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Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014), originally known as Anthony Wedgwood Benn, but later as Tony Benn, was a British politician, writer, and diarist. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for 47 years between the 1950 and 2001 general elections and a Cabinet minister in the Labour governments of Harold Wilson and James Callaghan
James Callaghan
in the 1960s and 1970s. Originally a moderate, he was identified as being on the party's hard left from the early 1980s, and was widely seen as a key proponent of democratic socialism within the party.[1] Benn inherited a peerage on his father's death (as 2nd Viscount Stansgate), which prevented his continuing as an MP. He fought to remain in the House of Commons,[2] and then campaigned for the ability to renounce the title, a campaign which succeeded with the Peerage Act 1963. He was an active member of the Fabian Society
Fabian Society
and was its Chair from 1964 until 1965. In the Labour Government of 1964–70 he served first as Postmaster General, where he oversaw the opening of the Post Office Tower, and later as a "technocratic" Minister of Technology.[3] He served as Chairman of the Labour Party in 1971–72 while in opposition, and in the Labour Government of 1974–1979, he returned to the Cabinet, initially as Secretary of State for Industry, before being made Secretary of State for Energy, retaining his post when James Callaghan
James Callaghan
replaced Wilson as Prime Minister. When the Labour Party was again in opposition through the 1980s, he emerged as a prominent figure on its left wing and the term "Bennite" came into currency as someone associated with radical left-wing politics.[4] He unsuccessfully challenged Neil Kinnock
Neil Kinnock
for the Labour leadership in 1988. Benn was described as "one of the few UK politicians to have become more left-wing after holding ministerial office".[5] After leaving Parliament, Benn was President of the Stop the War Coalition
Stop the War Coalition
from 2001 until his death in 2014.[6]

Contents

1 Early life and family 2 Early parliamentary career

2.1 Member of Parliament, 1950–1960 2.2 Peerage reform

3 In government, 1964–1970 4 In government, 1974–1979

4.1 Move to the left

5 In opposition, 1979–1997 6 Prior to retirement, 1997–2001 7 Retirement and final years, 2001–2014 8 Illness and death 9 Diaries and biographies 10 Plaques 11 Legacy 12 Styles 13 Bibliography

13.1 Diaries

14 See also 15 References 16 External links

Early life and family[edit] Benn was born in London on 3 April 1925.[7] He had two brothers, Michael (1921–1944), who was killed in the Second World War, and David (1928–2017), a specialist in Russia and Eastern Europe.[8] Their father, William Wedgwood Benn, was a Liberal Member of Parliament from 1906 who crossed the floor to the Labour Party in 1928 and was appointed Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
by Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
in 1929, a position he held until the Labour Party's landslide electoral defeat in 1931. William Benn was elevated to the House of Lords
House of Lords
with the title of Viscount Stansgate
Viscount Stansgate
in 1942 – the new wartime coalition government was short of working Labour peers in the upper house.[9] In 1945–46, William Benn was the Secretary of State for Air
Secretary of State for Air
in the first majority Labour Government. Benn's mother, Margaret Wedgwood Benn (née Holmes, 1897–1991), was a theologian, feminist and the founder President of the Congregational Federation. She was a member of the League of the Church Militant, which was the predecessor of the Movement for the Ordination of Women; in 1925, she was rebuked by Randall Davidson, the Archbishop of Canterbury, for advocating the ordination of women. His mother's theology had a profound influence on Benn, as she taught him that the stories in the Bible were based around the struggle between the prophets and the kings and that he ought in his life to support the prophets over the kings, who had power, as the prophets taught righteousness.[10] Benn asserted that the teachings of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
had a "radical political importance" on his life, and made a distinction between the historical Jesus as "a carpenter of Nazareth" who advocated social justice and egalitarianism and "the way in which he's presented by some religious authorities; by popes, archbishops and bishops who present Jesus as justification for their power", believing this to be a gross misunderstanding of the role of Jesus.[11] He believed that it was a "great mistake" to assume that the teachings of Christianity are outdated in modern Britain,[11] and Higgins wrote in The Benn Inheritance that Benn was "a socialist whose political commitment owes much more to the teaching of Jesus than the writing of Marx".[12] Later in his life, Benn emphasised issues regarding morality and righteousness, as well as various ethical principles of Nonconformism. "I've never thought we can understand the world we lived in unless we understood the history of the church", Benn said to the Catholic Herald. "All political freedoms were won, first of all, through religious freedom. Some of the arguments about the control of the media today, which are very big arguments, are the arguments that would have been fought in the religious wars. You have the satellites coming in now – well, it is the multinational church all over again. That's why Mrs Thatcher pulled Britain out of UNESCO: she was not prepared, any more than Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
was, to be part of an organisation that talked about a New World Information Order, people speaking to each other without the help of Murdoch or Maxwell."[13] According to Peter Wilby in the New Statesman, Benn "decided to do without the paraphernalia and doctrine of organised religion but not without the teachings of Jesus".[14] Although Benn became more agnostic as he became older, he was intrigued by the interconnections between Christianity, radicalism and socialism.[15] Wilby also wrote in The Guardian
The Guardian
that although former Chancellor Stafford Cripps described Benn as "as keen a Christian as I am myself", Benn wrote in 2005 that he was "a Christian agnostic" who believed "in Jesus the prophet, not Christ the king", specifically rejecting the label of "humanist".[16] Both of Benn's grandfathers were Liberal Party MPs; his paternal grandfather was John Benn, a successful politician, MP for Tower Hamlets and later Devonport, who was created a baronet in 1914 (and who founded a publishing company, Benn Brothers),[17] and his maternal grandfather was Daniel Holmes, MP for Glasgow Govan.[18] Benn's contact with leading politicians of the day, dates back to his earliest years. He met Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
when he was five years old, whom he described as: "A kindly old gentleman [who] leaned over me and offered me a chocolate biscuit. I've looked at Labour leaders in a funny way ever since."[19] Benn also met former Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
when he was twelve, and later recalled that, while still a boy, he once shook hands with Mahatma Gandhi; in 1931, while his father was Secretary of State for India.[20] During the Second World War, Benn joined and trained with the Home Guard from the age of sixteen, later recalling in a speech made in 2009: "I could use a bayonet, a rifle, a revolver, and if I'd seen a German officer having a meal I'd have tossed a grenade through the window. Would I have been a freedom fighter or a terrorist?"[21][22] In July 1943, Benn enlisted in the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
as an aircraftman 2nd Class.[23] His father and elder brother Michael (who was later killed in an accident) were already serving in the RAF. He was granted an emergency commission as a pilot officer (on probation) on 10 March 1945.[24] As a pilot officer, Benn served as a pilot in South Africa and Rhodesia.[25] He relinquished his commission with effect from 10 August 1945, three months after the Second World War
Second World War
ended in Europe on 8 May, and just days before the war with Japan ended on 2 September.[26] After attending Mr Gladstone's day school near Sloane Square,[27] Benn attended Westminster School, and studied at New College, Oxford, where he read Philosophy, Politics and Economics and was elected President of the Oxford Union
Oxford Union
in 1947. In later life, Benn removed public references to his private education from Who's Who; in 1970 all references to Westminster School
Westminster School
were removed;[28] in the 1975 edition his entry stated "Education—still in progress". In the 1976 edition, almost all details were omitted save for his name, jobs as a member of parliament and as a Government Minister, and address; the publishers confirmed that Benn had sent back the draft entry with everything else struck through.[29] In the 1977 edition, Benn's entry disappeared entirely,[30] and when he returned to Who's Who in 1983, he was listed as "Tony Benn" and all references to his education or service record were removed.[28] In 1972, Benn said in his diaries that "Today I had the idea that I would resign my Privy Councillorship, my MA and all my honorary doctorates in order to strip myself of what the world had to offer".[28] While he acknowledged that he "might be ridiculed" for doing so,[31] Benn said that "'Wedgie Benn' and 'the Rt Honourable Anthony Wedgwood Benn' and all that stuff is impossible. I have been Tony Benn
Tony Benn
in Bristol for a long time."[28] In October 1973, he announced on BBC Radio
BBC Radio
that he wished to be known as Mr. Tony Benn rather than Anthony Wedgwood Benn,[32] and his book Speeches from 1974 is credited to "Tony Benn".[33] Despite this name change, social historian Alwyn W. Turner writes that "Just as those with an agenda to pursue still call Muhammed Ali
Muhammed Ali
by his original name ... so most newspapers continued to refer to Tony Benn
Tony Benn
as Wedgwood Benn, or Wedgie in the case of the tabloids, for years to come".[28] Benn met Caroline Middleton DeCamp (born 13 October 1926, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States) over tea at Worcester College, Oxford, in 1949 and just nine days after meeting her; he proposed to her on a park bench in the city. Later, he bought the bench from Oxford City Council and installed it in the garden of their home in Holland Park. Tony and Caroline had four children – Stephen, Hilary, Melissa, a feminist writer, and Joshua – and ten grandchildren. Caroline Benn
Caroline Benn
died of cancer on 22 November 2000, aged 74, after a career as an educationalist.[34] Two of Benn's children have been active in Labour Party politics. His eldest son Stephen was an elected Member of the Inner London Education Authority from 1986 to 1990. His second son Hilary was a councillor in London, stood for Parliament in 1983 and 1987, and becoming Labour MP for Leeds Central in 1999. He was Secretary of State for International Development from 2003 to 2007, and then Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs until 2010, later serving as Shadow Foreign Secretary (2015–16).[35] This makes him the third generation of his family to have been a member of the Cabinet, a rare distinction for a modern political family in Britain. Benn's granddaughter Emily Benn
Emily Benn
was the Labour Party's youngest-ever candidate[36] when she failed to win East Worthing and Shoreham in 2010.[37] Benn was a first cousin once removed of the actress Margaret Rutherford.[38] Benn and his wife Caroline became vegetarian in 1970, for ethical reasons, and remained so for the rest of their lives. Benn cited the decision of his son Hilary to become vegetarian as an important factor in his own decision to adopt a vegetarian diet.[39][40][41] Early parliamentary career[edit] Member of Parliament, 1950–1960[edit] Following the Second World War, Benn worked briefly as a BBC Radio producer. On 1 November 1950, he was selected to succeed Stafford Cripps as the Labour candidate for Bristol South East, after Cripps stood down because of ill-health. He won the seat in a by-election on 30 November 1950.[42] Anthony Crosland
Anthony Crosland
helped him get the seat as he was the MP for nearby South Gloucestershire at the time. Upon taking the oath on 4 December 1950[43] Benn became "Baby of the House", the youngest MP, for one day, being succeeded by Thomas Teevan, who was two years younger but took his oath a day later.[44] He became the "Baby" again in 1951, when Teevan was not re-elected. In the 1950s, Benn held middle-of-the-road or soft left views, and was not associated with the young left wing group around Aneurin Bevan.[45] As MP for Bristol South East, Benn helped organise the 1963 Bristol Bus Boycott[46] against the colour bar of the Bristol Omnibus Company against employing Black British
Black British
and British Asian
British Asian
drivers. Benn said that he would "stay off the buses, even if I have to find a bike", and Labour leader Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
also told an anti-apartheid rally in London he was "glad that so many Bristolians are supporting the [boycott] campaign", adding that he "wish[ed] them every success".[47] Peerage reform[edit] Benn's father had been created Viscount Stansgate
Viscount Stansgate
in 1942 when Winston Churchill increased the number of Labour peers to aid political work in the House of Lords; at this time, Benn's elder brother Michael was intending to enter the priesthood and had no objections to inheriting a peerage. However, Michael was later killed in an accident while on active service in the Second World War, and this left Benn as the heir to the peerage. He made several unsuccessful attempts to renounce the succession.[45] In November 1960, Lord Stansgate died. Benn automatically became a peer, preventing him from sitting in the House of Commons. The Speaker of the Commons, Sir Harry Hylton-Foster, did not allow him to deliver a speech from the bar of the House of Commons in April 1961 when the by-election was being called.[48] Continuing to maintain his right to abandon his peerage, Benn fought to retain his seat in a by-election caused by his succession on 4 May 1961. Although he was disqualified from taking his seat, he was re-elected. An election court found that the voters were fully aware that Benn was disqualified, and declared the seat won by the Conservative runner-up, Malcolm St Clair, who was at the time also the heir presumptive to a peerage.[2] Benn continued his campaign outside Parliament. Within two years, though, the Conservative Government of the time, which had members in the same or similar situation to Benn's (i.e., who were going to receive title, or who had already applied for writs of summons), changed the law.[49][50] The Peerage Act 1963, allowing lifetime disclaimer of peerages, became law shortly after 6 pm on 31 July 1963. Benn was the first peer to renounce his title, doing so at 6.22 pm that day.[51] St Clair, fulfilling a promise he had made at the time of his election, then accepted the office of Steward of the Manor of Northstead, disqualifying himself from the House (outright resignation not being possible). Benn returned to the Commons after winning a by-election on 20 August 1963.[45] In government, 1964–1970[edit] In the 1964 Government led by Harold Wilson, Benn was Postmaster General, where he oversaw the opening of the Post Office Tower, then the UK's tallest building, and the creations of the Post Bus service and Girobank. He proposed issuing stamps without the Sovereign's head, but this met with private opposition from the Queen.[52] Instead, the portrait was reduced to a small profile in silhouette, a format that is still used on commemorative stamps.[53] Benn also led the government's opposition to the "pirate" radio stations broadcasting from international waters, which he was aware would be an unpopular measure.[54] Some of these stations were causing problems, such as interference to emergency radio used by shipping,[55] although he was not responsible for introducing the Marine Broadcasting Offences Bill when it came before Parliament at the end of July 1966 for its first reading.[56]

