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The Info List - Tong Pass


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(i)

TONGGUAN COUNTY is a county in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, China
China
, administered as part of the prefecture -level city of Weinan
Weinan
. Its eponymous county seat , formerly romanized as TUNGKWAN, lies south of the confluence of the Wei and Yellow Rivers . It is the southeastern corner of the Ordos Loop , the point at which the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
turn the Yellow River sharply eastward, forcing it into the North China
China
Plain . During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the TONG PASS or TONGGUAN pass was an important chokepoint, protecting Xi\'an and the surrounding Guanzhong
Guanzhong
area from outside attack. It now lies at the intersection of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, Shanxi
Shanxi
, and Henan
Henan
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 External links

HISTORY

Chinese civilization first grew up along the Wei , Luo , and Yellow River valleys of the Loess Plateau
Loess Plateau
before expanding out into the "barbarians " who held the North China
China
Plain . The state of Qin fortified the Hangu Pass to the east of Tongguan as its eastern border and it continued to protect the Chinese heartland from outside attack during the Qin and Han dynasties . During the Eastern Han that succeeded Wang Mang
Wang Mang
's short-lived " Xin dynasty
Xin dynasty
", the guards at Hangu reversed themselves and protected Luoyang
Luoyang
in the plains from attacks coming from the west. From the time of the AD 211 Battle of Tongguan , however, Tongguan replaced the Hangu Pass as the principal strategic post between the Guanzhong
Guanzhong
area and the North China
China
Plain. Under the Tang , the fall of Tongguan to An Lushan
An Lushan
's rebels led directly to their capture of the capital Chang\'an (now Xi\'an , Shaanxi
Shaanxi
).

NOTES

* ^ Tongguan has also been romanized as TUNG-KWAN.

REFERENCES

* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. (1878) , Vol. V, "China". * ^ Chinese History - Tang Dynasty: The Rebellion of An Lushan

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