PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
FIRST MINISTRY AND TERM
* HK Handover
* Military intervention in
* Fuel protests
* Foot-and-mouth outbreak
* Dissolution Honours (2001)
SECOND MINISTRY AND TERM
* 2001 re-election
* War in Afghanistan
* Africa Commission
* Dissolution Honours (2005)
* Impeachment campaign (2004)
* IRAQ INVASION
Downing Street memo
* Bush Memo
* February Dossier
* Ultimatum to Iraq
THIRD MINISTRY AND TERM
* 2005 re-election
* Cabinet reshuffle
* "Cash for Honours" scandal
* Timeline for leadership succession
Quartet on the Middle East
* Sports Foundation
* Faith Foundation
A Journey _
ANTHONY CHARLES LYNTON BLAIR (born 6 May 1953) is a British
politician who served as
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from
1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. He is
the most recent British Labour Party leader to have won a general
From 1983 to 2007, Blair was the Member of Parliament (MP) for
Sedgefield . He was elected Labour Party leader in July 1994 ,
following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith , who
together with his predecessor,
Neil Kinnock , had started to move the
party closer to the political centre, in the hope of winning power.
Under Blair's leadership, the party used the phrase "
New Labour ", to
distance it from previous Labour policies and the traditional
conception of socialism . Blair declared support for a new conception
that he referred to as "social-ism", involving politics that
recognised individuals as socially interdependent, and advocated
social justice, cohesion, the equal worth of each citizen, and equal
opportunity, also referred to as the
Third Way . Critics of Blair
denounced him for bringing the Labour Party towards the perceived
centre ground of British politics, abandoning 'genuine' socialism and
being too amenable to capitalism . Supporters, including the party's
public opinion pollster Philip Gould , stated that (after four
consecutive general election defeats) the Labour Party had to
demonstrate that it had made a decisive break from its left-wing past,
in order to win an election again.
In May 1997 , the Labour Party won a landslide general election
victory, the largest in its history, allowing Blair, at 43 years of
age, to become the youngest Prime Minister since 1812. In September
1997, Blair attained early personal popularity, receiving a 93% public
approval rating, after his public response to the death of Diana,
Princess of Wales . The Labour Party went on to win two more
general elections under his leadership: in 2001 , in which it won
another landslide victory, and in 2005 , with a greatly reduced
majority. During the first ministry of Blair\'s Labour government ,
his government oversaw a large increase in public spending and
National Minimum Wage Act ,
Human Rights Act , and
Freedom of Information Act . His government also held referenda in
which the Scottish and Welsh electorates voted in favour of devolved
administration . In
Northern Ireland , Blair was involved in the 1998
Good Friday Agreement .
Blair supported the foreign policy of the George W. Bush
administration , and ensured that the British Armed Forces
participated in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and, more
2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq . Blair has faced criticism
for his role in the invasion of Iraq, including calls for having him
tried for war crimes and waging a war of aggression . In 2016, the
Iraq Inquiry criticised his actions and described the invasion of Iraq
as unjustified and unnecessary. Blair also intervened militarily in
Sierra Leone .
Blair was succeeded as Leader of the Labour Party and as Prime
Gordon Brown in June 2007. On the day that Blair resigned
as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official
Special Envoy of the
Quartet on the Middle East , an office which he held until May 2015.
He now runs a consultancy business and has set up various foundations
in his own name, including the
Tony Blair Faith Foundation .
* 1 Earliest years
* 2 Education
* 3 Early political career
* 3.1 Leadership roles
* 3.2 Opposition Leader
* 4 Prime Minister
* 4.2 Military intervention and the
War on Terror
* 4.3 Relationship with Parliament
* 4.4 Events before resignation
* 5 Policies
* 5.1 Social reforms
* 5.2 Economic policies
* 5.3 Environmental record
* 5.4 Foreign policy
* 5.4.1 Middle East policy
* 5.4.2 Syria and Libya
* 5.4.3 Zimbabwe
* 6 Relationship with media
* 6.2 Contacts with UK media proprietors
* 6.3 Media portrayal
* 7 Relationship with Labour Party
* 8 Post-premiership (since 2007)
* 8.2 Private sector
Tony Blair Associates
* 8.4 Charity
* 8.5 Non-profits
* 8.6 Memoirs
* 8.7 Accusations of war crimes
* 8.8 Response to the
* 9 Personal life
* 9.1 Family
* 9.2 Wealth
* 9.3 Religious faith
* 9.4 Extramarital affair allegations
* 10 Portrayals and cameo appearances
* 10.1 Appearances
* 10.2 Portrayals
* 10.3 Blair in fiction and satire
* 11 Titles and honours
* 11.1 Styles since the 1983 election
* 11.2 Appointments
* 11.3 Honours
* 12 Works
* 13 See also
* 14 Notes
* 15 Further reading
* 16 External links
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair was born in
Scotland , on 6
May 1953. He was the second son of Leo and Hazel (née Corscadden)
Blair. Leo Blair was the illegitimate son of two entertainers and was
adopted as a baby by
Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife,
Mary. Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a
butcher and Orangeman who moved to
Glasgow in 1916. In 1923, he
returned to (and later died in) Ballyshannon, County Donegal . In
Ballyshannon, Corscadden's wife, Sarah Margaret (née Lipsett), gave
birth above the family's grocery shop to Blair's mother, Hazel.
Blair has an older brother, Sir William Blair , a
High Court judge,
and a younger sister, Sarah. Blair's first home was with his family at
Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this
period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst also
studying for a law degree from the University of
Blair's first relocation was when he was nineteen months old. At the
end of 1954, Blair's parents and their two sons moved from Paisley
South Australia . His father lectured in law at
the University of
Adelaide . It was when in Australia that Blair's
sister Sarah was born. The Blairs lived in the suburb of Dulwich close
to the university. The family returned to the
United Kingdom in the
summer of 1958. They lived for a time with Hazel's mother and
stepfather (William McClay) at their home in
Stepps on the outskirts
of north-east Glasgow. Blair's father accepted a job as a lecturer at
Durham University , and thus moved the family to
Durham, England .
Aged five, this marked the beginning of a long association Blair was
to have with Durham.
With his parents basing their family in Durham, Blair attended
Chorister School from 1961 to 1966. Aged thirteen, he was sent to
spend his school term time boarding at
Fettes College in Edinburgh
from 1966 to 1971. Blair is reported to have hated his time at
Fettes. His teachers were unimpressed with him; his biographer, John
Rentoul , reported that "All the teachers I spoke to when researching
the book said he was a complete pain in the backside and they were
very glad to see the back of him." Blair reportedly modelled himself
Mick Jagger , lead singer of
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones . During his time
there he met Charlie Falconer (a pupil at the rival
), whom he later appointed
Lord Chancellor .
Fettes College at the age of eighteen, Blair next spent a
London attempting to find fame as a rock music promoter. Then
in 1972, at the age of nineteen; he enrolled for university at St
John\'s College, Oxford , reading
Jurisprudence for three years. As a
student, he played guitar and sang in a rock band called Ugly Rumours
, and performed some stand-up comedy , including parodying James T.
