1947), Hamlet (1948), Vice Versa (1948) and The Rocking Horse Winner (1949). * 1946 – Bought for £1 million+ a 50 per cent share in a chain of 133 cinemas from New Zealander Robert James Kerridge , the biggest exhibition chain in Australasia; it was renamed Kerridge Odeon. * Late 1940s – A majority shareholding in Allied Cinemas and Irish Cinemas Ltd was gained, becoming the largest exhibition circuit in Ireland (a position maintained until the early 1980s)

By the late 1940s J Arthur Rank (or the Rank Organisation as it was now called), owned:

* Five major film studio complexes, Pinewood Film Studios, Denham Film Studios, Ealing Studios , Lime Grove Studios and Islington Studios . (The studios at Lime Grove were sold to the BBC in 1949.) * 650 UK cinemas (Odeon, Gaumont and Paramount chains) plus various international holdings, including subsidiaries in Canada and The Netherlands * General Film Distributors (later Rank Film Distributors), including the UK distribution rights to Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
* Rank Screen Advertising * Rank Film Laboratories (later rebranded DeLuxe Laboratories
DeLuxe Laboratories
(UK), not related to DeLuxe Laboratories
DeLuxe Laboratories
of Hollywood, New York and Toronto) * 1966 – Rank Xerox – Joint venture entered into with Haloid Corporation of America ( Xerox
Xerox
Corporation), to manufacture and promote its range of plain paper photocopying equipment. Many of the waning film company assets were hastily converted and pressed into 'Rank Xerox' service. This venture was a huge gamble but ultimately the company's saving grace, until, once more in financial difficulties, it signed off increasing percentages of its holdings, to the parent company, finally becoming fully integrated into Xerox
Xerox
in the late 1990s.

FILM MAKING IN THE 1940S

A loose collective of film makers was established under the banner of Independent Producers Ltd., employing some of Britain's greatest directors, such as Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger (Black Narcissus , The Red Shoes , I Know Where I\'m Going! ), David Lean ( Brief Encounter , Great Expectations ), Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat ( I See a Dark Stranger , The Happiest Days of Your Life ), Ken Annakin (Holiday Camp) and Muriel Box ( The Seventh Veil
The Seventh Veil
).

The Company of Youth , the Rank Organisation acting school often referred to as "The Charm School", was founded in 1945. It launched several careers including those of Donald Sinden
Donald Sinden
, Dirk Bogarde , Diana Dors and Christopher Lee . Although she was not a member of the school, Petula Clark
Petula Clark
was under contract to Rank for a period of time and starred in a number of films released by the studio, including London Town (1946), one of the costliest flops in British film history. Also under contract to Rank was the Canadian actor Philip Gilbert .

CRISIS AND DIVERSIFICATION

Despite backing some excellent films, Rank was in crisis by 1949, having built up a debt of £16 million. and reported an annual loss of £3.5 million, Managing Director John Davis cut staff, reduced budgets and concentrated film production at Pinewood. Other studio facilities (in Islington ) were closed, sold (Lime Grove Studios) or leased (Denham). The Rank Organisation closed Independent Producers Ltd. The policies of Davis alienated many in the industry, in particular they led film director David Lean, responsible for some of Rank's most critically and financially successful films, to look elsewhere for backing.

In 1949, the company bought the Bush Radio manufacturing facility and began to diversify its interests. In the early 1960s Rank took over Murphy Radio to form the RANK BUSH MURPHY GROUP (which was eventually sold to Great Universal Stores in 1978). In 1956 Rank began a partnership with the Haloid Corporation to form Rank Xerox . Rank was also a significant shareholder in the consortium which became Southern Television , the first ITV television contract holder for the south of England . In the late 1950s, Rank set up RANK RECORDS LTD. (the record label was named TOP RANK) and JARO RECORDS (a US subsidiary). In 1960, Top Rank was taken over by EMI , and in 1962 they replaced it with Stateside Records . Top Rank artists included Gary U.S. Bonds
Gary U.S. Bonds
, the Shirelles , B. Bumble and the Stingers , Wilbert Harrison
Wilbert Harrison
, Skip & Flip , Andy Stewart , Craig Douglas and John Leyton .

