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Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is used to promote oral hygiene: it serves as an abrasive that aids in removing dental plaque and food from the teeth, assists in suppressing halitosis, and delivers active ingredients (most commonly fluoride) to help prevent tooth decay (dental caries) and gum disease (gingivitis).[1] Salt and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) are among materials that can be substituted for commercial toothpaste. Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is not intended to be swallowed due to the fluoride content, but is generally not very harmful if accidentally swallowed in small amounts; however, one should seek medical attention after swallowing abnormally large amounts.[2]

Contents

1 Ingredients

1.1 Abrasives 1.2 Fluorides 1.3 Surfactants 1.4 Other components

1.4.1 Antibacterial agents 1.4.2 Flavorants 1.4.3 Remineralizers

1.5 Hydroxyapatite
Hydroxyapatite
nanocrystals and a variety of calcium phosphates are included in formulations for remineralization,[10] i.e. the reformation of enamel.

1.5.1 Miscellaneous components

1.6 Xylitol

2 Safety

2.1 Fluoride 2.2 Diethylene glycol 2.3 Triclosan 2.4 Miscellaneous issues and debates

2.4.1 Alteration of taste perception

2.5 Whitening toothpastes 2.6 Herbal and natural toothpastes

3 Striped toothpaste 4 History

4.1 Early toothpastes 4.2 Tooth powder 4.3 Modern toothpaste

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Ingredients[edit] In addition to 20–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, the three main ones being abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. Abrasives[edit] Abrasives constitute at least 50% of a typical toothpaste. These insoluble particles help remove plaque from the teeth. The removal of plaque and calculus helps minimize cavities and periodontal disease.[citation needed] Representative abrasives include particles of aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), various calcium hydrogen phosphates, various silicas and zeolites, and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH). Abrasives, like the dental polishing agents used in dentists' offices, also cause a small amount of enamel erosion which is termed "polishing" action. Some brands contain powdered white mica, which acts as a mild abrasive, and also adds a cosmetically pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. The polishing of teeth removes stains from tooth surfaces, but has not been shown to improve dental health over and above the effects of the removal of plaque and calculus.[3] The abrasive effect of toothpaste is indicated by its RDA value. Too high RDA values are deleterious. Some dentists recommend toothpaste with an RDA value no higher than 50 for daily use. Fluorides[edit] Fluoride
Fluoride
in various forms is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities. Fluoride
Fluoride
occurs in small amounts in plants, animals, and some natural water sources. The additional fluoride in toothpaste has beneficial effects on the formation of dental enamel and bones. Sodium fluoride
Sodium fluoride
(NaF) is the most common source of fluoride, but stannous fluoride (SnF2), olaflur (an organic salt of fluoride), and sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are also used. Stannous fluoride
Stannous fluoride
has been shown to be more effective than sodium fluoride in reducing the incidence of dental caries[4] and controlling gingivitis, but causes somewhat more surface stains.[5] Much of the toothpaste sold in the United States has 1,000 to 1,100 parts per million fluoride. In European countries, such as the UK or Greece, the fluoride content is often higher; a NaF content of 0.312% w/w (1,450 ppm fluoride) is common. All of these concentrations are likely to prevent tooth decay, according to a 2010 Cochrane review. Concentrations below 1,000 ppm are not likely to be preventive, and the preventive effect increases with concentration. These effects must be balanced with the increased risk of harm at higher concentrations.[6] Surfactants[edit] Many, although not all, toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or related surfactants (detergents). SLS is found in many other personal care products as well, such as shampoo, and is mainly a foaming agent, which enables uniform distribution of toothpaste, improving its cleansing power.[3] Despite the different ingredients included in the toothpaste, recent study (meta analysis) indicates that brushing with or without toothpaste has no impact on the level of plaque removal.[7] Other components[edit] Antibacterial agents[edit] Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, is a common toothpaste ingredient in the United Kingdom. Triclosan
Triclosan
or zinc chloride prevent gingivitis and, according to the American Dental Association, helps reduce tartar and bad breath.[1][8] A 2006 review of clinical research concluded there was evidence for the effectiveness of 0.30% triclosan in reducing plaque and gingivitis.[9] Flavorants[edit] Toothpaste
Toothpaste
comes in a variety of colors and flavors, intended to encourage use of the product. The three most common flavorants are peppermint, spearmint, and wintergreen. Toothpaste
Toothpaste
flavored with peppermint-anise oil is popular in the Mediterranean region. These flavors are provided by the respective oils, e.g. peppermint oil.[3] More exotic flavors include Anethole anise, apricot, bubblegum, cinnamon, fennel, lavender, neem, ginger, vanilla, lemon, orange, and pine. Alternatively, unflavored toothpastes exist. Remineralizers[edit] Hydroxyapatite
Hydroxyapatite
nanocrystals and a variety of calcium phosphates are included in formulations for remineralization,[10] i.e. the reformation of enamel.[edit]

