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Tolui, (Classic Mongolian: ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠢ Toluy, Tului, Mongolian: Тулуй хаан, Chinese: 拖雷, Tolui
Tolui
Khan (meaning the Khan Tolui)) (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
by his chief khatun Börte. His ulus, or territorial inheritance, at his father's death in 1227 was the homelands in Mongolia, and it was he who served as civil administrator in the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368). Before that he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the Western Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv
Merv
and Nishapur. He is a direct ancestor of most of the Emperors of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Ilkhanids. Tolui
Tolui
never used the title of Khagan
Khagan
himself; neither Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
nor his immediate three successors would ever use any reigning titles unlike the neighboring Chinese dynasties in the south. Tolui
Tolui
was awarded the title of Khagan
Khagan
by his son Möngke
Möngke
and was given a temple name (Chinese: 元睿宗; pinyin: Yuán Ruìzōng; Wade–Giles: Jui-Tsung) by his other son Kublai, when he established the Yuan dynasty a few decades later.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Youth 1.2 Early career 1.3 Genghis Khan's succession 1.4 Death

2 Legacy 3 Family 4 Ancestry 5 References 6 See also

Life[edit] Youth[edit] During the rise of Genghis Khan, Tolui
Tolui
was too young to be involved in the battles. Tolui
Tolui
was almost killed by a Tatar
Tatar
when he was about five years of age. He was saved by his sister Altani and two companions of Genghis.[2] In 1203, His father bestowed on Tolui
Tolui
his wife Sorghaghtani, the niece of Ong Khan
Ong Khan
(a friend of Tolui's grandfather Yesugei). Their first son Möngke
Möngke
was born in 1209. Early career[edit] He first entered combat against the Jin dynasty in 1213, scaling the walls of Dexing with his brother-in-law Chiqu. In 1221, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
dispatched him to Khorasan in Iran. The cities in this area had revolted several times. The defenders of Nishapur killed Toquchar, the brother-in-law of Tolui
Tolui
in November 1220. Tolui's army evacuated Nishapur
Nishapur
onto the plains. He ordered the total massacres of Nishapur
Nishapur
and Merv.[3] Genghis Khan's succession[edit] When Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
was deciding who should succeed him, he had trouble choosing between his four sons. Tolui
Tolui
had amazing military skills and was very successful as a general, but Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
chose Ögodei, who was more capable politically. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
felt that Tolui
Tolui
would be too cautious to be an effective leader. Tolui
Tolui
was with his father on campaign against Xi Xia
Xi Xia
in 1227. After Genghis Khan's death, Tolui
Tolui
generally supervised the Mongol Empire for two years. The Mongol nobles accepted this partly because of the tradition that the youngest son inherits his father's properties, and partly because Tolui
Tolui
had the largest and most powerful army in central Mongolia
Mongolia
at the time. Tolui
Tolui
supported the choice of the next Khagan
Khagan
by election, and Ögedei was chosen, fulfilling his father's wishes. Tolui
Tolui
campaigned with Ögedei in north China, serving as strategist and field commander in 1231–32. Two armies had been dispatched to besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin. After most of the Jin's defences were breached, they returned north.[4] Death[edit] According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Tolui
Tolui
sacrificed himself in order to cure Ögödei from a very severe illness during a campaign in China. The shamans had determined that the root of Ögödei's illness were China's spirits of earth and water, who were upset that their subjects had been driven away and their land devastated. Offering land, animals, and people had only led to an aggravation of Ögödei's illness, but when they offered to sacrifice a family member, Ögödei got better immediately. Tolui
Tolui
volunteered and died directly after consuming a cursed drink. However, Ata-Malik Juvayni says he died from alcoholism.[5] Legacy[edit] Perhaps more important than himself was the role of his family, the Toluids, in shaping the destinies of the Mongol Empire. Through his Nestorian Christian wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Tolui
Tolui
fathered Möngke, Kublai, Ariq Böke, and Hulagu. The first three of these would all go on to claim the title of Great Khan, while Hulagu
Hulagu
founded the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and Kublai
Kublai
the Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty
of China. It was the rivalry between Tolui's own sons, Kublai
Kublai
and Ariq Böke, that fragmented the power of the empire and set the western khanates against each other in the Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
between 1260 and 1264. Rivalry between the Toluids and the sons of Ögedei and Jochi
Jochi
caused stagnation and infighting during the regency periods after the deaths of Ögedei and his son Güyük. Möngke
Möngke
posthumously awarded his father the title of Khagan
Khagan
in 1252.[6] When Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
established the Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty
in 1271, he had his father Tolui
Tolui
placed on the official record as Ruizong. Tolui's line ruled Mongolia
Mongolia
and south Mongolia
Mongolia
from 1251 to 1635, and Mongolia
Mongolia
until 1691. He and his wife are honored beside Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
at the mausoleum constructed in the 1950s by the Chinese Communists in Inner Mongolia. Family[edit] Tolui
Tolui
had many concubines and wives. But the chief one was Sorghaghtani who was the mother of Tolui's four ruling sons. Tolui's sons included:

Möngke, the Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Mongol Empire. Qutughtu Kublai, the Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Mongols and the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. Hulagu, the first Ilkhan of Mongol Persia. Ariq Böke, Khagan
Khagan
claimant who was supported by the traditionalist Mongols against Kublai. Bujek. He died earlier. Nothing is known much about him except his role in Mongol invasion of Europe
Mongol invasion of Europe
in 1236–41 and Möngke's election in 1250. Mukha Satukhtai Sabukhtai

