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The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
refers to a monument (cenotaph) in dedication to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war. Such tombs can be found in many nations and are usually high-profile national monuments. Throughout history, many soldiers have died in war with their remains being unidentified. Following World War I, a movement arose to commemorate these soldiers with a single tomb, containing the body of one such unidentified soldier.

Contents

1 History

1.1 France
France
and the United Kingdom 1.2 Other countries

2 Symbolism 3 Examples 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] France
France
and the United Kingdom[edit] During the First World War, the British and French armies who were allies during the war jointly decided to bury soldiers themselves. In the UK, under the Imperial War Graves Commission (now Commonwealth War Graves Commission), the Reverend David Railton
David Railton
had seen a grave marked by a rough cross while serving in the British Army
British Army
as a chaplain on the Western Front, which bore the pencil-written legend "An Unknown British Soldier".[1] He suggested (together with the French in their own country) the creation at a national level of a symbolic funeral and burial of an "Unknown Warrior", proposing that the grave should in the UK include a national monument in the form of what is usually, but not in this particular case, a headstone. The idea received the support of the Dean of Westminster, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and later from King George V, responding to a wave of public support.[1] At the same time, a similar concern grew in France. In November 1916, a local officer of Le Souvenir français proposed the idea of burying "an ignored soldier" in the Panthéon. A formal bill was presented in Parliament in November 1918. The decision was voted into law on September 1919.[2] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and France
France
conducted services connected with their 'monumental' graves (as presumably newly conceived, and in any case approved, by their respective armies) on Armistice Day
Armistice Day
1920 (the burial itself taking place later in January of the following year in France). In the UK, the Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Warrior was created at Westminster Abbey, while in France
France
La tombe du soldat inconnu was placed in the Arc de Triomphe. Other countries[edit] The idea of a symbolic Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
then spread to other countries. In 1921, the Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknowns in the United States, the Túmulo do Soldado Desconhecido in Portugal
Portugal
and the La tomba del Milite Ignoto in Italy
Italy
were all unveiled. Other nations have followed the practice and created their own tombs. In the United States
United States
and other countries, tombs have also been created representing the fallen of other wars in their history. In Chile
Chile
and Ukraine, second 'unknown tombs' were unveiled to commemorate The Unknown Sailor. Symbolism[edit] The Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers typically contain the remains of a dead soldier who is unidentified (or "known but to God" as the stone is sometimes inscribed).[3] These remains are considered impossible to be identified, and so serve as a symbol for all of a country's unknown dead wherever they fell in the war being remembered. The anonymity of the entombed soldier is the key symbolism of the monument; it could be the tomb of anyone who fell in service of the nation, and therefore serves as a monument symbolizing all of the sacrifices. Examples[edit] Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers from around the world and various wars include:

Countries Location Image Description

 Argentina Metropolitan Cathedral in Buenos Aires

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
of the Independence

 Australia Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
in Canberra

The tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier
Soldier
at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.

 Austria Heldenplatz
Heldenplatz
in Vienna

[citation needed]

 Bangladesh Jatiyo Smriti Soudho
Jatiyo Smriti Soudho
in Savar Upazila

Jatiyo Sriti Shoudho (Bengali: জাতীয় স্মৃতি সৌধ Jatio Sriti Shoudho) or National Martyrs' Memorial is the national monument of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is the symbol in the memory of the valour and the sacrifice of all those who gave their lives in the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War of 1971, many of whom were buried in mass graves in that park.The monument is located in Savar, about 35 km north-west of the capital, Dhaka. It was designed by Syed Mainul Hossain.

Shikha Onirban or 'Eternal Flame' in Dhaka

Shikha Onirban was built to commemorate the valour and the sacrifices of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Armed Forces Soldiers died In the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War in 1971.

 Belgium Congress Column
Congress Column
in Brussels

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
at the base of the location.