Kirk as a character named _Captain Kink _.
He was influenced by fellow student and Anglican priest Peter Thomson
, who awakened his religious faith and left-wing politics. While Blair
was at Oxford , his mother Hazel died of cancer, which greatly
affected him. He graduated from Oxford at the age of 22 in 1975 with a
second-class Honours B.A. in Jurisprudence. Blair then became a member
of Lincoln\'s Inn and enrolled as a pupil barrister. He met his future
wife, Cherie Booth (daughter of the actor Tony Booth ) at the law
chambers founded by Derry Irvine (who was to be Blair's first Lord
Chancellor), 11 King's Bench Walk Chambers.
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
Blair joined the Labour Party shortly after graduating from Oxford in
1975. In the early 1980s, he was involved in Labour politics in
Hackney South and Shoreditch , where he aligned himself with the "soft
left " of the party. He put himself forward as a candidate for the
Hackney council elections of 1982 in Queensbridge ward, a safe Labour
area, but was not selected.
In 1982, Blair was selected as the Labour Party candidate for the
safe Conservative seat of
Beaconsfield , where there was a forthcoming
by-election. Although Blair lost the
Beaconsfield by-election and
Labour's share of the vote fell by 10 percentage points, he acquired a
profile within the party. In contrast to his later centrism , Blair
made it clear in a letter he wrote to Labour leader
Michael Foot in
July 1982 (published in 2006) that he had "come to
Marxism" and considered himself on the left. Like
Tony Benn , Blair
believed that "Labour right" was bankrupt: "
Socialism ultimately must
appeal to the better minds of the people. You cannot do that if you
are tainted overmuch with a pragmatic period in power." Yet, he saw
the hard left as no better, saying: There is an arrogance and
self-righteousness about many of the groups on the far left which is
deeply unattractive to the ordinary would-be member ... There's too
much mixing only with people whom they agree.
With a general election due, Blair had not been selected as a
candidate anywhere. He was invited to stand again in
and was initially inclined to agree but was advised by his head of
chambers Derry Irvine to find somewhere else which might be winnable.
The situation was complicated by the fact that Labour was fighting a
legal action against planned boundary changes, and had selected
candidates on the basis of previous boundaries. When the legal
challenge failed, the party had to rerun all selections on the new
boundaries; most were based on existing seats, but unusually in County
Durham a new
Sedgefield constituency had been created out of
Labour-voting areas which had no obvious predecessor seat.
The selection for
Sedgefield did not begin until after the 1983
general election was called. Blair's initial inquiries discovered that
the left was trying to arrange the selection for
Les Huckfield ,
sitting MP for Nuneaton who was trying elsewhere; several sitting MPs
displaced by boundary changes were also interested in it. When he
discovered the Trimdon branch had not yet made a nomination, Blair
visited them and won the support of the branch secretary John Burton ,
and with Burton's help was nominated by the branch. At the last
minute, he was added to the shortlist and won the selection over
Huckfield. It was the last candidate selection made by Labour before
the election, and was made after the Labour Party had issued
biographies of all its candidates ("Labour's Election Who's Who").
John Burton became Blair's election agent and one of his most trusted
and longest-standing allies. Blair's election literature in the 1983
UK general election endorsed left-wing policies that Labour advocated
in the early 1980s. He called for Britain to leave the EEC as early
as the 1970s, though he had told his selection conference that he
personally favoured continuing membership and voted "Yes" in the 1975
referendum on the subject . He opposed the Exchange Rate Mechanism
(ERM) in 1986 but supported the ERM by 1989. He was a member of the
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament , despite never strongly being in
favour of unilateral nuclear disarmament . Blair was helped on the
campaign trail by soap opera actress
Pat Phoenix , his father-in-law's
girlfriend. At the age of thirty, he was elected as MP for Sedgefield
in 1983; despite the party's landslide defeat at the general election.
In his maiden speech in the House of Commons on 6 July 1983, Blair
stated, "I am a socialist not through reading a textbook that has
caught my intellectual fancy, nor through unthinking tradition, but
because I believe that, at its best, socialism corresponds most
closely to an existence that is both rational and moral. It stands for
cooperation, not confrontation; for fellowship, not fear. It stands
Once elected, Blair's political ascent was rapid. He received his
first front-bench appointment in 1984 as assistant Treasury spokesman.
In May 1985, he appeared on BBC's Question Time , arguing that the
Conservative Government's Public Order White Paper was a threat to
Blair demanded an inquiry into the
Bank of England
Bank of England 's decision to
rescue the collapsed
Johnson Matthey Bank in October 1985. By this
time, Blair was aligned with the reforming tendencies in the party
(headed by leader
Neil Kinnock ) and was promoted after the 1987
election to the Shadow Trade and Industry team as spokesman on the
In 1987, he stood for election to the
Shadow Cabinet , receiving 71
votes. When Kinnock resigned after a fourth consecutive Conservative
victory in the 1992 general election , Blair became Shadow Home
Secretary under John Smith . The old guard argued that trends showed
they were regaining strength under Smith's strong leadership.
Meanwhile, the breakaway SDP faction had merged with the Liberal Party
; the resulting Liberal Democrats seemed to pose a major threat to the
Labour base. Blair, the leader of the modernising faction, had an
entirely different vision, arguing that the long-term trends had to be
reversed. The Labour Party was too locked into a base that was
shrinking, since it was based on the working-class, on trade unions,
and on residents of subsidised council housing. The rapidly growing
middle-class was largely ignored, especially the more ambitious
working-class families. They aspired to middle-class status, but
accepted the Conservative argument that Labour was holding ambitious
people back with its levelling-down policies. They increasingly saw
Labour in terms defined by the opposition, regarding higher taxes and
higher interest rates. In order to present a fresh face and new
policies to the elect,
New Labour needed more than fresh leaders; it
had to jettison outdated policies. The first step was procedural, but
essential. Calling on the slogan, "
One member, one vote " Blair (with
some help from Smith) defeated the union element and ended the block
voting by which leaders of labour unions cast hundreds of thousands of
votes on behalf of their members, and had an outsize voice in the
party. Blair and the modernizers called for radical adjustment of
Party goals by repealing "Clause IV," the historic commitment to
nationalisation of industry. That was achieved in 1995.
Shadow Cabinet of
John Smith died suddenly in 1994 of a heart attack. Blair defeated
John Prescott and
Margaret Beckett in the subsequent leadership
election and became Leader of the Opposition . As is customary for
the holder of that office, Blair was appointed a Privy Councillor .