Ancestry[edit] See also: Family tree of Genghis Khan

Hoelun

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yesugei
Yesugei
Baghatur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Börte

 

Temüjin (Genghis Khan)

 

Hasar

 

Hachiun

 

Temüge

 

Belgutei

 

Behter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jochi

 

 

Chagatai

 

 

 

Ögedei

 

 

Tolui

References[edit]

^ The Mongol Empire: A historical encyclopedia [2 volumes]:A historical encyclopedia: "Then in 1203, he was given the Kereit princess Sorqoqtani as a wife. At the time, Tolui
Tolui
was 12 or 13 years old." ^ The secret history of the Mongols ^ William Bayne Fisher, John Andrew Boyle, Ilya Gershevitch, Ehsan Yar The Cambridge History of Iran, p.313 ^ Mote, Frederick W. Imperial China 900-1800, p.447 ^ Kahn, Paul; Cleaves, Francis Woodman. The Secret History of the Mongols, p.xxvi ^ Weatherford, Jack. Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and the making of the modern world, p.169

See also[edit]

Möngke
Möngke
Khan Kublai
Kublai
Khan Hulagu
Hulagu
Khan Yuan dynasty Ilkhanate Northern Yuan dynasty

Tolui House of Borjigin
Borjigin
(1206–1635) Born: 1191 Died: 1232

Regnal titles

Preceded by Genghis Khan Regent
Regent
of the Mongol Empire 1227–1229 Succeeded by Ögedei Khan

v t e

Khagans of the Mongol Empire

Early Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
Khan (as Regent) Ögedei Khan Töregene Khatun (as Regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (as Regent) Möngke
Möngke
Khan Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
/ Ariq Böke

Yuan (Kublaid) Great Khans

Kublai
Kublai
Khan Temür Khan Külüg Khan Buyantu Khan Gegeen Khan Yesün Temür Khan Ragibagh Khan Jayaatu Khan Khutughtu Khan Rinchinbal Khan Ukhaantu Khan

v t e

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

Terminology

Titles

Khagan Khan Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan

Political Military

Jarlig Örtöö Orda Pax Mongolica Yassa Kurultai Paiza / Gerege Manghit / Mangudai Tümen Kheshig

Politics Organization Life

Topics

Administrative divisions and vassals Banner (Bunchuk) Invasions and conquests Destructiveness Imperial Seal Military tactics and organization Organization under Genghis Khan Religion Society and economy

House of Borjigin House of Ögedei Mongol Armenia Byzantine–Mongol alliance Franco-Mongol alliance List of Mongol and Tatar
Tatar
raids against Rus' Mongol and Tatar
Tatar
states in Europe

Khanates

Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate

House of Ögedei

Golden Horde

Wings

Ilkhanate

Major cities

Almalik Avarga Azov
Azov
(Azaq) Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu/Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan

Campaigns Battles

Asia

Central

Siberia (1207) Qara Khitai (1216–18) Khwarezmia (1218–1221)

East

Western Xia (1205 / 1207 / 1209–10 / 1225–27) Northern China and Manchuria (1211–34) Southern China (1235–79) Kingdom of Dali (1253–56) Tibet (1236 / 1240 / 1252) Korea (1231–60) Japan (1274 / 1281) Sakhalin (1264–1308)

Southeast

Burma (1277 / 1283 / 1287) Java (1293) Vietnam (1257 / 1284–88) Burma (1300–02)

South

India (1221–1327)

Europe

Georgia (1220–22 / 1226–31 / 1237–64) Chechnya (1237–1300s) Volga Bulgaria (1229–36) Rus' (1223 / 1236–40) Poland and Bohemia (1240–41) Hungary (1241-42) Serbia (1242) Bulgaria (1242) Latin Empire (1242) Lithuania (1258-59) Poland (1259–60) Thrace (1264-65) Hungary (1285–86) Poland (1287–88) Serbia (1291) Poland (1340-1341)

Middle East

Anatolia (1241–43) Iraq (1258) Syria (1260–1323) Palestine (1260 / 1301)

Civil wars

Division of the Mongol Empire Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–64) Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war (1262) Kaidu– Kublai
Kublai
war (1268–1301) Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
(1314–1318)

People

Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
(regent) Ögedei Khan Töregene Khatun (regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (regent) Möngke
Möngke
Khan Kublai
Kublai
Khan (Khagans of the Yuan)

Khans

Jochi Batu Khan Sartaq Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Öz Beg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulagu Abaqa Arghun Ghazan

Military

Subutai Jebe Muqali Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhula Jelme Chilaun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Boroldai Nogai Khan

Timeline of the Mongol Empire

v t e

List of emperors of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(1271–1368)

Early Mongol rulers posthumously promoted by Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
as Yuan emperors

Taizu Ruizong (regent) Taizong Dingzong Xianzong

Enthronement of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
in 1260 as Khagan, officially assuming the role of Emperor of China
Emperor of China
as Yuan Shizu starting in 1271 Following conquest of Southern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
in 1279 ruled all of China

Shizu Chengzong Wuzong Renzong Yingzong Taiding Emperor Tianshun Emperor Wenzong Mingzong Ningzong Huizong (Emperor Shun)

Xia → Shang → Zhou → Qin → Han → 3 Kingdoms → Jìn / 16 Kingdoms → S. Dynasties / N. Dynasties → Sui → Tang → 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms → Liao / Song / W. Xia / Jīn → Yuan → Ming →

.