Toothpaste
Toothpaste
is sold in many brands.

Miscellaneous components[edit] Agents are added to suppress the tendency of toothpaste to dry into a powder. Included are various sugar alcohols, such as glycerol, sorbitol, or xylitol, or related derivatives, such as 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethyleneglycol.[11] Strontium chloride
Strontium chloride
or potassium nitrate is included in some toothpastes to reduce sensitivity. Sodium polyphosphate is added to minimize the formation of tartar.[citation needed] Xylitol[edit] Some studies have demonstrated that toothpastes with xylitol as an ingredient are more effective at preventing dental caries in permanent of children teeth than toothpastes containing fluoride alone. Furthermore xylitol has not been found to cause any harmful effects. Further investigation into the efficacy of toothpastes containing this product is however required as the currently available studies are of low quality and therefore the results of such studies must be applied carefully.[12] Safety[edit]

Icelandic postage stamp encouraging use of fluoridated toothpaste.

Fluoride[edit] Although water fluoridation has been praised as one of the top medical achievements of the 20th century,[13] fluoride-containing toothpaste can be acutely toxic if swallowed in large amounts.[14][15] Approximately 15 mg/kg body weight is the acute lethal dose, even though as small amount as 5 mg/kg may be fatal to some children.[16] The risk of using fluoride is low enough that the use of full-strength toothpaste (1350–1500 ppm fluoride) is advised for all ages. However, smaller volumes are used for young children, for example a smear of toothpaste until three years old.[15] A major concern of dental fluorosis is for children under 12 months ingesting excessive fluoride through toothpaste. Nausea and vomiting are also problems which might arise with topical fluoride ingestion.[16] Diethylene glycol[edit] The inclusion of sweet-tasting but toxic diethylene glycol in Chinese-made toothpaste led to a recall in 2007 involving multiple toothpaste brands in several nations.[17] The world outcry made Chinese officials ban the practice of using diethylene glycol in toothpaste.[18] Triclosan[edit] Reports have suggested triclosan, an active ingredient in many kinds of toothpastes, can combine with chlorine in tap water to form chloroform,[19] which the United States Environmental Protection Agency classifies as a probable human carcinogen. An animal study revealed the chemical might modify hormone regulation, and many other lab researches proved bacteria might be able to develop resistance to triclosan in a way which can help them to resist antibiotics also.[20] Miscellaneous issues and debates[edit] With the exception of toothpaste intended to be used on pets such as dogs and cats, and toothpaste used by astronauts, most toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed, and doing so may cause nausea or diarrhea. Tartar fighting toothpastes have been debated.[21] Case reports of plasma cell gingivitis have been reported with the use of herbal toothpaste containing cinnamon.[22] SLS has been proposed to increase the frequency of mouth ulcers in some people, as it can dry out the protective layer of oral tissues, causing the underlying tissues to become damaged.[23] Alteration of taste perception[edit] After using toothpaste, orange juice and other juices have an unpleasant taste. Sodium lauryl sulfate
Sodium lauryl sulfate
alters taste perception. It can break down phospholipids that inhibit taste receptors for sweetness, giving food a bitter taste. In contrast, apples are known to taste more pleasant after using toothpaste.[24] Distinguishing between the hypotheses that the bitter taste of orange juice results from stannous fluoride or from sodium lauryl sulfate is still an unresolved issue and it is thought that the menthol added for flavor may also take part in the alteration of taste perception when binding to lingual cold receptors[citation needed]. Whitening toothpastes[edit] Many toothpastes make whitening claims. Some of these toothpastes contain peroxide, the same ingredient found in tooth bleaching gels. The abrasive in these toothpastes, not the peroxide, removes the stains.[25] Whitening toothpaste cannot alter the natural color of teeth or reverse discoloration by penetrating surface stains or decay. To remove surface stains, whitening toothpaste may include abrasives to gently polish the teeth or additives such as sodium tripolyphosphate to break down or dissolve stains. When used twice a day, whitening toothpaste typically takes two to four weeks to make teeth appear whiter. Whitening toothpaste is generally safe for daily use, but excessive use might damage tooth enamel. Teeth
Teeth
whitening gels represent an alternative.[26] However, the whitening process can permanently reduce the strength of the teeth, as the process scrapes away a protective outer layer of enamel.[27] Herbal and natural toothpastes[edit] Companies such as Tom's of Maine, among others, manufacture natural and herbal toothpastes and market them to consumers who wish to avoid the artificial ingredients commonly found in regular toothpastes. Many herbal toothpastes do not contain fluoride or sodium lauryl sulfate. The ingredients found in natural toothpastes vary widely but often include baking soda, aloe, eucalyptus oil, myrrh, plant extract (strawberry extract), and essential oils. According to a study by the Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, many of the herbal toothpastes being sold in India were adulterated with nicotine.[28] Striped toothpaste[edit]

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The red area represents the material used for stripes, and the rest is the main toothpaste material. The two materials are not in separate compartments; they are sufficiently viscous that they will not mix. Applying pressure to the tube causes the main material to issue out through the pipe. Simultaneously, some of the pressure is forwarded to the stripe-material, which is thereby pressed onto the main material through holes in the pipe.