Labour was seen by _
The Guardian _ to be "definitely socialistic"
since its first constitution was published in 1918, saying that
support for the "common ownership of the means of production and
Clause IV of the party\'s constitution , was "decisive"
in making Labour a socialist party. Blair announced at the end of his
speech at the 1994 Labour Party conference that he intended to replace
this clause of the party's constitution with a new statement of aims
and values. This involved the deletion of the party's stated
commitment to "the common ownership of the means of production and
exchange", which was widely interpreted as referring to wholesale
nationalisation . At a special conference in April 1995, the clause
was replaced by a statement that the party is "democratic socialist ",
and Blair also claimed to be a "democratic socialist" himself in
the same year. However, the move away from nationalisation in the old
Clause IV made many on the left wing of the Labour Party feel that
Labour was moving away from traditional socialist principles of
nationalisation set out in 1918, and was seen by them as part of a
shift of the party towards "
New Labour ".
He inherited the Labour leadership at a time when the party was
ascendant over the Conservatives in the opinion polls, since the
Conservative government's reputation for monetary excellence record
was left in tatters by the
Black Wednesday economic disaster of
September 1992. Blair's election as leader saw Labour support surge
higher still in spite of the continuing economic recovery and fall in
unemployment that the Conservative government (led by
John Major ) had
overseen since the end of the 1990–92 recession . At the 1996
Labour Party conference, Blair stated that his three top priorities on
coming to office were "education, education, and education".
Aided by the unpopularity of
John Major 's Conservative government
(itself deeply divided over the
European Union ), "
New Labour " won a
landslide victory at the 1997 general election , ending eighteen years
of Conservative Party rule, with the heaviest Conservative defeat
since 1906 .
According to diaries released by
Paddy Ashdown , during Smith's
leadership of the Labour Party, there were discussions with Ashdown
about forming a coalition government if the next general election
resulted in a hung parliament . Ashdown also claimed that Blair was a
supporter of proportional representation (PR). In addition to
Ashdown, Liberal Democrat MPs
Menzies Campbell and
Alan Beith were
earmarked for places in the cabinet if a Labour-Lib Dem coalition was
formed. Blair was forced to back down on these proposals because John
Gordon Brown opposed the Proportional Representation
system, and many members of the
Shadow Cabinet were worried about
concessions being made towards the Lib Dems. However, after Blair
became leader, these talks continued – despite virtually every
opinion poll since late-1992 having shown Labour with enough support
to form a majority. However, the scale of the Labour victory meant
that there was ultimately never any need for a coalition to be formed.
Premiership of Tony Blair Further information: Blair
ministry Blair with US President
Bill Clinton , November 1999
Blair became the
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 2 May 1997 ,
serving concurrently as
First Lord of the Treasury , Minister for the
Civil Service and Leader of the Labour Party. Aged 43, Blair became
the youngest person to become Prime Minister since Lord Liverpool
became Prime Minister aged 42 in 1812. With victories in 1997, 2001 ,
and 2005 , Blair was the Labour Party's longest-serving Prime
Minister, and the first and only person to date to lead the party to
three consecutive general election victories.
Blair addressing a crowd in
Armagh in 1998
His contribution towards assisting the
Northern Ireland peace process
by helping to negotiate the
Good Friday Agreement (after 30 years of
conflict) was widely recognised. Following the
Omagh bombing on 15
August 1998, by members of the
Real IRA opposed to the peace process,
which killed 29 people and wounded hundreds, Blair visited the County
Tyrone town and met with victims at
Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast .
MILITARY INTERVENTION AND THE WAR ON TERROR
In his first six years in office, Blair ordered British troops into
combat five times, more than any other prime minister in British
history. This included Iraq in both 1998 and 2003 ,
Sierra Leone (2000) and Afghanistan (2001).
Kosovo War , which Blair had advocated on moral grounds, was
initially a failure when it relied solely on air strikes; the threat
of a ground offensive convinced Serbia's
Slobodan Milošević to
withdraw. Blair had been a major advocate for a ground offensive,
Bill Clinton was reluctant to do, and ordered that 50,000
soldiers – most of the available British Army – should be made
ready for action. The following year, the limited Operation Palliser
Sierra Leone swiftly swung the tide against the rebel forces;
before deployment, the
United Nations Mission in
Sierra Leone had been
on the verge of collapse. Palliser had been intended as an evacuation
mission but Brigadier David Richards was able to convince Blair to
allow him to expand the role; at the time, Richards' action was not
known and Blair was assumed to be behind it.
Operation Barras , a highly successful SAS /Parachute
Regiment strike to rescue hostages from a
Sierra Leone rebel group.
Andrew Marr has argued that the success of ground attacks,
real and threatened, over air strikes alone was influential on how
Blair planned the Iraq War, and that the success of the first three
wars Blair fought "played to his sense of himself as a moral war
leader". When asked in 2010 if the success of Palliser may have
"embolden British politicians" to think of military action as a policy
option, General Sir David Richards admitted there "might be something
Tony Blair and
George W. Bush shake hands after their
press conference in the East Room of the White House on 12 November
From the start of the
War on Terror in 2001, Blair strongly supported
the foreign policy of
George W. Bush , participating in the 2001
invasion of Afghanistan and
2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq . The invasion of
Iraq was particularly controversial, as it attracted widespread public
opposition and 139 of Blair's own MPs opposed it.
As a result, he faced criticism over the policy itself and the
circumstances of the decision.
Alastair Campbell described Blair's
statement that the intelligence on WMDs was "beyond doubt" as his
"assessment of the assessment that was given to him." In 2009, Blair
stated that he would have supported removing
Saddam Hussein from power
even in the face of proof that he had no such weapons. Playwright
Harold Pinter and former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
accused Blair of war crimes.
Testifying before the
Iraq Inquiry on 29 January 2010, Blair said
Saddam was a "monster and I believe he threatened not just the region
but the world." Blair said that British and American attitude towards
Saddam Hussein had "changed dramatically" after the 11 September
attacks . Blair denied that he would have supported the invasion of
Iraq even if he had thought Saddam had no weapons of mass destruction.
He said he believed the world was safer as a result of the invasion.
He said there was "no real difference between wanting regime change
and wanting Iraq to disarm: regime change was US policy because Iraq
was in breach of its UN obligations." In an October 2015 CNN
Fareed Zakaria , Blair apologised for his "mistakes"
Iraq War and admitted there were "elements of truth" to the view
that the invasion helped promote the rise of ISIS . The Chilcot
Inquiry report of 2016 gave a damning assessment of Blair's role in
the Iraq War, though the former prime minister again refused to
apologise for his decision to back the US-led invasion.
RELATIONSHIP WITH PARLIAMENT
One of his first acts as Prime Minister, was to replace the then
twice-weekly 15-minute sessions of Prime Minister\'s Questions held on
Tuesdays and Thursdays with a single 30-minute session on Wednesdays.
In addition to PMQs, Blair held monthly press conferences at which he
fielded questions from journalists and – from 2002 – broke
precedent by agreeing to give evidence twice yearly before the most
senior Commons select committee, the
Liaison Committee . Blair was
sometimes perceived as paying insufficient attention both to the views
of his own Cabinet colleagues and to those of the House of Commons .
His style was sometimes criticised as not that of a prime minister and
head of government , which he was, but of a president and head of
state – which he was not. Blair was accused of excessive reliance
on spin . He is the first UK prime minister to have been formally
questioned by police, though not under caution, while still in office.