Tony Benn
Tony Benn
shaking the hand of Maurice Papon
Maurice Papon
during the official presentation of Concorde, 11 December 1967. Photography by André Cros, Archives of Toulouse.

Earlier in the month, Benn was promoted to Minister of Technology, which included responsibility for the development of Concorde
Concorde
and the formation of International Computers Ltd. (ICL). The period also saw government involvement in industrial rationalisation, and the merger of several car companies to form British Leyland.[57] Following Conservative MP Enoch Powell's 1968 "Rivers of Blood" speech to a Conservative Association meeting, in opposition to Harold Wilson's insistence on not "stirring up the Powell issue",[58] Benn said during the 1970 general election campaign:

The flag of racialism which has been hoisted in Wolverhampton is beginning to look like the one that fluttered 25 years ago over Dachau and Belsen. If we do not speak up now against the filthy and obscene racialist propaganda ... the forces of hatred will mark up their first success and mobilise their first offensive... Enoch Powell
Enoch Powell
has emerged as the real leader of the Conservative Party. He is a far stronger character than Mr. Heath. He speaks his mind; Heath does not. The final proof of Powell's power is that Heath dare not attack him publicly, even when he says things that disgust decent Conservatives.[58]

The mainstream press attacked Benn for using language deemed as intemperate as Powell's language in his "Rivers of Blood" speech (which was widely regarded as racist),[58] and Benn noted in his diary that "letters began pouring in on the Powell speech: 2:1 against me but some very sympathetic ones saying that my speech was overdue".[59] Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
later reprimanded Benn for this speech, accusing him of losing Labour seats in the 1970 general election.[60] During the 1970s Benn publicly defended Marxism, saying:

The Communist Manifesto, and many other works of Marxist philosophy, have always profoundly influenced the British labour movement and the British Labour Party, and have strengthened our understanding and enriched our thinking. It would be as unthinkable to try to construct the Labour Party without Marx as it would be to establish university faculties of astronomy, anthropology or psychology without permitting the study of Copernicus, Darwin or Freud, and still expect such faculties to be taken seriously.[61][62]

Labour lost the 1970 election to Edward Heath's Conservatives and upon Heath's application to join the European Economic Community, a surge in left-wing Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
emerged.[63] Benn "was stridently against membership",[64] and campaigned in favour of a referendum on the UK's membership. The Shadow Cabinet voted to support a referendum on 29 March 1972, and as a result Roy Jenkins
Roy Jenkins
resigned as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party.[65] In government, 1974–1979[edit] In the Labour Government of 1974 Benn was Secretary of State for Industry and as such increased nationalised industry pay, provided better terms and conditions for workers such as the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and was involved in setting up worker cooperatives in firms which were struggling,[66] the best known being at Meriden, outside Coventry, producing Triumph Motorcycles. In 1975 he was appointed Secretary of State for Energy, immediately following his unsuccessful campaign for a "No" vote in the referendum on the UK's continued membership of the European Community (Common Market). Later in his diary (25 October 1977) Benn wrote that he "loathed" the EEC; he claimed it was "bureaucratic and centralised" and "of course it is really dominated by Germany. All the Common Market countries except the UK have been occupied by Germany, and they have this mixed feeling of hatred and subservience towards the Germans".[67] Upon the death of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in 1976, Benn described Mao as "one of the greatest – if not the greatest – figures of the twentieth century: a schoolteacher who transformed China, released it from civil war and foreign attack and constructed a new society there" in his diaries, adding that "he certainly towers above any twentieth-century figure I can think of in his philosophical contribution and military genius".[68] On his trip to the Chinese embassy after Mao's death, Benn recorded in an earlier volume of his diaries that he was "a great admirer of Mao", while also admitting that "he made mistakes, because everybody does".[69] Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
resigned as Leader of the Labour Party and Prime Minister in March 1976. Benn later attributed the collapse of the Wilson government to cuts enforced on the UK by global capital, in particular the International Monetary Fund.[70] In the resulting leadership contest Benn came in fourth out of the six cabinet ministers who stood – he withdrew as 11.8% of colleagues voted for him in the first ballot. Benn withdrew from the second ballot and supported Michael Foot; James Callaghan
James Callaghan
eventually won. Despite not receiving his support in the second and third rounds of the vote, Callaghan kept Benn on as Energy Secretary. In 1976 there was a sterling crisis, and Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Denis Healey
Denis Healey
sought a loan from the International Monetary Fund. Underlining a wish to counter international market forces which seemed to penalise a larger welfare state, Benn publicly circulated the divided Cabinet minutes in which a narrow majority of the Labour Cabinet under Ramsay MacDonald supported a cut in unemployment benefits in order to obtain a loan from American bankers. As he highlighted, these minutes resulted in the 1931 split of the Labour Party in which MacDonald and his allies formed a National Government with Conservatives and Liberals. Callaghan allowed Benn to put forward the Alternative Economic Strategy, which consisted of a self-sufficient economy less dependent on low-rate fresh borrowing, but the AES, which according to opponents would have led to a "siege economy", was rejected by the Cabinet.[71] In response, Benn later recalled that: "I retorted that their policy was a siege economy, only they had the bankers inside the castle with all our supporters left outside, whereas my policy would have our supporters in the castle with the bankers outside."[70] Benn blamed the Winter of Discontent
Winter of Discontent
on these cuts to socialist policies.[70] Move to the left[edit] By the end of the 1970s, Benn had migrated to the left wing of the Labour Party. He attributed this political shift to his experience as a Cabinet Minister in the 1964–1970 Labour Government. Benn ascribed his move to the left to four lessons:

How "the Civil Service can frustrate the policies and decisions of popularly elected governments" The centralised nature of the Labour Party which allowed the Leader to run "the Party almost as if it were his personal kingdom" "The power of industrialists and bankers to get their way by use of the crudest form of economic pressure, even blackmail, against a Labour Government" The power of the media, which "like the power of the medieval Church, ensures that events of the day are always presented from the point of the view of those who enjoy economic privilege"[72]

As regards the power of industrialists and bankers, Benn remarked:

Compared to this, the pressure brought to bear in industrial disputes by the unions is minuscule. This power was revealed even more clearly in 1976 when the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
secured cuts in our public expenditure. ... These [four] lessons led me to the conclusion that the UK is only superficially governed by MPs and the voters who elect them. Parliamentary democracy is, in truth, little more than a means of securing a periodical change in the management team, which is then allowed to preside over a system that remains in essence intact. If the British people were ever to ask themselves what power they truly enjoyed under our political system they would be amazed to discover how little it is, and some new Chartist agitation might be born and might quickly gather momentum.[73]

Benn's philosophy consisted of a form of syndicalism, state planning where necessary to ensure national competitiveness, greater democracy in the structures of the Labour Party and observance of Party Conference decisions.[74] Alongside an alleged twelve Labour MPs,[75] he spent twelve years affiliated with the Institute for Workers' Control, beginning in 1971 when he visited the Upper Clyde Shipyards, arguing in 1975 for the "labour movement to intensify its discussion about industrial democracy".[76] He was vilified by most of the press while his opponents implied and stated that a Benn-led Labour Government would implement a type of Eastern European socialism,[77] with Edward Heath
Edward Heath
referring to Benn as " Commissar
Commissar
Benn"[78] and others referring to Benn as a "Bollinger Bolshevik".[28] Despite this, Benn was overwhelmingly popular with Labour activists in the constituencies: a survey of delegates at the Labour Party Conference in 1978 found that by large margins they supported Benn for the leadership, as well as many Bennite policies.[79] He publicly supported Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
and the unification of Ireland, although in 2005 he suggested to Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
leaders that it abandon its long-standing policy of not taking seats at Westminster (abstentionism). Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
in turn argued that to do so would recognise Britain's claim over Northern Ireland, and the Sinn Féin constitution prevented its elected members from taking their seats in any British-created institution.[80] A supporter of the Scottish Parliament and political devolution, Benn however opposed the Scottish National Party and Scottish independence, saying: "I think nationalism is a mistake. And I am half Scots and feel it would divide me in half with a knife. The thought that my mother would suddenly be a foreigner would upset me very much."[81] In British politics during this period, the term "Bennism" came into use to describe the conviction politics, economic, social and political ideology of Tony Benn; and an exponent or advocate of Bennism was regarded as a "Bennite".[82][83] In opposition, 1979–1997[edit] In a keynote speech to the Labour Party Conference of 1980, shortly before the resignation of party leader James Callaghan
James Callaghan
and election of Michael Foot
Michael Foot
as successor, Benn outlined what he envisaged the next Labour Government would do. "Within days", a Labour Government would gain powers to nationalise industries, control capital and implement industrial democracy; "within weeks", all powers from Brussels would be returned to Westminster, and the House of Lords
House of Lords
would be abolished by creating one thousand new peers and then abolishing the peerage. Benn received tumultuous applause.[84] On 25 January 1981, Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Shirley Williams
Shirley Williams
and Bill Rodgers (known collectively as the "Gang of Four") launched the Council for Social Democracy, which became the Social Democratic Party in March. The "Gang of Four" left the Labour Party because of what they perceived to be the influence of the Militant tendency
Militant tendency
and the Bennite "hard left" within the party.[85][86] Benn was highly critical of the SDP, saying that "Britain has had SDP governments for the past 25 years."[87]

Benn speaking at the Glastonbury Festival
Glastonbury Festival
in 2008

Benn stood against Denis Healey, the party's incumbent deputy leader, triggering the 1981 Deputy Leadership election, disregarding an appeal from Michael Foot
Michael Foot
to either stand for the leadership or abstain from inflaming the party's divisions. Benn defended his decision insisting that it was "not about personalities, but about policies". The result was announced on 27 September 1981; Healey retained his position by a margin of barely 1%. The decision of several soft left MPs, including Neil Kinnock, to abstain triggered the split of the Socialist Campaign Group from the left of the Tribune Group.[88] After Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
in April 1982, Benn argued that the dispute should be settled by the United Nations and that the British Government should not send a task force to recapture the islands. The task force was sent, and following the Falklands War, they were back in British control by mid-June. In a debate in the Commons just after the Falklands were recaptured, Benn's demand for "a full analysis of the costs in life, equipment and money in this tragic and unnecessary war" was rejected by Margaret Thatcher, who stated that "he would not enjoy the freedom of speech that he put to such excellent use unless people had been prepared to fight for it".[89] For the 1983 election Benn's Bristol South East constituency was abolished by boundary changes, and he lost to Michael Cocks in the selection of a candidate to stand in the new winnable seat of Bristol South. Rejecting offers from the new seat of Livingston in Scotland, Benn contested Bristol East, losing to the Conservative's Jonathan Sayeed in June 1983. In a by-election, Benn was elected as the MP for Chesterfield, the next Labour seat to fall vacant, after Eric Varley
Eric Varley
had left the Commons to head Coalite. On the day of the by-election, 1 March 1984, The Sun newspaper ran a hostile feature article, "Benn on the Couch", which purported to be the opinions of an American psychiatrist.[90] In the period since Benn's defeat in Bristol, Michael Foot
Michael Foot
had stepped down after the general election (which saw a return of only 209 Labour MPs) and was succeeded in October of that year by Neil Kinnock.[91] Newly elected to a mining seat, Benn was a supporter of the 1984–85 UK miners' strike, which was beginning when he returned to the Commons, and of his long-standing friend, the National Union of Mineworkers leader Arthur Scargill. However, some miners considered Benn's 1977 industry reforms to have caused problems during the strike; firstly, that they led to huge wage differences and distrust between miners of different regions; and secondly that the controversy over balloting miners for these reforms made it unclear as to whether a ballot was needed for a strike or whether it could be deemed as a "regional matter" in the same way that the 1977 reforms had been.[92][93] Benn also spoke at a Militant tendency
Militant tendency
rally held in 1984, saying: "The labour movement is not engaged in a personalised battle against individual cabinet ministers, nor do we seek to win public support by arguing that the crisis could be ended by the election of a new and more humane team of ministers who are better qualified to administer capitalism. We are working for a majority labour government, elected on a socialist programme, as decided by conference."[94] This guest appearance was considered one reason why Benn did not become a member of Labour's Shadow Cabinet.[95] In June 1985, three months after the miners admitted defeat and ended their strike, Benn introduced the Miners' Amnesty (General Pardon) Bill into the Commons, which would have extended an amnesty to all miners imprisoned during the strike. This would have included two men convicted of murder (later reduced to manslaughter) for the killing of David Wilkie, a taxi driver driving a non-striking miner to work in South Wales during the strike.[96] Benn stood for election as Party Leader in 1988, against Neil Kinnock, following Labour's third successive defeat in the 1987 general election, losing by a substantial margin, and received only about 11% of the vote. In May 1989 he made an extended appearance on Channel 4's late-night discussion programme After Dark, alongside among others Lord Dacre and Miles Copeland. During the Gulf War, Benn visited Baghdad
Baghdad
in order to try and persuade Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
to release the hostages who had been captured.[97] Benn supported various LGBT social movements, which were then known as gay liberation;[98] Benn had voted in favour of decriminalisation in 1967.[99] Talking about Section 28
Section 28
of the 1988 Local Government Act, a piece of anti-gay legislation preventing the "promotion of homosexuality", Benn said:

if the sense of the word "promote" can be read across from "describe", every murder play promotes murder, every war play promotes war, every drama involving the eternal triangle promotes adultery; and Mr. Richard Branson's condom campaign promotes fornication. The House had better be very careful before it gives to judges, who come from a narrow section of society, the power to interpret "promote".[99]