RANK AUDIO VISUAL was created in 1960, bringing together Rank's acquisitions in multimedia, including Bell & Howell
Bell & Howell
(acquired with Gaumont British in 1941), Andrew Smith Harkness Ltd (1952) and Wharfedale Ltd (1958). Subsequent acquisitions included Strand Electric Holdings (1968) and H.J. Leak -webkit-column-count: 3; column-count: 3;">

* Good Morning, Boys (1937) * Oh, Mr Porter! (1937) * Hey! Hey! USA (1938) * Ask a Policeman (1939) * In Which We Serve (1942) * We Dive at Dawn (1943) * Love Story (1944) (G) * The Way Ahead (1944) * Henry V (1944) (TC) * The Way to the Stars (1945) (TC) * Brief Encounter (1945) (C) * I Know Where I\'m Going! (1945) (A) * Great Expectations (1946) (C) * A Matter of Life and Death (1946) (A) * I See a Dark Stranger (1946) (I) * Green for Danger (1946) (I) * Take My Life (1947) (C) * Black Narcissus (1947) (A) * Odd Man Out (1947) (TC) * London Belongs to Me (1948) (I) * Blanche Fury (1948) (C) * The Red Shoes (1948) (A) * Oliver Twist (1948) (C) * Miranda (1948) * Hamlet (1948) * Boys in Brown (1949) (GB) * The Blue Lagoon (1949) (I) * The History of Mr. Polly (1949) * Christopher Columbus (1949) * The Passionate Friends (1949) (C) * The Rocking Horse Winner (1949) (TC) * Madeleine (1950) (C) * The Browning Version (1951) * Curtain Up (1952) * Penny Princess (1952) * Genevieve (1953) * Malta Story
Malta Story
(1953) * Romeo and Juliet (1954) * Doctor in the House (1954) (BB) * Simba (1955) * An Alligator Named Daisy (1955) * Above Us the Waves (1955) * Simon and Laura (1955) * To Paris with Love (1955) * Doctor at Sea (1955) (BB) * Reach for the Sky (1956) * The Black Tent (1956) * A Town Like Alice (1956) * The Spanish Gardener (1956) * The Battle of the River Plate (1956) (A) * Campbell\'s Kingdom (1957) (BB) * Ill Met by Moonlight (1957) (A) * The One That Got Away (1957) * Robbery Under Arms (1957) * Doctor at Large (1957) (BB) * A Tale of Two Cities (1958) (BB) * Carve Her Name with Pride (1958) * The Wind Cannot Read (1958) (BB) * Sea of Sand (1958) * Nor the Moon by Night (1958) * Windom\'s Way (1958) * Operation Amsterdam (1959) * SOS Pacific (1959) * Upstairs and Downstairs (1959) (BB) * Value for Money
Value for Money
(1959) * Conspiracy of Hearts (1960) (BB) * Doctor in Love (1960) (BB) * Make Mine Mink (1960) * Ferry to Hong Kong (1960) * Flame in the Streets (1961) * The Singer Not the Song (1961) * No Love for Johnnie (1962) (BB) * Tiara Tahiti (1962) * The Wild and the Willing (1962) (BB) * Doctor in Distress (1963) (BB) * Hot Enough for June (1964) (BB) * The High Bright Sun (1965) (BB) * The Ipcress File
File
(1965) * I Was Happy Here (1966) * Sky West and Crooked (1966) * Doctor in Clover (1966) (BB) * They\'re a Weird Mob (1966) * The Long Duel (1967) * Follow That Camel (1967) * Carry On Doctor
Carry On Doctor
(1967) * Deadlier Than the Male
Deadlier Than the Male
(1967) (BB) * Nobody Runs Forever (1968) (BB) * Carry On... Up the Khyber (1968) * Subterfuge (1968) * Some Girls Do (1969) (BB) * Carry On Camping (1969) * Ring of Bright Water (1969) * The Royal Hunt of the Sun (1969) * Carry On Again Doctor (1969) * Doctor in Trouble (1970) (BB) * The World at Their Feet (1970) (documentary) * Twinky (1970) * Carry On Up the Jungle (1970) * Carry On Loving (1970) * Please Sir! (1971) * Countess Dracula (1971) (H) * Carry On Henry (1971) * Twins of Evil (1971) (H) * Carry On at Your Convenience (1971) * Rentadick (1972) * Bless This House (1972) * Antony and Cleopatra (1972) * Vampire Circus (1972) (H) * Carry On Matron
Carry On Matron
(1972) * That\'s Your Funeral (1972) * Go for a Take (1972) * Carry On Abroad (1972) * The Belstone Fox (1973) * Carry On Girls (1973) * Carry On Dick (1974) * I Don\'t Want to Be Born (1975) * Carry On Behind (1975) * Deadly Strangers (1975) * Bugsy Malone
Bugsy Malone
(1976) * Carry On England (1977) * Wombling Free (1977) * To See Such Fun (1977) (documentary) * Age of Innocence (1977) * The Uncanny (1977) * Soldier of Orange (1977) (co-prod) * Power Play (1978) (co-prod) * The Shout (1978) * The Thirty Nine Steps (1978) * The Human Factor (1979) * That\'s Carry On (1979) (compilation) * The Riddle of the Sands (1979) * Tarka the Otter (1979) * Wombling Free (1979) * The Lady Vanishes (1979) (H) * Eagle\'s Wing (1979) * Bad Timing (1980) * Silver Dream Racer (1980)