EVENTS BEFORE RESIGNATION
For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline for the
Labour Party (UK)
Labour Party (UK) leadership elections, 2007 .
As the casualties of the
Iraq War mounted, Blair was accused of
misleading Parliament, and his popularity dropped dramatically.
Labour's overall majority at the 2005 general election was reduced to
from 167 to 66 seats. As a combined result of the
Blair–Brown pact ,
Iraq war and low approval ratings, pressure built up within the Labour
Party for Blair to resign. Over the summer of 2006 many MPs,
including usually supportive MPs, criticised Blair for his failure to
call for a ceasefire in the
2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict . On 7
September 2006, Blair publicly stated he would step down as party
leader by the time of the
Trades Union Congress (TUC) conference held
10–13 September 2007, having promised to serve a full term during
the previous general election campaign. On 10 May 2007, during a
speech at the Trimdon Labour Club, Blair announced his intention to
resign as both Labour Party leader and Prime Minister.
At a special party conference in
Manchester on 24 June 2007, he
formally handed over the leadership of the Labour Party to Gordon
Brown , who had been
Chancellor of the Exchequer under Blair's three
ministries. Blair tendered his resignation on 27 June 2007 and Brown
assumed office during the same afternoon. Blair resigned from his
Sedgefield seat in the House of Commons in the traditional form of
Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds , to which he was
Gordon Brown in one of the latter's last acts as
Chancellor of the Exchequer . The resulting
was won by Labour's candidate, Phil Wilson . Blair decided not to
issue a list of
Resignation Honours , making him the first Prime
Minister of the modern era not to do so.
In 2001, Blair said, "We are a left of centre party, pursuing
economic prosperity and social justice as partners and not as
Blair rarely applies such labels to himself, but he promised before
the 1997 election that
New Labour would govern "from the radical
centre", and according to one lifelong Labour Party member, has always
described himself as a social democrat . However, at least one
left-wing commentator has said that Blair is to the right of centre .
YouGov opinion poll in 2005 found that a small majority of British
voters, including many
New Labour supporters, place Blair on the right
of the political spectrum. The _
Financial Times _ on the other hand
has argued that Blair is not conservative, but instead a populist.
Critics and admirers tend to agree that Blair's electoral success was
based on his ability to occupy the centre ground and appeal to voters
across the political spectrum, to the extent that he has been
fundamentally at odds with traditional Labour Party values. Some
left-wing critics, such as
Mike Marqusee in 2001, argued that Blair
oversaw the final stage of a long term shift of the Labour Party to
There is some evidence that Blair's long term dominance of the centre
forced his Conservative opponents to shift a long distance to the left
to challenge his hegemony there. Leading Conservatives of the
New Labour era hold Blair in high regard: George Osborne
describes him as "the master",
Michael Gove thought he had an
"entitlement to conservative respect" in February 2003, while David
Cameron reportedly maintained Blair as an informal adviser.
Blair increased police powers by adding to the number of arrestable
offences, compulsory DNA recording and the use of dispersal orders.
Under Blair's government the amount of new legislation increased
which attracted criticism. He also introduced tough anti-terrorism
and identity card legislation .
During his time as prime minister, Blair raised taxes; introduced a
National Minimum Wage and some new employment rights (while keeping
Margaret Thatcher 's trade union reforms ); introduced significant
constitutional reforms; promoted new rights for gay people in the
Civil Partnership Act 2004 ; and signed treaties integrating Britain
more closely with the EU. He introduced substantial market-based
reforms in the education and health sectors; introduced student
tuition fees and sought to reduce certain categories of welfare
payments. He did not reverse the privatisation of the railways enacted
by his predecessor
John Major and instead strengthened regulation (by
Office of Rail Regulation ) and limited fare rises to
inflation +1%. NHS Spending 1948/49-2014/15
Blair and Brown raised spending on the NHS and other public services,
increasing spending from 39.9% of GDP to 48.1% in 2010−11. They
pledged in 2001 to bring NHS spending to the levels of other European
countries, and doubled spending in real terms to over £100 billion in
Blair criticised other governments for not doing enough to solve
global climate change . In a 1997 visit to the United States, he made
a comment on "great industrialised nations" that fail to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions. Again in 2003, Blair went before the United
States Congress and said that climate change "cannot be ignored",
insisting "we need to go beyond even Kyoto ." Blair and his party
promised a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide. The Labour Party also
claimed that by 2010 10% of the energy would come from renewable
resources; however, it only reached 7% by that point.
In 2000, Blair "flagged up" 100 million euros for green policies and
urged environmentalists and businesses to work together.
Jacques Chirac ,
George W. Bush ,
Tony Blair and Silvio
Berlusconi during the G8 Summit in Évian , June 2003
Blair built his foreign policy on basic principles (close ties with
US and EU) and added a new activist philosophy of "interventionism".
In 2001 Britain joined the US in the global war on terror.
Blair forged friendships with several European leaders, including
Silvio Berlusconi of Italy,
Angela Merkel of Germany and later
Nicolas Sarkozy of France. Blair meets with US Secretary of
Condoleezza Rice , March 2005
Along with enjoying a close relationship with
Bill Clinton , Blair
formed a strong political alliance with
George W. Bush , particularly
in the area of foreign policy. For his part, Bush lauded Blair and the
UK. In his post-9/11 speech, for example, he stated that "America has
no truer friend than Great Britain".
The alliance between Bush and Blair seriously damaged Blair's
standing in the eyes of Britons angry at American influence. Blair
argued it was in Britain's interest to "protect and strengthen the
bond" with the
United States regardless of who is in the White House.
However, a perception of one-sided compromising personal and
political closeness led to discussion of the term "Poodle-ism" in the
UK media, to describe the "
Special Relationship " of the UK government
and Prime Minister with the US White House and President. A revealing
conversation between Bush and Blair, with the former addressing the
latter as "Yo , Blair " was recorded when they did not know a
microphone was live at the G8 summit in
Saint Petersburg in 2006.
Middle East Policy
Blair showed a deep feeling for
Israel , born in part from his faith.
Blair has been a longtime member of the pro-
Israel lobby group Labour
In 1994, Blair forged close ties with Michael Levy , a leader of the
Jewish Leadership Council . Levy ran the Labour Leader's Office Fund
to finance Blair's campaign before the 1997 election and raised £12
million towards Labour's landslide victory, Levy was rewarded with a
peerage , and in 2002, Blair appointed Lord Levy as his personal envoy
to the Middle East. Levy praised Blair for his "solid and committed
support of the State of Israel".
Tam Dalyell , while Father of the
House of Commons, suggested in 2003 that Blair's foreign policy
decisions were unduly influenced by a "cabal" of Jewish advisers,
Peter Mandelson and
Jack Straw (the last two are not
Jewish but have some Jewish ancestry).