Benn later voted for the repeal of Section 28
Section 28
during the first term of Tony Blair's New Labour
New Labour
Government, and voted in favour of equalising the age of consent.[99] In 1990 he proposed a " Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(Global Repeal) Bill", which he said "could go through both Houses in 24 hours. It would be easy to reverse the policies and replace the personalities—the process has begun—but the rotten values that have been propagated from the platform of political power in Britain during the past 10 years will be an infection—a virulent strain of right-wing capitalist thinking which it will take time to overcome."[100] In 1991, with Labour still in opposition and a general election due by June 1992, he proposed the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Britain Bill, abolishing the monarchy in favour of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
becoming a "democratic, federal and secular commonwealth", a republic with a written constitution. It was read in Parliament a number of times until his retirement at the 2001 election, but never achieved a second reading.[101] He presented an account of his proposal in Common Sense: A New Constitution for Britain.[102] In 1992, Tony Benn
Tony Benn
also received a Pipe Smoker of the Year award, claiming in his acceptance speech that "pipe smoking stopped you going to war".[103] In 1991, Benn reiterated his opposition to the European Commission
European Commission
and highlighted an alleged democratic deficit in the institution, saying: "Some people genuinely believe that we shall never get social justice from the British Government, but we shall get it from Jacques Delors. They believe that a good king is better than a bad Parliament. I have never taken that view."[104][105] This argument has also been used by many on the right-wing Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative Party, such as Daniel Hannan
Daniel Hannan
MEP.[106] Jonathan Freedland
Jonathan Freedland
writes in The Guardian that "For [Tony Benn], even benign rule by a monarch was worthless because the king's whim could change and there'd be nothing you could do about it."[107] Prior to retirement, 1997–2001[edit] In 1997, the Labour Party under Tony Blair
Tony Blair
won the election. Despite later calling Labour under Tony Blair
Tony Blair
"the idea of a Conservative group who had taken over Labour"[108] and saying "[Blair] set up a new political party, New Labour",[109] Benn's political diaries Free at Last show that Benn was initially somewhat sympathetic to Blair, welcoming a change of government. Benn supported the introduction of the national minimum wage, and welcomed the progress towards peace and security in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(particularly under Mo Mowlam). He was supportive of the extra public money given to public services in the New Labour
New Labour
years but believed it to be under the guise of privatisation. Overall, his concluding judgement on New Labour
New Labour
is highly critical; he describes its evolution as a way of retaining office by abandoning socialism and distancing the party from the trade union movement,[110] adopting a presidentialist style of politics, overriding the concept of the collective ministerial responsibility by reducing the power of the Cabinet, eliminated any effective influence from the annual conference of the Labour Party and "hinged its foreign policy on support for one of the worst presidents in US history".[111] Benn strongly objected to the "immoral" bombing of Iraq in December 1998,[112] saying: "Aren't Arabs terrified? Aren't Iraqis terrified? Don't Arab and Iraqi women weep when their children die? Does bombing strengthen their determination? ... Every Member of Parliament tonight who votes for the government motion will be consciously and deliberately accepting the responsibility for the deaths of innocent people if the war begins, as I fear it will."[113] Several months prior to his retirement, Benn was a signatory to a letter, alongside Niki Adams (Legal Action for Women), Ian Macdonald QC, Gareth Peirce, and other legal professionals, that was published in The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper on 22 February 2001 "condemning" raids of more than 50 brothels in the central London area of Soho. At the time, a police spokesman said: "As far as we know, this is the biggest simultaneous crackdown on brothels and prostitution in this country in recent times", the arrest of 28 people in an operation that involved around 110 police officers.[114] The letter read:

In the name of "protecting" women from trafficking, about 40 women, including a woman from Iraq, were arrested, detained and in some cases summarily removed from Britain. If any of these women have been trafficked ... they deserve protection and resources, not punishment by expulsion. ... Having forced women into destitution, the government first criminalised those who begged. Now it is trying to use prostitution as a way to make deportation of the vulnerable more acceptable. We will not allow such injustice to go unchallenged.[115]

Retirement and final years, 2001–2014[edit]

Benn about to join the March 2005 anti-war demonstration in London

Benn did not stand at the 2001 general election, saying he was "leaving parliament in order to spend more time on politics."[116] Along with Edward Heath, Benn was permitted by the Speaker to continue using the House of Commons Library
House of Commons Library
and Members' refreshment facilities. Shortly after his retirement, he became the president of the Stop the War Coalition.[97] He became a leading figure of the British opposition to the War in Afghanistan from 2001 and the Iraq War, and in February 2003 he travelled to Baghdad
Baghdad
to meet Saddam Hussein. The interview was shown on British television.[117] He spoke against the war at the February 2003 protest in London organised by the Stop the War Coalition, with police saying it was the biggest ever demonstration in the UK with about 750,000 marchers, and the organisers estimating nearly a million people participating.[118] In February 2004 and 2008, he was re-elected President of the Stop the War Coalition.[119] He toured with a one-man stage show and appeared a few times each year in a two-man show with folk singer Roy Bailey. In 2003, his show with Bailey was voted 'Best Live Act' at the BBC Radio
BBC Radio
2 Folk Awards.[120][121] In 2002 he opened the "Left Field" stage at the Glastonbury Festival. He continued to speak at each subsequent festival; attending one of his speeches was described as a "Glastonbury rite of passage".[122] In October 2003, he was a guest of British Airways
British Airways
on the last scheduled Concorde
Concorde
flight from New York to London. In June 2005, he was a panellist on a special edition of BBC One's Question Time edited entirely by a school-age film crew selected by a BBC competition.[123] On 21 June 2005, Benn presented a programme on democracy as part of the Channel 5 series Big Ideas That Changed The World. He presented a left-wing view of democracy as the means to pass power from the "wallet to the ballot". He argued that traditional social democratic values were under threat in an increasingly globalised world in which powerful institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the European Commission
European Commission
are unelected and unaccountable to those whose lives they affect daily.[124]

Tony Benn
Tony Benn
and Giles Fraser
Giles Fraser
speaking at Levellers' Day, Burford, 17 May 2008

On 27 September 2005, Benn became ill while at the Labour Party Conference in Brighton
Brighton
and was taken by ambulance to the Royal Sussex County Hospital after being treated by paramedics at the Brighton Centre. Benn reportedly fell and struck his head. He was kept in hospital for observation and was described as being in a "comfortable condition".[125] He was subsequently fitted with an artificial pacemaker to help regulate his heartbeat.[126] In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman
New Statesman
in 2006, he was voted twelfth in the list of "Heroes of our Time". In September 2006, Benn joined the "Time to Go" demonstration in Manchester the day before the start of the final Labour Party Conference with Tony Blair
Tony Blair
as Party Leader, with the aim of persuading the Labour Government to withdraw troops from Iraq, to refrain from attacking Iran and to reject replacing the Trident missile and submarines with a new system. He spoke to the demonstrators in the rally afterwards.[127] In 2007, he appeared in an extended segment in the Michael Moore
Michael Moore
film Sicko
Sicko
giving comments about democracy, social responsibility and health care, notably, "If we can find the money to kill people, we can find the money to help people."[128]

Wikinews has related news: Wikinews interviews: Tony Benn
Tony Benn
on U.K. politics

A poll by the BBC2 The Daily Politics
Daily Politics
programme in January 2007 selected Benn as the UK's "Political Hero" with 38% of the vote, beating Margaret Thatcher, who had 35%, by 3%.[129] In the 2007 Labour Party leadership election, Benn backed the left-wing MP John McDonnell
John McDonnell
in his unsuccessful bid. In September 2007, Benn called for the government to hold a referendum on the EU Reform Treaty.[130] In October 2007, at the age of 82, and when it appeared that a general election was about to be held, Benn reportedly announced that he wanted to stand, having written to his local Kensington and Chelsea Constituency Labour Party offering himself as a prospective candidate for the seat held by the Conservative Malcolm Rifkind.[131][132] However, there was no election in 2007, and the constituency was subsequently abolished.