Striped toothpaste was invented by Leonard Marraffino in 1955. The patent (US patent 2,789,731, issued 1957) was subsequently sold to Unilever, who marketed the novelty under the Stripe brand-name in the early 1960s. This was followed by the introduction of the Signal brand in Europe in 1965 (UK patent 813,514). Although Stripe was initially very successful, it never again achieved the 8% market share that it cornered during its second year. Marraffino's design, which remains in use for single-color stripes, is simple. The main material, usually white, sits at the crimp end of the toothpaste tube and makes up most of its bulk. A thin pipe, through which that carrier material will flow, descends from the nozzle to it. The stripe-material (this was red in Stripe) fills the gap between the carrier material and the top of the tube. The two materials are not in separate compartments, however they are sufficiently viscous that they will not mix. When pressure is applied to the toothpaste tube, the main material squeezes down the thin pipe to the nozzle. Simultaneously, the pressure applied to the main material causes pressure to be forwarded to the stripe material, which thereby issues out through small holes (in the side of the pipe) onto the main carrier material as it is passing those holes. In 1990 Colgate-Palmolive
Colgate-Palmolive
was granted a patent (USPTO 4,969,767) for two differently colored stripes. In this scheme, the inner pipe has a cone-shaped plastic guard around it, and about halfway up its length. Between the guard and the nozzle-end of the tube is a space for the material for one color, which issues out of holes in the pipe. On the other side of the guard is space for second stripe-material, which has its own set of holes. Striped toothpaste should not be confused with layered toothpaste. Layered toothpaste requires a multi-chamber design (e.g. USPTO 5,020,694), in which two or three layers extrude out of the nozzle. This scheme, like that of pump dispensers (USPTO 4,461,403), is more complicated (and thus, more expensive to manufacture) than either the Marraffino design or the Colgate design. History[edit] Early toothpastes[edit] Since 5000 BC, the Egyptians
Egyptians
made a tooth powder, which consisted of powdered ashes of ox hooves, myrrh, powdered and burnt eggshells, and pumice. The Greeks, and then the Romans, improved the recipes by adding abrasives such as crushed bones and oyster shells.[29] During Japan's Edo period, inventor Hiraga Gennai's Hika rakuyo (1769), contained advertisements for Sosekiko, a "toothpaste in a box."[30] In the 9th century, Iraqi musician and fashion designer Ziryab invented a type of toothpaste, which he popularized throughout Islamic Spain.[31] The exact ingredients of this toothpaste are unknown,[32] but it was reported to have been both "functional and pleasant to taste".[31] It is not known whether these early toothpastes were used alone, were to be rubbed onto the teeth with rags, or were to be used with early toothbrushes, such as neem-tree twigs and miswak. Toothpastes or powders came into general use in the 19th century. Tooth powder[edit] Tooth powders for use with toothbrushes came into general use in the 19th century in Britain. Most were homemade, with chalk, pulverized brick, or salt as ingredients. An 1866 Home Encyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal, and cautioned that many patented tooth powders that were commercially marketed did more harm than good. Arm & Hammer marketed a baking soda-based toothpowder in the United States until approximately 2000, and Colgate currently markets toothpowder in India and other countries. Modern toothpaste[edit] An 18th-century American and British toothpaste recipe called for burned bread. Another formula around this time called for dragon's blood (a resin), cinnamon, and burned alum.