Blair, on coming to office, had been "cool towards the right-wing
Netanyahu government". During his first visit to Israel, Blair
thought the Israelis bugged him in his car. After the election in
Ehud Barak , with whom Blair forged a close relationship, he
became much more sympathetic to Israel. From 2001, Blair built up a
relationship with Barak's successor,
Ariel Sharon , and responded
positively to Arafat , whom he had met thirteen times since becoming
prime minister and regarded as essential to future negotiations. In
2004, 50 former diplomats, including ambassadors to
Baghdad and Tel
Aviv , stated they had "watched with deepening concern" at Britain
following the US into war in Iraq in 2003. They criticised Blair's
support for the road map for peace which included the retaining of
Israeli settlements on the
West Bank .
In 2006 Blair was criticised for his failure to immediately call for
a ceasefire in the
2006 Lebanon War
2006 Lebanon War . _
The Observer _ newspaper
claimed that at a cabinet meeting before Blair left for a summit with
Bush on 28 July 2006, a significant number of ministers pressured
Blair to publicly criticise
Israel over the scale of deaths and
destruction in Lebanon. Blair was criticised for his solid stance
alongside US President
George W. Bush on Middle East policy.
Syria And Libya
A Freedom of Information request by _The Sunday Times_ in 2012
revealed that Blair's government considered knighting Syria's
Bashar al-Assad . The documents showed Blair was willing to
appear alongside Assad at a joint press conference even though the
Syrians would probably have settled for a farewell handshake for the
cameras; British officials sought to manipulate the media to portray
Assad in a favourable light; and Blair's aides tried to help Assad's
"photogenic" wife boost her profile. The newspaper noted: The Arab
leader was granted audiences with the Queen and the Prince of Wales,
lunch with Blair at Downing Street, a platform in parliament and many
other privileges ... The red carpet treatment he and his entourage
received is embarrassing given the bloodbath that has since taken
place under his rule in Syria ... The courtship has parallels with
Blair's friendly relations with
Muammar Gaddafi .
Blair had been on friendly terms with Colonel Gaddafi, the leader of
Libya, when sanctions imposed on the country were lifted by the USA
and the UK.
Even after the Libyan Civil War in 2011, he said he had no regrets
about his close relationship with the late Libyan leader. During
Abdelhakim Belhadj to the Gaddafi
regime in 2004, though Blair later claimed he had "no recollection" of
Blair had an antagonistic relationship with Zimbabwean President
Robert Mugabe and allegedly planned regime change against Mugabe in
the early 2000s. Zimbabwe had embarked on a program of uncompensated
land redistribution from the country's white commercial farmers to the
black population, a policy that disrupted agricultural production and
threw Zimbabwe's economy into chaos. General Charles Guthrie , the
Chief of the Defence Staff , revealed in 2007 that he and Blair had
discussed the invasion of Zimbabwe. Guthrie advised against military
action: "Hold hard, you'll make it worse." In 2013, South African
Thabo Mbeki said that Blair had pressured South Africa to
join in a "regime change scheme, even to the point of using military
force" in Zimbabwe. Mbeki refused because he felt that "Mugabe is
part of the solution to this problem." However, a spokesman for Blair
said that "he never asked anyone to plan or take part in any such
RELATIONSHIP WITH MEDIA
Blair was reported by _
The Guardian _ in 2006 to have been supported
Rupert Murdoch , the founder of the News Corporation
organisation . In 2011, Blair became Godfather to one of Rupert
Murdoch 's children with
Wendi Deng , but he and Murdoch later ended
their friendship, in 2014, after Murdoch suspected him of having an
affair with Deng while they were still married, according to The
CONTACTS WITH UK MEDIA PROPRIETORS
Cabinet Office freedom of information response, released the day
after Blair handed over power to
Gordon Brown , documents Blair having
various official phone calls and meetings with
Rupert Murdoch of News
Richard Desmond of _Northern and Shell Media_.
The response includes contacts "clearly of an official nature" in the
specified period, but excludes contacts "not clearly of an official
nature." No details were given of the subjects discussed. In the
period between September 2002 and April 2005, Blair and Murdoch are
documented speaking 6 times; three times in the 9 days before the Iraq
War , including the eve of 20 March US and UK invasion, and on 29
January 25 April and 3 October 2004. Between January 2003 and February
2004, Blair had three meetings with Richard Desmond; on 29 January and
3 September 2003 and 23 February 2004.
The information was disclosed after a three and a half-year battle by
the Liberal Democrats ' Lord Avebury . Lord Avebury's initial October
2003 information request was dismissed by then leader of the Lords,
Baroness Amos . A following complaint was rejected, with Downing
Street claiming the information compromised free and frank
Cabinet Office claimed releasing the timing of the
PM's contacts with individuals is undesirable, as it might lead to the
content of the discussions being disclosed. While awaiting a
following appeal from Lord Avebury, the cabinet office announced that
it would release the information. Lord Avebury said: "The public can
now scrutinise the timing of his (Murdoch's) contacts with the former
Prime Minister, to see whether they can be linked to events in the
Blair appeared before the
Leveson Inquiry on Monday 28 May 2012.
During his appearance, a protester, later named as David
Lawley-Wakelin, got into the court-room and claimed he was guilty of
war crimes before being dragged out.
Blair has been noted as a charismatic , articulate speaker with an
informal style. Film and theatre director
Richard Eyre opined that
"Blair had a very considerable skill as a performer". A few months
after becoming Prime Minister Blair gave a tribute to Diana, Princess
of Wales , on the morning of her death in August 1997, in which he
famously described her as "the People's Princess".
After taking office in 1997, Blair gave particular prominence to his
press secretary, who became known as the Prime Minister\'s Official
Spokesman (the two roles have since been separated). Blair's first
Alastair Campbell , who served in that role from May 1997 to
8 June 2001, after which he served as the Prime Minister's Director of
Communications and Strategy until his resignation on 29 August 2003 in
the aftermath of the
Hutton Inquiry .
Blair had close relationships with the Clinton family. The strong
Bill Clinton was made into the film "The Special
Relationship " in 2010.
RELATIONSHIP WITH LABOUR PARTY
Blair's apparent refusal to set a date for his departure was
criticised by the British press and Members of Parliament. It has been
reported that a number of cabinet ministers believed that Blair's
timely departure from office would be required to be able to win a
fourth election. Some ministers viewed Blair's announcement of policy
initiatives in September 2006 as an attempt to draw attention away
from these issues.
Blair–Brown deal _
Gordon Brown (pictured_ in 2002)
was Chancellor under Blair, with whom he made a pact to succeed as
After the death of John Smith in 1994, Blair and his close colleague
Gordon Brown (they shared an office at the House of Commons ) were
both seen as possible candidates for the party leadership. They agreed
not to stand against each other, it is said, as part of a supposed
Blair–Brown pact. Brown, who considered himself the senior of the
two, understood that Blair would give way to him: opinion polls soon
indicated, however, that Blair appeared to enjoy greater support among
voters. Their relationship in power became so turbulent that (it was
reported) the deputy prime minister ,
John Prescott , often had to act
as "marriage guidance counsellor".