Benn on the cover of Dartford Living, September 2009

In early 2008 Benn appeared on Scottish singer-songwriter Colin MacIntyre's album The Water, reading a poem he had composed himself.[133][134] In September 2008, he appeared on the DVD release for the Doctor Who
Doctor Who
story The War Machines
The War Machines
with a vignette discussing the Post Office Tower; he became the second Labour politician, after Roy Hattersley
Roy Hattersley
to appear on a Doctor Who
Doctor Who
DVD.[135] Conservatives Daniel Hannan, Douglas Carswell
Douglas Carswell
and David Cameron praised Benn in 2008. In their book The Plan, Carswell and Hannan write that "Historically, it was the left that sought to disperse power among the people. ... It was the cause of the Levellers
Levellers
and the Chartists and the Suffragettes, the cause of religious toleration and meritocracy, of the secret ballot and universal education",[136] adding:

These days, though, the radical cause should have different targets. The elites have altered in character and composition. The citizen is far less likely to be impacted by the decisions of dukes or bishops than by those of Nice or his local education authority. The employees of these and similar agencies are, today, the unaccountable crown office-holders against whom earlier generations of radicals would have railed. Yet, with some exceptions – among whom, in a special place of honour, stands Tony Benn
Tony Benn
– few contemporary British leftists show any interest in dispersing power when doing so would mean challenging public sector monopolies.[136]

Cameron also said in 2008 that, alongside George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Benn's Arguments for Democracy was "a very powerful book which makes the important point that we vest power in people who are elected, and that we can get rid of, rather than those we can't".[136] Benn was invited by Richard Branson
Richard Branson
and Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
to join The Elders, an advocacy group comprising Nelson Mandela, Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
and Jimmy Carter.[137] At the Stop the War Conference 2009, he described the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as "Imperialist war(s)" and discussed the killing of American and allied troops by Iraqi or foreign insurgents, questioning whether they were in fact freedom fighters, and comparing the insurgents to a British Dad's Army, saying: "If you are invaded you have a right to self-defence, and this idea that people in Iraq and Afghanistan who are resisting the invasion are militant Muslim extremists is a complete bloody lie. I joined Dad's Army when I was sixteen, and if the Germans had arrived, I tell you, I could use a bayonet, a rifle, a revolver, and if I'd seen a German officer having a meal I'd have tossed a grenade through the window. Would I have been a freedom fighter or a terrorist?"[21] In an interview published in Dartford Living in September 2009, Benn was critical of the Government's decision to delay the findings of the Iraq War
Iraq War
Inquiry until after the General Election, stating that "people can take into account what the inquiry has reported on but they’ve deliberately pushed it beyond the election. Government is responsible for explaining what it has done and I don't think we were told the truth."[138] He also stated that local government was strangled by Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
and had not been liberated by New Labour.[138] In 2009 Benn was admitted to hospital and An Evening with Tony Benn, scheduled to take place at London's Cadogan Hall, was cancelled. He performed his show, The Writing on the Wall, with Roy Bailey at St Mary's Church, Ashford, Kent, in September 2011, as part of the arts venue's first Revelation St Mary's Season.[139] In July 2011 Benn was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Glamorgan, Wales.[140]

Tony Benn
Tony Benn
speaking at the Tolpuddle Martyrs' Festival and Rally 2012

Tony Benn
Tony Benn
headed the "coalition of resistance", a group with was opposed to the UK austerity programme.[141][142] In interviews in 2010 with Amy Goodman
Amy Goodman
on Democracy Now!
Democracy Now!
and 2013 with Afshin Rattansi
Afshin Rattansi
on RT UK, Benn claimed that the actions of New Labour
New Labour
in the leadup to and aftermath of the Iraq War
Iraq War
were such that the former Prime Minister Tony Blair
Tony Blair
should be tried for war crimes.[143][144] Benn also claimed in 2010 that Blair had lost the "trust of the nation" regarding the war in Iraq.[145] In November 2011 it was reported that Benn had moved out of his home in Holland Park
Holland Park
Avenue, London, into a smaller flat nearby that benefited from a warden.[146] In 2012 Benn was awarded an honorary degree from Goldsmiths, University of London. He was also the honorary president of the Goldsmiths Students' Union, who successfully campaigned for him to retract comments dismissing the Julian Assange rape allegations.[147][148] In February 2013 Benn was among those who gave their support to the People's Assembly in a letter published by The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper.[149] He gave a speech at the People's Assembly Conference held at Westminster Central Hall on 22 June 2013. In 2013, Tony Benn
Tony Benn
reiterated his previous opposition to European integration. Speaking to the Oxford Union
Oxford Union
on the alleged overshadowing of the EU debate by "UKIP and Tory backbenchers", he said:

I took the view that having fought [Europeans in the Second World War] that we should now work with them, and co-operate, and that was my first thought about it. Then how I saw how the European Union was developing, it was very obvious that what they had in mind was not democratic. ... And the way that Europe has developed is that the bankers and the multinational corporations have got very powerful positions, and if you come in on their terms, they will tell you what you can and cannot do. And that is unacceptable. My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy ... I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that.[150]

Illness and death[edit] In 1990, Benn was diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukaemia and given three or four years to live; at this time, he kept the news of his leukaemia from everyone except his immediate family. Benn said: "When you're in parliament, you can't describe your medical condition. People immediately start wondering what your majority is and when there will be a by-election. They're very brutal."[151] This was revealed in 2002 with the release of his 1990–2001 diaries.[151] Benn suffered a stroke in 2012, and spent much of the following year in hospital.[152] He was reported to be "seriously ill" in hospital in February 2014.[153] Benn died at home on 14 March 2014, surrounded by his family, less than a month shy of his 89th birthday.[154][155] Benn's funeral took place on 27 March 2014 at St Margaret's Church, Westminster.[156][157] His body had lain in rest at St Mary Undercroft in the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
the night before the funeral service.[158] The service ended with the singing of "The Red Flag".[159] His body was then cremated; the ashes are expected to be buried alongside those of his wife at the family home near Steeple, Essex.[160] Figures from across the political spectrum praised Benn following his death,[161] and the leaders of all three major political parties (the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats) in the United Kingdom paid tributes to Benn on his death. David Cameron
David Cameron
(Conservative leader and Prime Minister) said:

... he was an extraordinary man: a great writer, a brilliant speaker, extraordinary in Parliament, and a great life of public and political and parliamentary service. I mean, I disagreed with most of what he said. But he was always engaging and interesting, and you were never bored when reading or listening to him, and the country a great campaigner, a great writer, and someone who I'm sure whose words will be followed keenly for many, many years to come.[162][163]

Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg
Nick Clegg
called Benn a "astonishing, iconic figure" and a "veteran parliamentarian, he was a great writer, he had great warmth and he had great conviction ... his political life will be looked back on with affection and admiration".[163] Leader of the Opposition and Labour leader Ed Miliband, who knew Benn personally as a family friend, said:

I think Tony Benn
Tony Benn
will be remembered as a champion of the powerless, as a conviction politician, as somebody of deep principle and integrity. The thing about Tony Benn
Tony Benn
is that you always knew what he stood for, and who he stood up for. And I think that's why he was admired right across the political spectrum. There are people who agreed with him and disagreed with him, including in my own party, but I think people admired that sense of conviction and integrity that shone through from Tony Benn.[162][163]

Diaries and biographies[edit] Benn was a prolific diarist: nine volumes of his diaries have been published. The final volume was published in 2013.[164] Collections of his speeches and writings were published as Arguments for Socialism (1979), Arguments for Democracy (1981), (both edited by Chris Mullin), Fighting Back (1988) and (with Andrew Hood) Common Sense (1993), as well as Free Radical: New Century Essays (2004). In August 2003, London DJ Charles Bailey created an album of Benn's speeches (ISBN 1-904734-03-0) set to ambient groove. He made public several episodes of audio diaries he made during his time in Parliament and after retirement, entitled The Benn Tapes, broadcast originally on BBC Radio
BBC Radio
4. Short series have been played periodically on BBC Radio
BBC Radio
4 Extra.[165] A major biography was written by Jad Adams and published by Macmillan in 1992; it was updated to cover the intervening 20 years and reissued by Biteback Publishing in 2011: Tony Benn: A Biography (ISBN 0-333-52558-2). A more recent "semi-authorised" biography with a foreword by Benn was published in 2001: David Powell, Tony Benn: A Political Life, Continuum Books (ISBN 978-0826464156). An autobiography, Dare to be a Daniel: Then and Now, Hutchinson (ISBN 978-0099471530), was published in 2004. There are substantial essays on Benn in the Dictionary of Labour Biography by Phillip Whitehead, Greg Rosen (eds), Politicos Publishing, 2001 (ISBN 978-1902301181) and in Labour Forces: From Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown, Kevin Jefferys (ed.), I.B. Tauris Publishing, 2002 (ISBN 978-1860647437). Michael Moore
Michael Moore
dedicates his book Mike's Election Guide 2008 (ISBN 978-0141039817) to Benn, with the words: "For Tony Benn, keep teaching us".[166] Plaques[edit] During his final years in Parliament, Benn placed three plaques within the Houses of Parliament. Two are in a room between the Central Lobby and Strangers' Gallery
Strangers' Gallery
that holds a permanent display about the suffragettes.[167] The first was placed in 1995. The second was placed in 1996 and is dedicated to all who work within the Houses of Parliament. The third is dedicated to Suffragette
Suffragette
Emily Wilding Davison and was placed in the broom cupboard next to the Undercroft Chapel within the Palace of Westminster, where Davison is said to have hidden during the 1911 census in order to establish her address as the House of Commons.[168][169] In 2011 Benn unveiled a plaque in Highbury, North London, to commemorate the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
of 1381.[170] Legacy[edit] In Bristol, where Benn first served as a member of parliament, a number of tributes exist in his honour. A bust of him was unveiled in Bristol's City Hall in 2005.[171][172] In 2012 Transport House on Victoria Street, headquarters of Unite the Union's regional office, was officially renamed Tony Benn
Tony Benn
House and opened by Benn himself.[173] As of 2015 he appears, alongside other famous people associated with the city, on the reverse of the Bristol Pound's £B5 banknote.[174] Benn told the Socialist Review
Socialist Review
in 2007 that:

I'd like to have on my gravestone: "He encouraged us." I'm proud to have been in the parliament that introduced the health service, the welfare state and voted against means testing. I did my maiden speech on nationalising the steel industry, put down the first motion for the boycott of South African goods, and resigned from the shadow cabinet in 1958 because of their support for nuclear weapons. I think you do plant a few acorns, and I have lived to see one or two trees growing: gay rights, freedom of information, CND. I'm not claiming them for myself but you feel you have encouraged other people and see the arguments developing. I'm not ashamed of making mistakes. I've made a million mistakes and they're all in the diary. When we edit the diary – which is cut to around 10 percent – every mistake has to be printed because people look to see if you do. I would be ashamed if I thought I'd ever said anything I didn't believe to get on, but making mistakes is part of life, isn't it?[175] Tony Benn
Tony Benn
has been cited as being a key mentor to future leader of the Labour Party Jeremy Corbyn, with his Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell commenting that "they would discuss everything under the sun. Jeremy was very close to Tony right up until the end."[176] Corbyn was elected as leader of the Labour Party a little over a year after Benn's death, an act which Hillary Benn said would have made his father feel "thrilled".[177] Styles[edit]

Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq. (1925 – 12 January 1942) The Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn (12 January 1942 – 30 November 1950) The Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn, MP (30 November 1950 – 17 November 1960) The Rt Hon. the Viscount Stansgate
Viscount Stansgate
(17 November 1960 – 31 July 1963) Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq. (31 July – 20 August 1963) Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq., MP (20 August 1963 – 1964) The Rt Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn, MP (1964 – October 1973) The Rt Hon. Tony Benn, MP (October 1973 – 9 June 1983) The Rt Hon. Tony Benn
Tony Benn
(9 June 1983 – 1 March 1984) The Rt Hon. Tony Benn, MP (1 March 1984 – 7 June 2001) The Rt Hon. Tony Benn
Tony Benn
(7 June 2001 – 14 March 2014)

Bibliography[edit]

Marr, Andrew (2007). A History of Modern Britain. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-51147-6.  Speeches, Spokesman Books (1974); ISBN 0851240917 Levellers
Levellers
and the English Democratic Tradition, Spokesman Books (1976); ISBN 978-0-85124-633-8 Why America Needs Democratic Socialism, Spokesman Books (1978); ISBN 978-0-85124-266-8 Prospects, Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers, Technical, Administrative and Supervisory Section (1979) Case for Constitutional Civil Service, Institute for Workers' Control (1980); ISBN 978-0-901740-67-0 Case for Party Democracy, Institute for Workers' Control (1980); ISBN 978-0-901740-70-0 Arguments for Socialism, Penguin Books
Penguin Books
(1980); ISBN 978-0-14-005489-7 & Chris Mullin, Arguments for Democracy, Jonathan Cape
Jonathan Cape
(1981); ISBN 978-0-224-01878-4 European Unity: A New Perspective, Spokesman Books (1981) ISBN 978-0-85124-326-9 Parliament and Power: Agenda for a Free Society, Verso Books (1982); ISBN 978-0-86091-057-2 & Andrew Hood, Common Sense: New Constitution for Britain, Hutchinson (1993) Free Radical: New Century Essays, Continuum International Publishing (2004); ISBN 978-0-8264-7400-1 Dare to Be a Daniel: Then and Now, Hutchinson (2004); ISBN 978-0-09-179999-1 Letters to my Grandchildren: Thoughts on the Future, Arrow Books (2010); ISBN 978-0-09-953909-4

Diaries[edit]

Years of Hope: Diaries 1940–62, Hutchinson (1994); ISBN 978-0-09-178534-5 Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67, Hutchinson (1987); ISBN 978-0-09-170660-9 Office Without Power: Diaries 1968–72, Hutchinson (1988); ISBN 978-0-09-173647-7 Against the Tide: Diaries 1973–76, Hutchinson (1989); ISBN 978-0-09-173775-7 Conflicts of Interest: Diaries 1977–80, Hutchinson (1990); ISBN 978-0-09-174321-5 The End of an Era: Diaries 1980–90, Hutchinson (1992); ISBN 978-0-09-174857-9 The Benn Diaries: Single Volume Edition 1940–90, Hutchinson (1995); ISBN 978-0-09-179223-7 Free at Last!: Diaries 1991–2001, Hutchinson (2002); ISBN 978-0-09-179352-4 More Time for Politics: Diaries 2001–2007, Hutchinson (2007); ISBN 978-0-09-951705-4 A Blaze of Autumn Sunshine: The Last Diaries, Hutchinson (2013); ISBN 978-0-09-194387-5

See also[edit]

Labour Representation Committee (2004) Republicanism in the United Kingdom Socialist Campaign Group

References[edit]

^ "Moderate":

White, Michael (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn: the establishment insider turned leftwing outsider". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2016. 

Key proponent of democratic socialism:

Duncan Hall (2011). A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action. Lulu.com. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4477-3399-7. 