[33] By 1900, a paste made of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda was recommended for use with toothbrushes. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity of tooth-powder until World War I. In 1880, Doctor Washington Sheffield of New London, CT
New London, CT
manufactured toothpaste into a collapsible tube, Dr. Sheffield's Creme Dentifrice. He had the idea after his son traveled to Paris and saw painters using paint from tubes. In York
York
in 1896, Colgate & Company Dental Cream was packaged in collapsible tubes imitating Sheffield. The original collapsible toothpaste tubes were made of lead.[34][35] Together with Willoughby D. Miller, Newell Sill Jenkins
Newell Sill Jenkins
developed a toothpaste and named it Kolynos, the first toothpaste containing disinfectants.[36] The name's origin is from Greek Kolyo nosos (κωλύω νόσος), meaning "disease prevention". Numerous attempts to produce the toothpaste by pharmacists in Europe have been uneconomic. After returning to the US, he continued experimenting with Harry Ward Foote (1875-1942), professor of chemistry at Sheffield Chemical Laboratory of Yale University.[37] After 17 years of development of Kolynos and clinical trials Jenkins retired and transferred the production and distribution to his son Leonard A. Jenkins, who brought the first toothpaste tubes on the market on April 13, 1908. Within a few years the company expanded in North America, Latin America, Europe and the Far East. A branch operation opened in London in 1909. In 1937 Kolynos was produced in 22 countries and sold in 88 countries. Kolynos has been sold mainly in South America and in Hungary. Colgate-Palmolive
Colgate-Palmolive
took over the production of American Home Products in 1995 at a cost of one billion US dollars.[38] Fluoride
Fluoride
was first added to toothpastes in the 1890s. Tanagra, containing calcium fluoride as the active ingredient, was sold by Karl F. Toellner Company, of Bremen, Germany, based upon the early work of chemist Albert Deninger.[39] An analogous invention by Roy Cross, of Kansas City, Missouri, was initially criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1937. Fluoride
Fluoride
toothpastes developed in the 1950s received the ADA's approval. To develop the first ADA-approved fluoride toothpaste, Procter & Gamble started a research program in the early 1940s. In 1950, Procter & Gamble developed a joint research project team headed by Dr. Joseph Muhler at Indiana University to study new toothpaste with fluoride. In 1955, Procter & Gamble's Crest launched its first clinically proven fluoride-containing toothpaste. On August 1, 1960, the ADA reported that "Crest has been shown to be an effective anticavity (decay preventative) dentifrice that can be of significant value when used in a conscientiously applied program of oral hygiene and regular professional care." In 2006 BioRepair appeared in Europe with the first toothpaste containing synthetic hydroxylapatite as an alternative to fluoride for the remineralization and reparation of tooth enamel. The "biomimetic hydroxylapatite" is intended to protect the teeth by creating a new layer of synthetic enamel around the tooth instead of hardening the existing layer with fluoride that chemically changes it into fluorapatite.[40]