During the 2010 election campaign Blair publicly endorsed Gordon
Brown's leadership, praising the way he had handled the financial
POST-PREMIERSHIP (SINCE 2007)
On 27 June 2007, Blair officially resigned as Prime Minister after
ten years in office, and he was officially confirmed as Middle East
envoy for the United Nations, European Union, United States, and
Russia. Blair originally indicated that he would retain his
parliamentary seat after his resignation as Prime Minister came into
effect; however, on being confirmed for the Middle East role he
resigned from the Commons by taking up an office of profit .
George W. Bush had preliminary talks with Blair to ask him
to take up the envoy role. White House sources stated that "both
Israel and the Palestinians had signed up to the proposal". On 27
May 2015, Blair wrote to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations ,
Ban Ki-moon to confirm his resignation as Middle East envoy.
In May 2008, Blair announced a new plan for peace and for Palestinian
rights, based heavily on the ideas of the
Peace Valley plan .
In January 2008, it was confirmed that Blair would be joining
JPMorgan Chase in a "senior advisory capacity" and
that he would advise
Zurich Financial Services
Zurich Financial Services on climate change . His
salary for this work is unknown, although it has been claimed it may
be in excess of £500,000 per year. Blair also gives lectures,
earning up to US$250,000 for a 90-minute speech, and in 2008 he was
said to be the highest paid speaker in the world.
Yale University announced on 7 March 2008 that Blair will teach a
course on issues of faith and globalisation at the Yale Schools of
Management and Divinity as a Howland distinguished fellow during the
2008–09 academic year. In July 2009, this accomplishment was
followed by the launching of the Faith and Globalisation Initiative
Yale University in the US,
Durham University in the UK, and the
National University of Singapore in Asia, to deliver a postgraduate
programme in partnership with the Foundation.
Blair's links with, and receipt of an undisclosed sum from, UI Energy
Corporation , have also been subject to media comment in the UK.
In July 2010 it was reported that his personal security guards
claimed £250,000 a year in expenses from the tax payer, Foreign
William Hague said; "we have to make sure that is as
cost-effective as possible, that it doesn't cost any more to the
taxpayer than is absolutely necessary".
TONY BLAIR ASSOCIATES
Former rebel leader
Hashim Thaçi and
Tony Blair with
Declaration of Independence of
Tony Blair Associates to "allow him to provide, in
partnership with others, strategic advice on a commercial and _pro
bono_ basis, on political and economic trends and governmental
reform". The profits from the firm go towards supporting Blair's
"work on faith, Africa and climate change".
Blair has been subject to criticism for potential conflicts of
interest between his diplomatic role as a Middle East envoy, and his
Tony Blair Associates, and a number of prominent critics
have even called for him to be sacked. Blair has used his Quartet
Tony Blair Associates works with the Khazakstan government, advising
the regime on judicial, economic and political reforms, but has been
subject to criticism after accusations of "whitewashing" the image and
human rights record of the regime.
Blair responded to such criticism by saying his choice to advise the
country is an example of how he can "nudge controversial figures on a
progressive path of reform", and has stated that he receives no
personal profit from this advisory role. The Kazakhstan foreign
minister said that the country was "honoured and privileged" to be
receiving advice from Blair. A letter obtained by _The Daily
Telegraph _ in August 2014 revealed Blair had given damage-limitation
advice to Nazarbayev after the December 2011
Zhanaozen massacre .
Blair was reported to have accepted a business advisory role with
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt, a situation deemed
incompatible with his role as Middle East envoy. Blair described the
report as "nonsense".
On 14 November 2007, Blair launched the
Tony Blair Sports Foundation,
which aims to "increase childhood participation in sports activities,
especially in the North East of England, where a larger proportion of
children are socially excluded, and to promote overall health and
prevent childhood obesity." On 30 May 2008, Blair launched the Tony
Blair Faith Foundation as a vehicle for encouraging different faiths
to join together in promoting respect and understanding, as well as
working to tackle poverty. Reflecting Blair's own faith but not
dedicated to any particular religion, the Foundation aims to "show how
faith is a powerful force for good in the modern world". "The
Foundation will use its profile and resources to encourage people of
faith to work together more closely to tackle global poverty and
conflict," says its mission statement.
In February 2009, he applied to set up a charity called the Tony
Blair Africa Governance Initiative: the application was approved in
November 2009. In October 2012 Blair's foundation hit controversy
when it emerged they were taking on unpaid interns.
In December 2016 Blair created the
Tony Blair Institute to promote
global outlooks by governments and organisations.
In March 2010, it was reported that Blair's memoirs, titled _The
Journey_, would be published in September 2010. In July 2010 it was
announced the memoirs would be retitled _A Journey_. The memoirs were
seen by many as controversial and a further attempt to profit from his
office and from acts related to overseas wars that were widely seen as
wrong, leading to anger and suspicion prior to launch.
On 16 August 2010 it was announced that Blair would give the £4.6
million advance and all royalties from his memoirs to a sports centre
for badly injured soldiers – the charity's largest ever single
Media analysis of the sudden announcement was wide-ranging,
describing it as an act of "desperation" to obtain a better launch
reception of a humiliating "publishing flop" that had languished in
the ratings, "blood money " for the lives lost in the Iraq and
Afghanistan wars, an act with a "hidden motive" or an expression of
"guilt", a "genius move" to address the problem that "
Tony Blair ha
one of the most toxic brands around" from a PR perspective, and a
"cynical stunt to wipe the slate", but also as an attempt to make
amends. Friends had said that the act was partly motivated by the
wish to "repair his reputation".
The book was published on 1 September and within hours of its launch
had become the fastest-selling autobiography of all time. On 3
September Blair gave his first live interview since publication on
_The Late Late Show _ in Ireland, with protesters lying in wait there
for him. On 4 September Blair was confronted by 200 anti-war and
hardline Irish nationalist demonstrators before the first book signing
of his memoirs at Eason\'s bookstore on O\'Connell Street in Dublin,
with angry activists chanting "war criminal" and that he had "blood on
his hands", and clashing with Irish Police (
Garda Síochána ) as they
tried to break through a security cordon outside the Eason's store.
Blair was pelted with eggs and shoes, and encountered an attempted
citizen\'s arrest for war crimes .
ACCUSATIONS OF WAR CRIMES
Since the Iraq War, Blair has been the subject of war crimes
accusations. Critics of his actions, including Bishop
Desmond Tutu ,
Harold Pinter and
Arundhati Roy have called for his trial at the
International Criminal Court .
In November 2011, a mock war-crimes tribunal created by the Kuala
Lumpur War Crimes Commission reached a unanimous conclusion that Blair
George W. Bush are guilty of crimes against peace, crimes against
humanity, and genocide as a result of their roles in the 2003 Iraq
War. The mock trial, which lasted four days, consisting of five judges
of judicial and academic backgrounds, a court-appointed defence team
in lieu of the defendants or representatives, and a prosecution team
including international law professor
Francis Boyle .