 Bolivia Monumento al Soldado Desconocido in La Paz

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, center piece of the location.[citation needed]

 Brazil Monument to the dead of World War II, Flamengo Park
Flamengo Park
in Rio de Janeiro.

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
on the monument's platform.

Brazilian Monument and Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
of World War II, near Pistoia, Italy.

Votive Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, with monument pavilion.

 Bulgaria Monument to the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Sofia

Monument to the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Haskovo.[citation needed]

 Canada Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
at the National War Memorial, Confederation Square
Confederation Square
in Ottawa

[4]

 Chile General Manuel Baquedano
Manuel Baquedano
Square in Santiago

Contains the remains of a soldier who died in 1881 during the War of the Pacific.[citation needed]

Plaza de la Ciudadanía
Plaza de la Ciudadanía
(Citizenship Square), Santiago

Contains the remains of a soldier found in Perú.[citation needed] Died in 1881 during the War of the Pacific.

Cripta del Morro de Arica
Morro de Arica
( Morro de Arica
Morro de Arica
Crypt), Arica

Contains the remains of a soldier found in 1998.[citation needed] Died during the War of the Pacific.

Unknown Sailor Monument

A monument built in honor to the sailors that fought and died in the Battle of Iquique, a naval battle off the coast of Chile.

 Czech Republic National Monument on Vítkov Hill in Prague

Contains remains of an unknown Czech soldier fallen at the Battle of Zborov as well as an unknown Czechoslovak soldier fallen at the Battle of Dukla, a part of a larger memorial to all Czechoslovak soldiers.

 Dominican Republic Flag Square of Santo Domingo

The Arc of the Square contains the tomb of the soldier who died for the freedom of the Dominicans in the Dominican War of Independence.

 Egypt Unknown Soldier
Soldier
Memorial in Cairo

Also includes the tomb of President Anwar Sadat.

Alexandria Naval Unknown Soldier
Soldier
Memorial

 Estonia Defence Forces Cemetery in Tallinn

 Finland Hietaniemi cemetery
Hietaniemi cemetery
in Helsinki

In the centre of the military cemetery are the tombs of the unknown soldier and Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim.

 France Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
beneath the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
de l'Étoile in Paris

 Gambia Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
behind Arch 22
Arch 22
in Banjul

 Germany Unter den Linden, Berlin

Within a 19th-century guardhouse, the Neue Wache.

 Greece Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
on Syntagma Square
Syntagma Square
in Athens

Two quotations by Thucydides, from Pericles' Funeral Oration,[5][6] are inscribed on the retaining wall: Μία κλίνη κενὴ φέρεται ἐστρωμένη τῶν ἀφανῶν ("... and one bed is carried empty, made for the unknown ones"), and Ἀνδρῶν ἐπιφανῶν πᾶσα γῆ τάφος ("The whole earth is the burial ground of famous men"). The inscriptions flank a central sculpture in low relief, depicting a dying hoplite. The names of battlefields where Greeks have fought since independence are inscribed on the monument. The monument is guarded round the clock by the Evzones
Evzones
of the Presidential Guard.

 Hungary Heroes' Square in Budapest

 India Amar Jawan Jyoti, New Delhi

Burning in a shrine under the arch of India
India
Gate since 1971 is the Amar Jawan Jyoti
Amar Jawan Jyoti
(the flame of the immortal soldier) which marks the Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier. The shrine itself is a black marble cenotaph with a rifle placed on its barrel, crested by a soldier's helmet. Each face of the cenotaph has inscribed in gold the words "Amar Jawan" (Immortal Warrior) in Hindi (Devanagri script). The Prime Minister of India
India
pays homage to the country's fallen soldiers along with the Chiefs of Staff of each arm of the Armed Forces on each Republic Day of India.