Modern toothpaste gel

Promotional poster for the Kolynos toothpaste from the 1940s

Colgate Dental Cream (Toothpaste) With Gardol, c. 1950s

See also[edit]

Dentistry portal

Dental floss Fluoride
Fluoride
therapy List of toothpaste brands Tube (container)

References[edit]

^ a b American Dental Association
American Dental Association
Description of Toothpaste"Toothpaste". April 15, 2010.  ^ " Toothpaste
Toothpaste
overdose". National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 7 February 2014.  ^ a b c Wolfgang Weinert in "Oral Hygiene Products" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheimdoi:10.1002/14356007.a18_209 ^ Nevitt GA, Witter DH, Bowman WD (September 1958). "Topical applications of sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride". Public Health Rep. 73 (9): 847–50. doi:10.2307/4590256. JSTOR 4590256. PMC 1951625 . PMID 13579125.  ^ Perlich, MA; Bacca, LA; Bollmer, BW; Lanzalaco, AC; McClanahan, SF; Sewak, LK; Beiswanger, BB; Eichold, WA; et al. (1995). "The clinical effect of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on plaque formation, gingivitis and gingival bleeding: a six-month study". The Journal of Clinical Dentistry. 6 ( Special
Special
Issue): 54–58. PMID 8593194.  ^ Walsh, Tanya; Worthington, Helen V; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Appelbe, Priscilla; Marinho, Valeria CC; Shi, Xin (2010-01-20). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd007868.pub2.  ^ Valkenburg, Cees; Slot, Dagmar E.; Bakker, Eric W.P.; Van der Weijden, Fridus A. (2016-12-01). "Does dentifrice use help to remove plaque? A systematic review". Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 43 (12): 1050–1058. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12615. ISSN 1600-051X.  ^ "Triclosan: What Consumers Should Know". April 17, 2010.  ^ Gunsolley, JC (December 2006). "A meta-analysis of six-month studies of antiplaque and antigingivitis agents". J Am Dent Assoc. 137 (12): 1649–57. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0110. PMID 17138709. Seventeen studies support the antiplaque, antigingivitis effects of dentifrices containing 0.30 percent triclosan, 2.0 percent Gantrez copolymer.  ^ Calcium Phosphate Technologies from. dentist.net. Retrieved on April 4, 2013. ^ Simon Quellen Field "Why There's Antifreeze in Your Toothpaste: The Chemistry of Household Ingredients" 2008, Chicago Review Press. ISBN 1-55652-697-0 ^ Riley, Philip; Moore, Deborah; Ahmed, Farooq; Sharif, Mohammad O.; Worthington, Helen V. (2015-03-26). "Xylitol-containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD010743. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010743.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25809586.  ^ Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. Achievements in public health, 1900–1999: Fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48(41):933–40. ^ Canedy, Dana (March 24, 1998). " Toothpaste
Toothpaste
a Hazard? Just Ask the F.D.A". New York
York
Times. Retrieved December 21, 2008.  ^ a b Delivering Better Oral Health: An evidence-based toolkit for prevention. NHS. UK, 2007. ^ a b Kidd, Fejerskov, Edwina, Ole (2016). Essentials of Dental Caries. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780198738268.  ^ "Tainted toothpaste across the world", New York
York
Times, September 30, 2007. ^ Bogdanich, W. "The Everyman Who Exposed Tainted Toothpaste", New York
York
