Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese
United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese
Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and
underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren,
and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905. It was formed
from the merger of many Chinese revolutionary groups in the late Qing
1.1 Revolutionary era
1.2 Republican era
2 Slogan and motto
3 See also
5 External links
Credential of Tongmenghui.
Tongmenghui was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's
Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society), the
Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups. Among the
Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen
Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li
Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
In 1906, a branch of the
Tongmenghui was formed in Singapore,
following Sun's visit there; this was called the Nanyang branch and
served as headquarters of the organization for Southeast Asia. The
members of the branch included Wong Hong-kui (黃康衢; Huang
Kangqu), Tan Chor Lam (陳楚楠; Chen Chu'nan; 1884-1971) and
Teo Eng Hock (張永福; Zhang Yongfu; originally a rubber shoe
manufacturer). Tan Chor Lam, Teo Eng Hock and Chan Po-yin
(陳步賢; Chen Buxian; 1883-1965) started the revolution-related
Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報, 中興 meaning
China revival), with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a
daily distribution of 1,000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910,
presumably due to the
Xinhai Revolution in 1911. Working with other
Cantonese people, Tan, Teo and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai
Ming Bookstore (開明書報社, 開明 meaning open wisdom) in
Singapore. For the revolution, Chan Po-yin raised over 30,000 yuan for
the purchase and shipment (from
Singapore to China) of military
equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling
Singapore to China for revolutionary work.
In 1909, the headquarters of the Nanyang
Tongmenghui was transferred
to Penang. Sun Yat-Sen himself was based in Penang from July to
December 1910. During this time, the 1910 Penang Conference was held
to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising. The
Tongmenghui also started a
newspaper, the Kwong Wah Jit Poh, with the first issue published in
December 1910 from 120 Armenian Street, Penang.
In Henan, some Chinese Muslims were members of the Tongmenghui.
After Shanghai was occupied by the revolutionaries in November 1911,
Tongmenghui moved its headquarters from
Tokyo to Shanghai. After
the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, the headquarters
was moved to Nanjing. A general meeting was held in Nanking on 20
January 1912, with thousands of members attending. Hu Hanmin, who
represented the Provisional President Sun Yat-sen, moved that the
Tongmenghui oath be changed to "overthrow the Manchu government,
consolidate the Republic of China, and implement the Min Sheng Chu I".
Wang Jingwei was elected as Chairman, succeeding Sun. Wang resigned
the following month, and Sun resumed the chairmanship.
After the establishment of the Republic of China, Tongmenghui
transformed itself into a political party on 3 March 1912, in
preparation for participation in constitutional and parliamentary
activities. It issued a new constitution with 34 articles, 10 more
than when it was a secret society. The leadership election was held on
the same day, with
Sun Yat-sen elected as Chairman,
Huang Xing and Li
Yuanhung as Vice-Chairmen. In May 1912,
Tongmenghui moved its
headquarters to Beijing. At that time,
Tongmenghui was the largest
party in China, with branches in Guangdong, Szechuan, Wuhan, Shanghai,
Hangzhou, Suzhou, Anqing, Fuzhou and Tianjin. It had a membership of
about 550 thousand. In August 1912, the
Tongmenghui formed the
nucleus of the Kuomintang, the governing political party of the
Slogan and motto
In 1904, by combining republican, nationalist, and socialist
Tongmenghui came up with their political goal: to
expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a
Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people.
(驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權 Qūchú
dálǔ, huīfù Zhōnghuá, chuànglì mínguó, píngjūn dì
Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People were created around the
time of the merging of
Revive China Society
Revive China Society and the
Revive China Society
History of the Republic of China
^ "The Manchu Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Internal Threats". Countries
Quest. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
^ a b 計秋楓; 朱慶葆 (2001). 中國近代史. Volume 1. Chinese
University Press. p. 468. ISBN 9789622019874.
^ 尤列事略补述一. ifeng.com (in Chinese). Phoenix New
^ 陈楚楠 [Chen Chu'nan]. Baidu Baike (in Chinese). 3 December
^ 张永福 [Zhang Yongfu]. Baidu Baike (in Chinese). Baidu. 6 May
^ 中兴日报 [ZTE Daily]. Baidu Baike (in Chinese). Baidu. 8
^ 张冬冬 (21 October 2011).
Century: exploring the Tongmenhui publisher's hundred-year secret].
China News (in Chinese). Singapore. China News Service.
^ Chan Chung, Rebecca; Chung, Deborah; Ng Wong, Cecilia (2012).
Piloted to Serve.
^ "Piloted to Serve". Facebook.
^ Allès, Elisabeth (September–October 2003). "Notes on some joking
relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan". China
^ a b Zhang, Yufa (1985). 民國初年的政黨 [Minguo chu nian de
zheng dang]. Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica.
^ Sharman, Lyon (1968). Sun Yat-sen: His life and its meaning, a
critical biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 94,
^ Li Chien-Nung; Li Jiannong; Teng, Ssu-yu; Ingalls, Jeremy (1956).
The political history of China, 1840-1928. Stanford University Press.
pp. 203–206. ISBN 9780804706025.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tongmenghui.
Tongmenhui activities in the US
Lu Muzhen (first wife)
Kaoru Otsuki (second wife)
Soong Ching-ling (third wife)
Sun Fo (son)
Sun Yat-sen University
Three Principles of the People