^ a b Re Parliamentary Election for Bristol South East [1964] 2 Q.B. 257, [1961] 3 W.L.R. 577 ^ "British socialist Tony Benn
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by the actor Saffron Burrows". The Guardian. Stop the War Coalition. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ " Tony Benn
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– The Labour Minister". BBC News. 1 January 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ a b c David Butler; Michael Pinto-Duschinsky (2 July 1971). British General Election of 1970. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-1-349-01095-0.  ^ Benn, Tony (31 January 2013). The Benn Diaries: 1940–1990. Random House. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4464-9373-1.  ^ "Racist Laws 1971" Black History Walks (YouTube) ^ "Marxism in the Labour Party". 2017.  ^ Tony Benn
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(2015). Ruth Winstone, ed. The Best of Benn. p. 127. ISBN 1784750328.  ^ Duncan Watts; Colin Pilkington (29 November 2005). Britain in the European Union Today: Third Edition. Manchester University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-7190-7179-9.  ^ Alistair Jones (2007). Britain and the European Union. Edinburgh University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7486-2428-7.  ^ Butler, David; Kavanagh, Dennis (1974). The British General Election of February 1974. Macmillan. p. 20. ISBN 0333172973.  ^ Hird, Christopher (December 1981). "The Crippled Giants". New Internationalist. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ Benn, Tony (1995). The Benn Diaries. Arrow. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-09-963411-9.  ^ Benn, Tony (31 January 2013). The Benn Diaries: 1940–1990. Random House. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-4464-9373-1.  ^ Hoggart, Simon (18 October 2013). "Simon Hoggart's week: the honour of being loathed". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ a b c Bagley, Richard (1 May 2014). "Into The Archives: Tony Benn
Tony Benn
On The True Power Of Democracy". The Morning Star. Retrieved 2 April 2016.  ^ Powell, David (2003). Tony Benn: a political life (2nd ed.). London & New York: Continuum. pp. 82, 84. ISBN 0-8264-7074-2.  ^ Benn, Tony (1988). Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67. Arrow. p. xi–xiii. ISBN 978-0-09-958670-8.  ^ Benn, Tony (1988). Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67. p. xiii.  ^ Kavanagh, Dennis (1990). "Tony Benn: Nuisance or Conscience?". In Kavanagh, Dennis. Politics and Personalities. p. 184.  ^ Gardiner, George (7 May 1978). "Are these MPs TRYING to do the Kremlin's dirty work?" (PDF). The Sunday Express. p. 16. Retrieved 9 April 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Matthews, Nick (14 April 2014). "Benn, co-ops and workplace democracy". The Morning Star. p. 20. Retrieved 9 April 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Kavanagh, Dennis (1990). "Tony Benn: Nuisance or Conscience?". In Kavanagh, Dennis. Politics and Personalities. Macmillan. p. 78.  ^ Warden, John (13 June 1974). "Heath broadside for ' Commissar
Commissar
Benn'". The Glasgow Herald.  ^ Whiteley, Paul; Gordon, Ian (11 January 1980). "The Labour Party: Middle Class, Militant and Male". New Statesman: 41–42.  ^ "Benn's call for SF to take seats". BBC News
BBC News
Online. 12 May 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Peterkin, Tom (18 August 2012). "Scottish independence: Tony Benn: 'UK split would divide me with a knife'". The Scotsman. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ Dave, Kellaway. "Benn and Bennism". LeftUnity. Retrieved 13 June 2014.  ^ Marr, pp. 392–395 (The Left at War With Itself). ^ Emery, Fred (30 September 1980). "Mr Benn proposes timetable of one month to abolish Lords and leave EEC". The Times, archived by Gale Group. Retrieved 3 May 2010. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Peter Childs; Michael Storry (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. Routledge. p. 485. ISBN 1-134-75555-4.  ^ Donald Sassoon (30 July 2010). One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. I.B.Tauris. p. 698. ISBN 978-0-85771-530-2.  ^ Gerald M. Pomper (1988). Voters, Elections, and Parties: The Practice of Democratic Theory. Transaction Publishers. p. 375. ISBN 978-1-4128-4112-2.  ^ Seyd, Patrick (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Labour Left. Macmillan Education. p. 165. ISBN 0-333-44748-4.  ^ "House of Commons Statement: Falkland Islands". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 15 June 1982. Retrieved 4 October 2007.  ^ "Benn on the couch". The Sun. News international. 1 March 1984.  ^ "Labour's new line-up". The Times. archived by Gale Group. 3 November 1983. Retrieved 3 May 2010. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Chapter 06; ...1974 strike...a conversation with miners...Labour government... Benn helps divide miners..." libcom.org. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Robertson, Jack (23 April 2010). "25 years after the Great Miners' Strike". International Socialism. London, UK: Socialist Workers Party (126). Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Militant Video: Wembley Conference Centre 1984 (YouTube video). YouTube. Militant. 20 October 1984.  ^ Charlton, Corey (26 December 2014). "What the KGB thought of cabinet minister Tony Benn". Mail Online. Retrieved 10 April 2016.  ^ "Miners' Amnesty (General Pardon)". Hansard. House of Commons. 28 June 1985. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ a b Stadlen, Nick (8 December 2006). "Brief Encounter: Tony Benn". The Guardian. London, UK: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Hearse, Phil (15 March 2014). "Tony Benn: A Vision to Inspire and Mobilise". Socialist Resistance. Retrieved 6 February 2016. He readily took up the banner of LGBT struggles, what was then known as lesbian and gay liberation.  ^ a b c Roberts, Scott (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn: "Long before it was accepted I did support gay rights"". Pink News. Retrieved 22 May 2015.  ^ Hansard, HC Deb (22 November 1990) vol 181, cols 439–518, at 486 ^ " Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Britain Bill". Hansard. House of Commons. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Benn, Tony; Hood, Andrew (17 June 1993). Hood, Andrew, ed. Common Sense: New Constitution for Britain. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-177308-3.  ^ Alan Taylor (2009). Those who Marched Away: An Anthology of the World's Greatest War Diaries. Canongate. p. 601. ISBN 978-1-84767-415-9.  ^ "Column 333". Hansard, House of Commons. 20 November 1991. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  ^ Brian MacArthur (3 May 2012). The Penguin Book of Modern Speeches. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
Limited. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-14-190916-5.  ^ Daniel Hannan
Daniel Hannan
(24 March 2016). Why Vote Leave. Head of Zeus. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-78497-709-2.  ^ Freedland, Jonathan (9 October 2015). "EU referendum: the next big populist wave could sweep Britain out of Europe". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  ^ Delaney, Sam (14 March 2014). " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
interview: "Labour suffered greatly through Tony Blair"". Big Issue. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Benn, Tony (4 September 2010). "Tony Benn: 'What is really significant about Tony Blair
Tony Blair
was that he set up a new political party, New Labour'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ Mortimer, Jim (20 November 2002). "Tony Benn: An inspiring symbol of political steadfastness and advocacy" (PDF). Morning Star. p. 9. Retrieved 7 April 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Mortimer, Jim (6 May 2003). "Telling it straight" (PDF). Morning Star. p. 8. Retrieved 7 April 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
dies: watch archive clip of Labour stalwart in Parliament". The Daily Telegraph. 14 March 2014.  ^ Allegretti, Aubrey (3 December 2015). "If Tony Benn
Tony Benn
Were Here Today, He Might Use This Iraq Speech To Defend Not Bombing Syria". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 8 April 2016.  ^ "50 Soho
Soho
brothels targeted in raids". Herald Scotland. 16 February 2001. Retrieved 22 March 2014.  ^ Niki Adams; Tony Benn; et al. (22 February 2001). "Law violates sex workers". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 March 2014.  ^ Younge, Gary (20 July 2002). "The stirrer". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 March 2014.  ^ "Full text of Benn interview with Saddam". BBC News. 4 February 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "'Million' march against Iraq war". BBC News. 16 February 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "Elected positions". Stop the War Coalition. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Irwin, Colin (31 January 2013). " BBC Radio
BBC Radio
2 Folk awards 2013 names Nic Jones singer of the year". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ "Radio 2 Folk Awards 2003". Press Office. BBC. 11 February 2003.  ^ Jonze, Tim (24 June 2007). "Glastonbury festival: Tony Benn
Tony Benn
on 'a self-generating community'". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 January 2013.  ^ "Question Time: A question of citizenship". BBC News. 1 July 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Joseph, Joe (22 June 2005). "Benn's stall sells democracy short". The Times. p. 27. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Staff (28 September 2005). " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
'comfortable' in hospital after fall". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "Benn gets pacemaker after fall". BBC News. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ "Thousands at city's anti-war demo". BBC News. 23 September 2006. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ James Walsh (15 March 2014). "10 of the best Tony Benn
Tony Benn
quotes – as picked by our readers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 August 2014.  ^ "The Magnificent Seven political heroes..." BBC News. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 4 October 2007.  ^ "Give us EU referendum, says Benn". BBC News. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "I want to be an MP again – Benn". BBC News. 4 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.  ^ Attewill, Fred (4 October 2007). "Benn: I want to return to parliament". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 October 2007.  ^ "Tony Benn, pop star". The Daily Telegraph. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2014.  ^ "House music: Tony Benn's debut solo album". The Independent. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2014.  ^ Wilkins, Jonathan (21 August 2008). "Doctor Who: The War Machines Review". Total SciFi Online. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ a b c Sparrow, Andrew (18 September 2009). "Cameron joins Daniel Hannan in Tony Benn
Tony Benn
fan club". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Going out in a blaze of anger: The almost unbearably moving diaries of a Labour contrarian". Mail Online. 2 November 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ a b Khairoun, Abdel (September 2009). "Big Benn Chimes in to Dartford" (PDF). Dartford Living. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Clive Conway Celebrity Productions – An Audience with an Evening With Tony Benn". celebrityproductions.info. 2011. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2016 – via the Wayback Machine.  ^ " University of Glamorgan
University of Glamorgan
honours contributions to public life, communities, science, literature, and sport". news.glam.ac.uk. 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.  ^ Hundal, Sunny (9 August 2010). "Tony Benn's 'coalition of resistance' needs a strategy Sunny Hundal". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2016.  ^ Benn, Tony (4 August 2010). "The time to organise resistance is now Tony Benn
Tony Benn
and 73 others". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2016.  ^ Goodman, Amy; Benn, Tony (21 September 2010). " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
on Tony Blair: "He Will Have to Live 'Til the Day He Dies with the Knowledge that He Is Guilty of a War Crime"". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ Rattansi, Afshin; Benn, Tony (16 December 2013). "Big Benn: Blair committed war crimes in Iraq". RT International. Retrieved 31 March 2016.  ^ "Labour drückt sich vor Irak-Debatte" [Labour shirks Iraq debate]. Süddeutsche Zeitung
Süddeutsche Zeitung
(in German). 11 May 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2016. Der Veteran der Labour-Linken, Tony Benn, sagte, der Irak-Krieg habe Blair das "Vertrauen der Nation" gekostet.  ^ Richard Kay "Frail Tony Benn
Tony Benn
downsizes to £750,000 flat (well, his house was worth £3m)", Daily Mail, 1 November 2011; retrieved 5 November 2011. ^ "Goldsmiths academics pay tribute to Tony Benn". Goldsmiths, University of London. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ "Benn sorry for dismissing Assange rape allegations". Liberal Conspiracy. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2014.  ^ People's Assembly opening letter, The Guardian, 5 February 2013. ^ Tony Benn
Tony Benn
(25 March 2013). European Union. Oxford Union.  ^ a b "Tony Benn: My fight with leukaemia". The Scotsman. 29 September 2002. Retrieved 10 April 2016.  ^ "Tony Benn, veteran Labour politician, dies aged 88". The Guardian. 14 March 2014.  ^ " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
seriously ill in hospital", BBC News, 12 February 2014. ^ " BBC News
BBC News
– Labour stalwart Tony Benn
Tony Benn
dies at 88". BBC Online. Retrieved 14 March 2014.  ^ Anderson, Steve (14 March 2004). " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
dead: Veteran Labour politician passes away aged 88". The Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2014.  ^ "Tony Benn's funeral takes place in Westminster". BBC. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ Owen Jones (27 March 2014). "Bedfellows and foes unite at Tony Benn's funeral". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ "Queen approves Tony Benn
Tony Benn
overnight vigil in Parliament's chapel". BBC. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ "Tony Benn's funeral ends with rendition of The Red Flag". Daily Telegraph. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ William Watkinson (27 March 2014). " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
funeral: Crowds gather for Westminster send-off". Essex Chronicle. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.  ^ Dominiczak, Peter; Swinford, Steve (14 March 2014). "'I hope I didn't cause offence': Tony Benn's message from beyond the grave". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 February 2016.  ^ a b " David Cameron
David Cameron
and Ed Miliband
Ed Miliband
pay tribute to Tony Benn
Tony Benn
– video". The Guardian. ITN. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ a b c "Tributes to former MP Tony Benn
Tony Benn
from key politicians". BBC News Online. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ "Happy Birthday Tony Benn, 87", The Times, 3 April 2012. ^ " BBC Radio
BBC Radio
7 Programmes – The Benn Tapes". BBC. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ Goodman, Amy (1 November 2008). " Michael Moore
Michael Moore
on the Election, the Bailout, Healthcare, and 10 Proposals for the Next President by Michael Moore". Democracy Now!. ZCommunications. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010 – via the Wayback Machine.  ^ "Suffragettes display". www.parliament.uk. UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ "Benn's secret tribute to suffragette martyr". BBC News. 17 March 1999. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "Plaque to Emily Wilding Davison". www.parliament.uk. Uk Parliament. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.  ^ " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
to unveil Islington People's Plaque commemorating the Peasants' Revolt". Islington Borough Council. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "Bust celebrates politician's work". BBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2015.  ^ " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
remembered 1925 – 2014". Bristol Post. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015.  ^ "Former Bristol Labour MP Tony Benn
Tony Benn
opens union HQ". BBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2015.  ^ "New Bristol Pounds". Bristol Pound. Retrieved 4 July 2015.  ^ Benn, Tony; German, Lindsey; Orr, Judith (September 2007). "Interview" (317). Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ Boffey, Daniel (15 August 2015). "Jeremy Corbyn's world: his friends, supporters, mentors and influences". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2017.  ^ Murphy, Joe (25 September 2015). "Hilary Benn: Dad would've been thrilled by Jeremy Corbyn's win". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tony Benn.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Tony Benn