A = The Archers BB Betty E. Box Ralph Thomas Productions C = Cineguild Productions GB = Gainsborough Pictures H = Hammer Studios I = Individual Pictures TC = Two Cities Films

SEE ALSO

* Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York v. The Rank Organisation Ltd BCLC 11 * Cintel

REFERENCES

* ^ The Independent July 16, 1999: Obituary: Sir John Woolf Retrieved 2011-09-02 * ^ Shelton, L. R. "Robert James Kerridge". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 1 December 2011. * ^ A B Patricia Warren British Film Studios: An Illustrated History, London: B. T. Batsford, 2001, p.120 * ^ "Film Industry Slipping Out Of The Big Money.". The Sunday Herald . Sydney. 1 January 1950. p. 7 Supplement: Features. Retrieved 7 July 2012 – via National Library of Australia. * ^ Brian McFarlane "Davis, John (1906-1993)", BFI screenonline; McFarlane (ed.) Encyclopedia of British Film, London: Methuen/BFI, 2003, p.164 * ^ John Clement Obituary: Sir John Davis, The Independent, 1 July 1993 * ^ " Cornel Lucas Collection website". Cornellucascollection.com. 1920-09-12. Retrieved 2012-06-09. * ^ "Powell, Dilys. "Bigger Films to Come."". Sunday Times. London. 10 January 1960. p. 15 – via The Sunday Times Digital Archive. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ STEPHEN WATTS (23 Apr 1961). "BRITAIN'S SCREEN SCENE: Encouraging Survey, Rank's Dossier -- Footnotes on Three Luminaries". New York Times. p. 129. * ^ A B C ony Williams Interviewed by Andrew Spicer, London, 18 March 2011, Michael Klinger Papers accessed 16 April 2014 * ^ Barker, Dennis (26 Nov 1977). "Can Rank say they 'proudly' present this film?". The Guardian. London (UK). p. 17. * ^ KILDAY, GREEGG (12 Apr 1978). "FILM CLIPS: Harvey: Movies Back to Back". Los Angeles Times. p. f8. * ^ "The lucrative case for believing in yesterday" The Guardian December 18, 1978: 11. * ^ Alexander Walker, National Heroes: British Cinema in the Seventies and Eighties, Harrap, 1985 p 207-208 * ^ A B John Huxley. "Losses of £1.6m sound the knell for cinema production." The Times 7 June 1980: 17. The Times Digital Archive. Web. April 16, 2014. * ^ "Would You Believe an Industry Could Die?" Sunday Times 15 June 1980: 63. The Sunday Times Digital Archive. Web. 16 April 2014. * ^ JOHN HOLUSHA (7 June 1980). "Rank to Quit Film Production, Halting Work on 8 Features: Major British Film Maker Duty on U.S. Films". New York Times. p. 27. * ^ Alexander Walker, Icons in the Fire: The Rise and Fall of Practically Everyone in the British Film Industry 1984–2000, Orion Books, 2005 p4 * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/feb/26/film.filmnews

* Geoffrey Macnab, J. Arthur Rank and the British Film Industry, London, Routledge (1993), ISBN 0-415-07272-7 . * Alan Wood, Mr. Rank, London, Hodder ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

ITV

CHANNELS

CURRENT

DOMESTIC

* SD: ITV , STV , UTV * ITV2
ITV2
* ITV3
ITV3
* ITV4
ITV4
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ITVBe
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CITV
* The Store * HD: ITV HD , STV HD , UTV HD * ITV2
ITV2
HD * ITV3
ITV3
HD * ITV4
ITV4
HD * ITVBe
ITVBe
HD * ITV Encore HD * ITV Box Office

INTERNATIONAL

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ITV Choice

DEFUNCT

* ITV News Channel * ITV Play * ITV Sport Channel * S2 * UTV2 * UTV Ireland

COMPANIES

CURRENT

* ITV plc
ITV plc
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FORMER

* Alpha Television * Associated Television
Associated Television
* Carlton Communications plc * Granada plc * ITV Digital Ltd * Trident Television * UTV Media plc * Yorkshire-Tyne Tees Television

divisions, brands and services

CURRENT

* children's: CITV
CITV
* news: ITV News
ITV News
( ITN
ITN
) * sport: ITV Sport
ITV Sport
* production: ITV Studios
ITV Studios
(Australia) , 12 Yard , Big Talk
Talk
, The Garden, Mammoth Screen , Potato , Shiver , So Television , Talpa Media, Twofour * weather: ITV Weather * online: itv.com , stv.tv * catch up: ITV Hub
ITV Hub
, STV Player
STV Player