 Indonesia The Pandu war cemetery at Bandung

The Field of Honor is a memorial to the unknown soldier. There is also the Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown (Dutch) Sailor in Kembang Kuning war cemetery in Surabaya.[7]

 Iran Chizar, Tehran

In Iran, unknown soldiers are buried in public places. Chizar
Chizar
is the largest of all.

Behesht Zahra, Tehran

 Iraq The Monument to the Unknown Soldier, Baghdad https://i.pinimg.com/originals/eb/72/87/eb7287945e5c534d3752aa9a96ff8611.jpg

 Israel Garden of the Missing in Action
Garden of the Missing in Action
in Mount Herzl, Jerusalem

Initially called the "Unknown Soldier
Soldier
Monument", the garden commemorates IDF soldiers whose burial place is unknown. A National Memorial Hall featuring a new memorial to the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
is scheduled to open nearby in 2015.

 Italy Piazza Venezia
Piazza Venezia
in Rome

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Milite Ignoto in the Altare della Patria
Altare della Patria
(Vittoriano).

 Japan Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery
Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery
in Tokyo

Ryozen Kannon
Ryozen Kannon
in Kyoto

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
of the World in Ogose, Saitama

Dai Heiwa Kinen Tō
Dai Heiwa Kinen Tō
in Tondabayashi, Osaka

 Lebanon Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Lebanon, Beirut, Mathaf

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Lebanon
Lebanon
represents the forming and independence of the Lebanese Armed Forces
Lebanese Armed Forces
from the French Army
French Army
in 1943.[8] The tomb also commemorates soldiers of the Legion of Orient[9] and the Army of the Levant
Army of the Levant
during the French Mandate of Lebanon
Lebanon
from 1920 to 1943.[8] The cenotaph in the middle includes a Cedrus libani
Cedrus libani
tree surrounded by a laurel; the main symbol of Roman Legions. Around the cedar tree and laurel reads in Arabic : "Glory and Immortality for our Martyred Heroes". Behind the cenotaph are original Roman Columns.

 Lithuania Vienybės Square in Kaunas

Tomb
Tomb
of Nežinomas kareivis, with remains of soldier who died in fights against Bolsheviks in 1919.

 Malaysia National Monument in Kuala Lumpur

Completed in 1966 to commemorate combatants who fought against Japanese occupation of pre-independence Malaysia
Malaysia
in World War II
World War II
and the Malayan Races Liberation Army
Malayan Races Liberation Army
insurgency during the Malayan Emergency. Also includes a pre-independence cenotaph, which was shifted from its original location closer to the old town of Kuala Lumpur, commemorating the war dead of World War I, World War II
World War II
and the Malayan Emergency.

 Namibia Heroes' Acre in Windhoek

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
contains soil from Cassinga and Oshatotwa from the Namibian War of Independence.

 New Zealand Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Warrior, National War Memorial in Wellington

 Peru Plaza Bolivar in Lima

Contains the remains of a soldier who died in 1881 during the War of the Pacific.

 Philippines Heroes' Cemetery
Heroes' Cemetery
in Taguig

Contains the remains of Filipino soldiers who have joined the military and served on the Philippine Revolution, Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
and World War II.

 Poland Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, Marshall Józef Piłsudski Square in Warsaw

Constructed as the arcade of Saxon Palace, which was destroyed by the Germans in 1944. Contains the remains of a soldier who died between 1918 and 1920.

 Portugal Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in the Batalha Monastery

 Romania Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, Carol Park
Carol Park
in Bucharest

 Russia Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, Alexander Garden
Alexander Garden
in Moscow

 Serbia Monument to the Unknown Hero
Monument to the Unknown Hero
on Mt. Avala
Avala
near Belgrade

Memorial was built on the place where an unknown Serbian World War I soldier was buried.

 Slovenia Monument to the Unknown French Soldier, French Revolution
French Revolution
Square in Ljubljana

 Somalia Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, Mogadishu

A monument erected in honour of the Somali men and women who died in defense of the Somali Republic. It's popularly known as Daljirka Dahsoon, and it is an important landmark in Mogadishu.