In September 2012,
Desmond Tutu suggested that Blair should follow
the path of former African leaders who had been brought before the
International Criminal Court in
The Hague . The human rights lawyer
Geoffrey Bindman , interviewed on BBC radio, concurred with Tutu's
suggestion that there should be a war crimes trial. In a statement
made in response to Tutu's comments, Blair defended his actions. He
was supported by Lord Falconer , who stated that the war had been
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 .
In July 2017, former Iraqi general Abdulwaheed al-Rabbat launched a
case, in the
High Court in London, calling for Tony Blair, former
Jack Straw and former attorney general Lord
Goldsmith to be prosecuted for "the crime of aggression". No such
crime exists in England and Wales and the case was therefore
RESPONSE TO THE IRAQ INQUIRY
Further information: Findings of the
The Chilcot report after the conclusion of the
Iraq Inquiry was
issued on 6 July 2016 and it criticised Blair for joining the US in
the war in Iraq in 2003. Afterwards, Blair issued a statement and held
a two-hour press conference to apologise and to justify the decisions
he had made in 2003 "in good faith" and denying allegations that the
war had led to a significant increase in terrorism. He acknowledged
that the report made "real and material criticisms of preparation,
planning, process and of the relationship with the United States" but
cited sections of the report that he said "should lay to rest
allegations of bad faith, lies or deceit". He stated: "whether people
agree or disagree with my decision to take military action against
Saddam Hussein; I took it in good faith and in what I believed to be
the best interests of the country. ... I will take full responsibility
for any mistakes without exception or excuse. I will at the same time
say why, nonetheless, I believe that it was better to remove Saddam
Hussein and why I do not believe this is the cause of the terrorism we
see today whether in the Middle East or elsewhere in the world".
Blair with wife, Cherie Booth , touring the
Amber Room during a
visit to Russia, 2003.
Blair married Cherie Booth , a Roman Catholic, who would later become
a Queen\'s Counsel , on 29 March 1980. They have four children: Euan,
Nicholas, Kathryn, and Leo. Leo, delivered by the Royal
Marcus Setchell , was the first legitimate child
born to a serving Prime Minister in over 150 years – since Francis
Russell was born to Lord John Russell on 11 July 1849. Blair was
criticised when it was discovered that one child had received private
tuition from staff at
Westminster School . All four children have
Irish passports, by virtue of Blair's mother, Hazel Elizabeth Rosaleen
Corscaden (1923–1975). The family's primary residence is in
Connaught Square; the Blairs own eight residences in total.
His first grandchild (a girl) was born in October 2016.
Blair's financial assets are structured in a complicated manner, and
as such estimates of their extent vary widely. These include figures
of up to £100 million; Blair has stated he is worth less than a
"fifth of that". A 2015 assertion, by
Francis Beckett , David Hencke
Nick Kochan , concluded that Blair had acquired $90 million and a
property portfolio worth $37.5 million in the eight years since he had
In an interview with
Michael Parkinson broadcast on
ITV1 on 4 March
2006, Blair referred to the role of his Christian faith in his
decision to go to war in Iraq, stating that he had prayed about the
issue, and saying that God would judge him for his decision: "I think
if you have faith about these things, you realise that judgement is
made by other people ... and if you believe in God, it's made by God
Alastair Campbell 's diary, Blair often read the Bible
before taking any important decisions. He states that Blair had a
"wobble" and considered changing his mind on the eve of the bombing of
Iraq in 1998 .
A longer exploration of his faith can be found in an interview with
Third Way Magazine _. There he says that "I was brought up as , but I
was not in any real sense a practising one until I went to Oxford.
There was an Australian priest at the same college as me who got me
interested again. In a sense, it was a rediscovery of religion as
something living, that was about the world around me rather than some
sort of special one-to-one relationship with a remote Being on high.
Suddenly I began to see its social relevance. I began to make sense of
At one point
Alastair Campbell intervened in an interview, preventing
the Prime Minister from answering a question about his Christianity,
explaining, "We don't do God." Campbell later explained that he had
intervened only to end the interview because the journalist had been
taking an excessive time, and that the comment had just been a
Cherie Blair's friend and "spiritual guru"
Carole Caplin is credited
with introducing her and her husband to various
New Age symbols and
beliefs, including "magic pendants" known as "BioElectric Shields".
The most controversial of the Blairs'
New Age practices occurred when
on holiday in Mexico. The couple, wearing only bathing costumes, took
part in a rebirthing procedure, which involved smearing mud and fruit
over each other's bodies while sitting in a steam bath.
Later on, Blair questioned the Pope's attitude towards homosexuality,
arguing that religious leaders must start "rethinking" the issue.
Blair was reprimanded by Cardinal
Basil Hume in 1996 for receiving
Holy Communion at Mass, while still an Anglican, in contravention of
canon law. On 22 December 2007, it was disclosed that Blair had
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church . The move was described as "a
private matter". He had informed
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI on 23 June 2007
that he wanted to become a Catholic. The Pope and his advisors
criticised some of Blair's political actions, but followed up with a
reportedly unprecedented red-carpet welcome, which included the
Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, Cormac Murphy-O\'Connor , who
would be responsible for Blair's Catholic instruction . In 2010, _The
Tablet _ named him as one of Britain's most influential Roman
EXTRAMARITAL AFFAIR ALLEGATIONS
In 2014, _Vanity Fair_ and _
The Economist _ published allegations
that Blair had had an extramarital affair with
Wendi Deng , who was
then married to
Rupert Murdoch . Blair categorically denied the
PORTRAYALS AND CAMEO APPEARANCES
Cultural depictions of Tony Blair
Blair made an animated cameo appearance as himself in _
The Simpsons _
The Regina Monologues " (2003). He has also appeared as
himself at the end of the first episode of _The Amazing Mrs Pritchard
_, a British television series about an unknown housewife becoming
Prime Minister. On 14 March 2007, Blair appeared as a celebrity judge
on _Masterchef Goes Large _ after contestants had to prepare a
three-course meal in the
Downing Street kitchens for Blair and Bertie
Ahern . On 16 March 2007, Blair featured in a comedy sketch with
Catherine Tate , who appeared in the guise of her character Lauren
Cooper from _The
Catherine Tate Show _. The sketch was made for the
Red Nose Day
Red Nose Day fundraising programme of 2007. During the sketch,
Blair used Lauren's catchphrase "Am I bovvered?"
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Michael Sheen has portrayed Blair three times, in the films _The Deal
_ (2003), _The Queen _ (2006), and _The
Special Relationship _ (2009).
Robert Lindsay portrayed Blair in the TV programme _A Very Social
Secretary_ (2005), and reprised the role in _
The Trial of Tony Blair _
(2007). He was also portrayed by James Larkin in _The Government
Inspector _ (2005), and by
Ioan Gruffudd in _W. _ (2008). In the 2006
Channel 4 comedy drama documentary, _Tony Blair: Rock Star_, he was
Christian Brassington .
BLAIR IN FICTION AND SATIRE
When Blair resigned as Prime Minister, Robert Harris , a former Fleet
Street political editor, dropped his other work to write _The Ghost _.