Times, October 1, 2007. ^ Rule KL, Ebbett VR, Vikesland PJ (2005). "Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan". Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (9): 3176–85. doi:10.1021/es048943. PMID 15926568.  ^ Mukherjee, Ketan (2010-09-04). "FDA Reviewing Triclosan, an Antibacterial Agent Found in Soap". Retrieved 2010-10-27.  ^ "Tartar Fighting Toothpastes & Toxic Reactions". toxictoothpaste.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23.  ^ Anil S. (2007). " Plasma cell gingivitis
Plasma cell gingivitis
among herbal toothpaste users: a report of three cases" (PDF). J Contemp Dent Pract. 8 (4): 60–6. PMID 17486188. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-06.  ^ Canker Sores Archived February 8, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. Dentalgentlecare.com. Retrieved on April 4, 2013. ^ DeSimone A., John; Heck, Gerard L.; Bartoshuk, Linda M. (1980). "Surface active taste modifiers: a comparison of the physical and psychophysical properties of gymnemic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate". Chemical Senses. 5 (4): 317–330. doi:10.1093/chemse/5.4.317.  ^ Tooth Whitening ^ Carr, Alan et al. Whitening toothpaste: Does it actually whiten teeth? mayoclinic.com ^ "Are yellow teeth stronger?". sciencefocus.com.  ^ Chandra, Neetu (September 11, 2011). "Toothpastes contain cancer causing nicotine, finds study". Mail Today. indiatoday.in. Retrieved 22 August 2014.  ^ The History of Toothpaste
Toothpaste
and Toothbrushes. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on April 4, 2013. ^ Toby., Slade, (2009). Japanese fashion : a cultural history (English ed ed.). Oxford: Berg. ISBN 0857851454. OCLC 719377495. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ a b Sertima, Ivan Van (1992). The Golden Age of the Moor. Transaction Publishers. p. 267. ISBN 1-56000-581-5.  ^ Lebling Jr., Robert W. (July–August 2003). "Flight of the Blackbird". Saudi Aramco World: 24–33. Retrieved January 28, 2008.  ^ "Other ingredients in toothpaste". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Schlosser, Jim (December 20, 2005) "Get the lead out didn't always mean for soldiers to speed up during World War II. It meant removing lead from toothpaste tubes to make bullets." blog.news-record.com ^ The Talk
Talk
of the Town: Collapsible. The New Yorker (August 6, 1960). Retrieved on April 4, 2013. ^ Kerry Segrave (January 27, 2010). America Brushes Up: The Use and Marketing of Toothpaste
Toothpaste
and Toothbrushes in the Twentieth Century. McFarland. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7864-5684-0.  ^ Obituary on Harry Ward Foote, Science, March 6, 1942, pp. 241–242 ^ Kolynos Toothpaste
Toothpaste
and Nalgiri Cosmetics – A curious blend of Greek and Hindu. ^ Early dental fluoride preparations (dentifrice, mouthwash, tablets, etc.). Fluoride-history.de. Retrieved on April 4, 2013. ^ An enamel toothpaste that repairs teeth. BioRepair (January 18, 2013). Retrieved on April 4, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

Hartman, Mitchell (March 16, 2018). "I've always wondered: how mint flavoring became associated with clean teeth". I've Always Wondered (story series). Marketplace. American Public Media. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  On the history of toothpaste. Duhigg, Charles (2012). "Chapter 2: The Craving Brain: How to Create New Habits: Part I". The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1400069286. OCLC 731918383.  On the history of the marketing of toothpaste.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toothpaste.

Chemistry of Plaque Prevention with Toothpaste Fluoride
Fluoride
toothpaste history

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