 Spain Monumento a los Caídos por España, Plaza de la Lealtad in Madrid

Popularly known as the Obelisco ("Obelisk"), it is built on the same place where General Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
ordered the execution of numerous Spaniards after the Dos de Mayo Uprising
Dos de Mayo Uprising
of 1808. Originally inaugurated on May 2, 1840, it was re-inaugurated on November 22, 1985, by Juan Carlos I of Spain
Spain
as a remembrance to all those who gave their life for Spain. An eternal flame fuelled by gas has been constantly burning on the front of the monument.

Fossar de les Moreres, in Barcelona

The Fossar de les Moreres
Fossar de les Moreres
is a memorial plaza in Barcelona
Barcelona
(Catalonia, Spain), adjacent to the basilica of Santa Maria del Mar. The plaza was built over a cemetery where defenders of the city were buried following the Siege of Barcelona
Barcelona
at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714. The plaza retains its everyday use as a public space, but also prominently features a memorial to the fallen Catalans of the war, with a torch of eternal flame and a heroic poem by Frederic Soler, "El Fossar de les Moreres".

 Syria Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Damascus

 Turkey Çanakkale Martyrs' Memorial
Çanakkale Martyrs' Memorial
on Gallipoli

Erected for the unknown martyrs of the Çanakkale
Çanakkale
Front, which was the arena for the Battle of Gallipoli
Gallipoli
during World War I. Opened on 20 August 1960. Another monument[which?] at the same site is for the foreign soldiers (mostly[citation needed] Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) lost in the same clash.

 Ukraine Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, Dnieper Park in Kiev[citation needed]

Monument to the Unknown Sailor, Shevchenko Park in Odessa

 United Kingdom Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Warrior, Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
in London

 United States Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknowns, Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
in Arlington, Virginia

The Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier, now called the Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknowns, at Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
stands atop a hill overlooking Washington, D.C.. On March 4, 1921,[citation needed] Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I
World War I
in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater. The white marble sarcophagus has a flat-faced form and is relieved at the corners and along the sides by neo-classic pilasters, or columns, set into the surface. Sculpted into the east panel which faces Washington, D.C., are three Greek figures representing Peace, Victory, and Valor. The six wreaths, three sculpted on each side, represent the six major campaigns of World War I. Inscribed on the back of the Tomb
Tomb
are these words: Here rests in honored glory an American soldier known but to God. The Tomb
Tomb
sarcophagus was placed above the grave of the Unknown Soldier of World War I. West of the World War I
World War I
Unknown are the crypts of unknowns from World War II
World War II
and Korea, plus one empty crypt honoring missing service members from all conflicts. Those three graves are marked with white marble slabs flush with the plaza. The empty crypt had originally held the remains of an unknown from the Vietnam War, but its occupant was identified in 1998 and his remains returned to his family for burial in St. Louis. There thus remains, as of early October 2017, no "Unknown Soldier
Soldier
of the Vietnam War."

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier, Washington Square in Philadelphia

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
of the American Revolution

Civil War Unknowns Monument, Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
in Arlington, Virginia

Contains the remains of 2,211 unknown Union and Confederate soldiers from Civil War battlefields.

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Confederate Soldier
Soldier
at Beauvoir in Biloxi, Mississippi

 Venezuela Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
on Carabobo
Carabobo
Field, Carabobo

Contains the remains of a Venezuelan soldier who died in 1824 during the Battle of Ayacucho.