The CIA-influenced British prime minister in the book is said to be a
thinly disguised version of Blair. The novel was filmed as _The Ghost
Writer _ with
Pierce Brosnan portraying the Blair character, Adam
Stephen Mangan portrays Blair in _
The Hunt for Tony Blair _
(2011), a one-off _
The Comic Strip Presents... _ satire presented in
the style of a 1950s film noir . In the film, he is wrongly implicated
in the deaths of
Robin Cook and John Smith and on the run from
Inspector Hutton. In 2007, the scenario of a possible war crimes
trial for the former British prime minister was satirised by the
Channel 4 , in a "mockumentary", _The Trial of
Tony Blair _, with concluded with the fictional Blair being dispatched
to the Hague.
TITLES AND HONOURS
STYLES SINCE THE 1983 ELECTION
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair MP (1983–1994)
* _The Rt Hon _
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair MP (1994–2007)
* _The Rt Hon _
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (2007–)
* Privy Councillor (1994)
Blair is presented with the
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom by
then US President George W. Bush. Blair in
children named after him.
Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal (2003)
Doctor of Law (LL.D.) from Queen\'s University Belfast
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Dan David Prize
Dan David Prize (2009)
Liberty Medal (2010)
In May 2007, before his resignation, it was speculated that Blair
would be offered a knighthood in the
Order of the Thistle , owing to
his Scottish connections (rather than the
Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter , which
is usually offered to former Prime Ministers). Blair reportedly
indicated that he did not want the traditional knighthood or peerage
bestowed on former prime ministers.
On 22 May 2008, Blair received an honorary law doctorate from
Queen\'s University Belfast , alongside former
Taoiseach Bertie Ahern
, for distinction in public service and roles in the Northern Ireland
peace process .
On 13 January 2009, Blair was awarded the Presidential Medal of
Freedom by President George W. Bush. Bush stated that Blair was given
the award "in recognition of exemplary achievement and to convey the
utmost esteem of the American people" and cited Blair's support for
War on Terror and his role in achieving peace in Northern Ireland
as two reasons for justifying his being presented with the award.
On 16 February 2009, Blair was awarded the
Dan David Prize
Dan David Prize by Tel
Aviv University for "exceptional leadership and steadfast
determination in helping to engineer agreements and forge lasting
solutions to areas in conflict". He was awarded the prize in May 2009.
On 13 September 2010, Blair was awarded the
Liberty Medal at the
National Constitution Center
National Constitution Center in
Philadelphia , Pennsylvania. It was
presented by former President Bill Clinton, and is awarded annually to
men and women of courage and conviction who strive to secure the
blessings of liberty to people around the globe.
On 8 July 2010, Blair was awarded the Order of Freedom by the
President of Kosovo,
Fatmir Limaj . As Blair is credited as being
instrumental in ending the conflict in
Kosovo , some boys born in that
country following the war have been given the name Toni or
* Blair, Tony (2010). _
A Journey _.
Random House ; ISBN
0-09-192555-X OCLC Number 657172683 (London, UK)
* Blair, Tony (2002). _The Courage of Our Convictions_. Fabian
Society ; ISBN 0-7163-0603-4 (London, UK)
* Blair, Tony (2000). _Superpower: Not Superstate? (Federal Trust
European Essays)_. Federal Trust for Education ISBN 1-903403-25-1
* Blair, Tony (1998). _The Third Way: New Politics for the New
Century_. Fabian Society; ISBN 0-7163-0588-7 (London, UK)
* Blair, Tony (1998). _Leading the Way: New Vision for Local
Institute for Public Policy Research ; ISBN 1-86030-075-8
* Blair, Tony (1997). _New Britain: My Vision of a Young Country_.
Basic Books , ISBN 0-8133-3338-5 (New York)
* Blair, Tony (1995). _Let Us Face the Future_. Fabian Society, ISBN
0-7163-0571-2 (London, UK)
* Blair, Tony (1994). _What Price a Safe Society?_. Fabian Society,
ISBN 0-7163-0562-3 (London, UK)
* Blair, Tony (1994). _Socialism_. Fabian Society, ISBN
0-7163-0565-8 (London, UK)
Bush–Blair 2003 Iraq memo
Cash for Honours
Cultural depictions of Tony Blair
Parliamentary motion to impeach Tony Blair (November 2004)
* _Halsbury\'s Laws of England _ (2004), reference to impeachment in
Constitutional Law and
Human Rights , paragraph 416
* ^ Freeden, Michael (2004). _Liberal Languages: Ideological
Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought_. Princeton
University Press. p. 198.
* ^ Faucher-King, Florence; Le Galès, Patrick; Elliott, Gregory
New Labour experiment: change and reform under Blair and
Brown_. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press. p. 18.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wheatcroft, Geoffrey (June 1996). "The Paradoxical Case
of Tony Blair". _
The Atlantic Monthly _. Vol. 277 no. 6. pp. 22–40.
Retrieved 10 April 2014. has appointed a shadow team of more than a
hundred parliamentary spokesmen—a ridiculous number considering that
there are only 271 Labour MPs in all.
* ^ _Labour: The Wilderness Years_ (produced by Leonie Jameson),
BBC 2, 3–18 December 1995.
* ^ Blair is Mr 93%. Stephen Castle/Paul Routledge. _The
Independent _ (national newspaper). Published: 28 September 1997.
Retrieved 6 May 2014.
* ^ Tony Blair\'s Style of Government: An Interim Assessment –
Page 1. _Political Issues in Britain Today_. Editor: Bill Jones.
Manchester University Press. (5th edition). Published:
1999. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
* ^ It\'s the way they tell\' em _
Total Politics _. Simon Hoggart.
Retrieved 6 May 2014.
* ^ Coleman, Clive (7 July 2016). "Could
Tony Blair face legal
action over Iraq War?". BBC.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Brown is UK\'s new prime minister". BBC News. 27 June
2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Blair becomes Middle East envoy". BBC News. 27 June
2007. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Tony Blair quits Middle East envoy role". BBC News. 27
May 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
* ^ "Blair launches faith foundation". BBC News. 30 May 2008.
Retrieved 20 April 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Blair\'s birthplace is bulldozed in Edinburgh".
Edinburgh Evening News _. Johnston Press plc. 9 August 2006. Archived
from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
* ^ _BLAIR,_. _ukwhoswho.com_. Who\'s Who . 2015 (online Oxford
University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury
Publishing plc. (subscription required)
* ^ "
Tony Blair profile". _
Encyclopædia Britannica _.
* ^ Blair: \'Why adoption is close to my heart\', 21 December 2000,
The Guardian _
* ^ "Local Map".
Ballyshannon Town Council. Retrieved 22 November
2007. Lipsett's Grocery Shop: This is the birthplace of Hazel
(Corscadden) Blair, mother of British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Her
mother's maiden name was Lipsett and Hazel was born over the shop.
* ^ Watt, Nicholas; Bowcott, Owen (14 March 2007). "We had no file
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