By date

Contributions in Parliament by Tony Benn. Hansard, 1925 – 2005. Late Developer: Review of Against the Tide: Diaries 1973–1976 by Tony Benn. Author – Paul Foot, 1985. Andrew Roth. " Tony Benn
Tony Benn
Chesterfield and Bristol South East MP". The Guardian, 25 March 2001. The Guardian
The Guardian
web guide to Benn.. 6 June 2002. Face-to-Face with Tony Benn. Freeview video interview by the Vega Science Trust. Recorded in 2005. Benn, Tony. "Exclusive Interview". Glastonbury Festival. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2016 – via the Wayback Machine.  Tony Benn. "Atomic hypocrisy: West is not in a position to take a high moral line". The Guardian, 30 November 2005. Interview with Tony Benn
Tony Benn
– Radio France Internationale. 28 March 2008 – 6-minute audio – Ahead of G20 marches, London. Tony Benn
Tony Benn
on Tony Blair: "He Is Guilty of a War Crime". Video report by Democracy Now!. 21 September 2010. Obituary: Tony Benn. BBC News, 14 March 2014. Tony Benn: a stalwart of the peace and anti-nuclear movement. Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, 14 March 2014.

Other

Audio interview with The Guardian. His Address to the College Historical Society
College Historical Society
of Trinity College. Private Eye
Private Eye
depictions of Benn: "Most Dangerous Man in Britain", "Labour United", "Benn's Triumph", "Foot & Benn Disease", "Would You Buy a New Car From This Man?". Tony Benn
Tony Benn
on Modern Liberty. Tony Benn
Tony Benn
speaking for The Convention on Modern Liberty. YouTube. 23 February 2009. Unofficial Tony Benn
Tony Benn
quotation site. Works by or about Tony Benn
Tony Benn
at Internet Archive Works by Tony Benn
Tony Benn
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Parliament of the United Kingdom

Preceded by Stafford Cripps MP for Bristol South East 1950–1960 Succeeded by Malcolm St Clair

Preceded by Peter Baker Baby of the House 1950 Succeeded by Thomas Leslie Teevan

Preceded by Thomas Leslie Teevan Baby of the House 1951–1954 Succeeded by John Eden

Preceded by Malcolm St Clair MP for Bristol South East 1963–1983 Constituency abolished

Preceded by Eric Varley MP for Chesterfield 1984–2001 Succeeded by Paul Holmes

Political offices

Preceded by Reginald Bevins Postmaster General 1964–1966 Succeeded by Edward Short

Preceded by Frank Cousins Minister of Technology 1966–1970 Succeeded by Geoffrey Rippon

Preceded by Peter Walker Secretary of State for Industry 1974–1975 Succeeded by Eric Varley

Preceded by Eric Varley Secretary of State for Energy 1975–1979 Succeeded by David Howell

Party political offices

Preceded by Brian Abel-Smith Chairman of the Fabian Society 1964–1965 Succeeded by Peter Townsend

Preceded by Ian Mikardo Chairman of the Labour Party 1971–1972 Succeeded by William Simpson

Non-profit organisation positions

New office President of the Stop the War Coalition 2001–2014 Vacant To be decided[update]

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Preceded by William Wedgwood Benn Viscount Stansgate 1960–1963 Disclaimed Title next held by Stephen Benn

v t e

Second Wilson Cabinet

Tony Benn James Callaghan Barbara Castle Anthony Crosland Lord Elwyn-Jones Michael Foot Denis Healey Roy Jenkins Harold Lever Roy Mason Bob Mellish John Morris Fred Mulley Stanley Orme Fred Peart Reg Prentice Merlyn Rees Bill Rodgers Willie Ross Lord Shepherd Peter Shore Edward Short John Silkin Eric Varley Shirley Williams Harold Wilson

v t e

Callaghan Cabinet

James Callaghan

Joel Barnett Tony Benn Albert Booth Anthony Crosland Edmund Dell Lord Elwyn-Jones David Ennals Michael Foot Roy Hattersley Denis Healey Roy Jenkins Harold Lever Roy Mason Bruce Millan John Morris Fred Mulley Stanley Orme David Owen Lord Peart Reg Prentice Merlyn Rees Bill Rodgers Lord Shepherd Peter Shore John Silkin John Smith Eric Varley Shirley Williams

v t e

Babies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom

Dickson Levy-Lawson Gordon-Lennox Harrison Cavendish F. Smith Curran Milton Scott Hill Rigg Turnour Wodehouse Mills Wolmer Sassoon Esmonde Whitty Stanley Sweeney Harmsworth Evans Rhys Lucas-Tooth Lee Owen Robinson Willoughby de Eresby C. Taylor Macmillan Profumo Millington Carson Jenkins Baker Benn Teevan Benn Eden Woollam Clarke Kirk Kimball Cooke Ferranti Wolrige-Gordon Channon E. Taylor Steel Ryan Huckfield Devlin Elis-Thomas Hayman MacKay Alton Dorrell Sands Dorrell Carron Kennedy M. Taylor Leslie Lammy Teather Swinson C. Smith Nash Black

v t e

Energy Secretaries of the United Kingdom

Minister of Fuel, Light and Power

Gwilym Lloyd George Manny Shinwell Hugh Gaitskell Philip Noel-Baker

Minister of Co-ordination of Transport, Fuel and Power

Frederik Leathers

Minister of Fuel and Power

Geoffrey Lloyd Aubrey Jones

Minister of Power

Percy Mills Richard Wood Frederick Erroll

Minister of Technology

Frank Cousins Tony Benn

Secretary of State for Trade and Industry

John Davies Peter Walker

Secretary of State for Energy

Lord Carrington Eric Varley Tony Benn David Howell Nigel Lawson Peter Walker Cecil Parkinson John Wakeham

President of the Board of Trade
President of the Board of Trade
and Secretary of State for Trade and Industry

Michael Heseltine Ian Lang Margaret Beckett Peter Mandelson Stephen Byers Patricia Hewitt Alan Johnson Alistair Darling

Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform

John Hutton

Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change

Ed Miliband Chris Huhne Ed Davey Amber Rudd

Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Greg Clark

v t e

Presidents of the Board of Trade

Shaftesbury Bridgewater Stamford Weymouth Stamford Winchilsea Guilford Berkeley Suffolk Holderness Fitzwalter Monson Halifax Sandys Townshend Shelburne Hillsborough Dartmouth Hillsborough Nugent Hillsborough Dartmouth Sackville Carlisle Grantham Sydney Liverpool Montrose Auckland Bathurst Clancarty Robinson Huskisson Grant Vesey-Fitzgerald Herries Auckland Thomson Baring Thomson Labouchere Ripon Gladstone Dalhousie Clarendon Labouchere Henley Cardwell Stanley Henley Dnoughmore Gibson Northcote Richmond Bright Parkinson-Fortescue Adderley Sandon Chamberlain Richmond Stanhope Mundella Stanley Hicks Beach Mundella Bryce Ritchie Balfour Salisbury Lloyd George Churchill Buxton Burns Runciman Stanley Geddes Horne Baldwin Cunliffe-Lister Graham Cunliffe-Lister Runciman Stanley Duncan Lyttelton Duncan Llewellin Dalton Lyttelton Cripps Wilson Shawcross Thorneycroft Eccles Maulding Erroll Heath Jay Crosland Mason Noble Davies Walker Benn Varley Joseph Jenkin Shore Dell Smith Nott Biffen Cockfield Parkinson Tebbit Brittan Channon Young Ridley Lilley Heseltine Lang Beckett Mandelson Byers Hewitt Johnson Darling Hutton Mandelson Cable Javid Clark Fox

v t e

Labour Party deputy leadership election, 1981

Re-Elected Deputy Leader: Denis Healey

Tony Benn Denis Healey John Silkin

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 109553597 LCCN: n81072696 ISNI: 0000 0003 6856 0808 GND: 118983296 SELIBR: 39922 SUDOC: 03180814X BNF: cb122949065 (data) MusicBrainz: 969ab2ff-7108-4e7e-bf9f-03d0313acc4e BNE: XX5552

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