 Zimbabwe Statue of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
at the National Heroes Acre, Harare

See also[edit]

War portal

World War I
World War I
memorials

References[edit]

^ a b Henry Allingham, Dennis Goodwin (2011). "Kitchener's Last Volunteer: The Life of Henry Allingham, the Oldest Surviving Veteran of the Great War". p. 132. Random House, 1976 ^ (in French) Jean-Yves Le Naour, Le soldat inconnu : la guerre, la mort, la mémoire, Gallimard, 2008, p. 20 ^ Kwon, Heonik (2008). Ghosts of War in Vietnam. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-521-88061-0.  ^ "National War Memorial". ottawakiosk.com. Archived from the original on May 18, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
(1942). "2.34.3". Historiae in two volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Available online at the Perseus Project. ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
(1942). "2.43.3". Historiae in two volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Available online at the Perseus Project. ^ "Netherlands war cemeteries in Indonesia", Netherlands War Graves Foundation ^ a b "Lebanese Ground Forces". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved December 8, 2008.  ^ "LAF History". Lebanese Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 2009-05-01. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unknown Soldier.

Copernicus Organization, World Veterans Federation, "Tombs of the Unknown Soldier
Soldier
in Central and Eastern Europe" by Prof. Michał Chilczuk, Chairman, Working Group on Central and Eastern Europe, SCEA Vivaboo.com, " Tomb
Tomb
Of The Unknown Soldier
Soldier
Around The World (History)"

v t e

Unidentified decedents

Murder victims

Battersea Mystery Thames Torso Murders of 1887–1889 The Unknown Woman Whitehall Mystery Little Lord Fauntleroy Brighton trunk murders Mad Butcher victims Bella in the Wych Elm Oak Grove Jane Doe Somerton Man Babes in the Wood Boy in the Box Kerry Babies case Little Miss Lake Panasoffkee Long Beach Jane Doe Lady of the Dunes Norfolk headless body Sumter County Does Woodlawn Jane Doe Beth Doe Perry County Jane Doe Santa Rosa Jane Doe Sahara Sue Orange Socks Eklutna Annie Arroyo Grande Jane Doe Walker County Jane Doe Harris County Does Buckskin Girl Princess Doe Delta Dawn St. Louis
St. Louis
Jane Doe Newton County John Does Vernon County Jane Doe Redhead murders Bear Brook murders El Dorado Jane Doe Jacksonville Jane Doe Peaches Long Island serial killer
Long Island serial killer
victims Racine County Jane Doe Persian Princess Adam Salish Sea victims Lavender Doe Fond du Lac County Jane Doe

Other

Tomb
Tomb
of the Unknown Soldier Female Stranger L'Inconnue de la Seine Unidentified body on Christmas Island Little Miss Nobody Miss X Rock County John Doe Green Boots Lyle Stevik Tempe Girl Joseph Newton Chandler III Peter Bergmann Case Unnao dead bodies row Isdal Woman

Lists

List of unidentified decedents in the United States List of unidentified decedents in California List of unidentified murder victims in the United States List of unidentified murder victims in California List of unidentified murder victims in Texas List of unidentified murder victims in New York List of unidentified murder victims in Florida List of unidentified murder victims in Michigan List of unidentified murder victims in Pennsylvania

Formerly unidentified

Linda Agostini Karen Price Amber Creek April Lacy Barbara Ann Hackmann Taylor Reyna Marroquin George Robert Johnston Erica Green Wanda Jean Mays Sidney Leslie Goodwin Riley Ann Sawyers Tammy Vincent Atcel Olmedo Cynthia Gastelle Jon-Niece Jones Tina Marie Beebe Anjelica Castillo Kori Lamaster Michelle Garvey Barbara Precht Tammy Alexander Deanna Criswell Carol Cole Janice Marie Young Holly Glynn Brenda Gerow Martha Morrison David Stack Marilee Bruszer Bella Bond Erika Hill Jason Callahan Kerry Graham and Francine Trimble Reet Jurvetson Kimberly McLean David Lytton Jimmy Hendricks and Kim Mills

Organizations

The Doe Network National Missing and Unidentified Persons System FBI Victims Identification Project National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Parabon NanoLabs

See also

Body identification Unreported missing Declared death in absentia Murder conviction without a body Forensic fac

.