DEFUNCT

* ITV Day * ITV Digital * ITV Local * ITV Play * ITV Schools * UTV Player * u.tv

franchises and regions

national franchises

* breakfast: TV-am (1983–1992), GMTV (1993–2010), ITV Breakfast (2010–present) * teletext: ORACLE (1974–1992), Teletext Ltd.
Teletext Ltd.
(1993–present)

regional franchises

* Northern Scotland: Grampian Television
Grampian Television
* Central Scotland: Scottish Television
Scottish Television
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Southern Television
, TVS , Meridian Broadcasting * South West England: Westward Television , TSW , Westcountry Television * Channel Islands: Channel Television

unsuccessful franchise bids

* London Weekday, East Anglia and South and South East England: CPV-TV * North West England: North West Television

non-franchise regions

CURRENT

* ITV Central
ITV Central
* ITV London * ITV Meridian * ITV West Country * ITV Tyne Tees border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

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Ofcom
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ITV2
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CITV
) * Television House * List of ITV regions * United Kingdom Independent Broadcasting * ITV Advertising operations * ITV 50

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* v * t * e

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Cinema of the United Kingdom

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Culture of the United Kingdom

FILMS BY YEAR

* Pre 1920 * 1920 * 1921 * 1922 * 1923 * 1924 * 1925 * 1926 * 1927 * 1928 * 1929 * 1930 * 1931 * 1932 * 1933 * 1934 * 1935 * 1936 * 1937 * 1938 * 1939 * 1940 * 1941 * 1942 * 1943 * 1944 * 1945 * 1946 * 1947 * 1948 * 1949 * 1950 * 1951 * 1952 * 1953 * 1954 * 1955 * 1956 * 1957 * 1958 * 1959 * 1960 * 1961 * 1962 * 1963 * 1964 * 1965 * 1966 * 1967 * 1968 * 1969 * 1970 * 1971 * 1972 * 1973 * 1974 * 1975 * 1976 * 1977 * 1978 * 1979 * 1980 * 1981 * 1982 * 1983 * 1984 * 1985 * 1986 * 1987 * 1988 * 1989 * 1990 * 1991 * 1992 * 1993 * 1994 * 1995 * 1996 * 1997 * 1998 * 1999 * 2000 * 2001 * 2002 * 2003 * 2004 * 2005 * 2006 * 2007 * 2008 * 2009 * 2010 * 2011 * 2012 * 2013 * 2014 * 2015 * 2016

Production companies and studios

ACTIVE

* Aardman Animations * BBC Films * Big Talk Productions * British Lion Films * DNA Films * Double Negative (VFX) * Ealing Studios * Elstree Studios
Elstree Studios
* Eon Productions * Film4 Productions
Film4 Productions
* Framestore * Goldcrest Films * Hammer Film Productions * HandMade Films
HandMade Films
* Heyday Films * The Imaginarium Studios * London Films * Palace Pictures * Passion Pictures * The Pinewood Studios Group ( Pinewood Studios * Shepperton Studios ) * Recorded Picture Company * Scott Free Productions * Syncopy Inc. * S4C
S4C
Films * Thin Man Films * Vertigo Films * Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden * Warp Films * Wimbledon Studios * Working Title Films

FORMER

* Amicus Productions * Associated British Picture Corporation * Astra Films * British Instructional Films * British National Films Company
British National Films Company
* Butcher\'s Film Service * Clarendon Film Company * Bryanston Films * The Danzigers * Denham Film Studios
Denham Film Studios
* Eagle-Lion Films * Eros Films
Eros Films
* G. B. Samuelson Productions * Gainsborough Pictures * General Film Distributors * Halas and Batchelor * Hemdale Film Corporation
Hemdale Film Corporation
* Ideal Film Company * Mancunian Films
Mancunian Films
* MGM-British Studios * Merton Park Studios * Rank Organisation * Southall Studios * Stoll Pictures * Tempean Films * Tigon British Film Productions
Tigon British Film Productions
* Warwick Films * Woolf border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* BAFTA * British Board of Film Classification
British Board of Film Classification
* British Film Institute * BFI National Archive * BFI Southbank * British Society of Cinematographers * Children\'s Film Foundation * Cinema Exhibitors\' Association * National Film and Television School *