Tolui
   HOME

TheInfoList



Tolui, , Tolui Khan (meaning the Khan Tolui)) (c.1191–1232) was a Mongol khan, the fourth son of
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , ...

Genghis Khan
by his chief
khatun Khatun ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Katun, ota, خاتون, Hatun or قادین ''Kadın'', uz, xotin, fa, ''khātūn''; : , ''khatun'', хатан ''khatan''; ; hi, ख़ातून '; bn, খাতুন; tr, ; az, xatun) is a female title of ...
,
Börte Börte (simply Borte, also Börte Üjin; Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the forma ...

Börte
. At his father's death in 1227, his '' ulus'', or territorial inheritance, was the homelands in
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, and he also served as civil administrator until 1229, the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second
Great Khan Khagan or Qaghan ( otk, 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Kaɣan, mn, Xаан or ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, Khaan, ota, خواقين, Ḫākan, or خان ''Ḫān'', tr, Kağan or ''Hakan'', ug, قاغان, Qaghan) ''Khāqān'', alternatively spelled Kağan, Kagan, Kha ...
of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
(1206–1368). Before that, he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the
Western Xia The Western Xia or the Xi Xia (), officially the Great Xia (), also known as the Tangut Empire, and known as ''Mi-nyak''Stein (1972), pp. 70–71. to Tanguts and Tibetans, was a Tangut people, Tangut-ruled empire and a Dynasties in Ch ...

Western Xia
and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv and Nishapur. He is a direct ancestor of most of the Ilkhanids. Tolui never used the title of Khagan himself; neither Genghis Khan nor his immediate three successors would ever use any reigning titles unlike the neighboring Chinese dynasties in the south. Tolui was awarded the title of Khagan by his son Möngke Khan, Möngke and was given a temple name () by his other son Kublai Khan, Kublai, when he established the Yuan dynasty a few decades later.


Life


Youth

During the rise of
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , ...

Genghis Khan
, Tolui was too young to be involved in the battles. Tolui was almost killed by a Tatar when he was about five years of age. He was saved by his sister Altani and two companions of Genghis. In 1203, his father bestowed on Tolui his wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Sorghaghtani, the niece of Ong Khan (an ally of Genghis). Their first son Möngke Khan, Möngke was born in 1209.


Early career

He first entered combat against the Jin dynasty in 1213, scaling the walls of Dexing, Jiangxi, Dexing with his brother-in-law Chiqu. In 1221, Genghis Khan dispatched him to greater Khorasan, Khorasan in Iran. The cities in this area had revolted several times. The defenders of Nishapur killed Toquchar, the brother-in-law of Tolui in November 1220. Tolui's army evacuated Nishapur onto the plains. He ordered the total massacres of Nishapur and Merv.


Genghis Khan's succession

When Genghis Khan was deciding who should succeed him, he had trouble choosing between his four sons. Tolui had a strong reputation for his military skills, and was very successful as a general, but Genghis Khan chose Ögodei, who was more capable politically. Genghis Khan felt that Tolui would be too cautious to be an effective leader. Tolui was with his father on campaign against Xi Xia in 1227. After Genghis Khan's death, Tolui generally supervised the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
for two years. The Mongol nobles accepted this partly because of the tradition that the youngest son inherits his father's properties, and partly because Tolui had the largest and most powerful army in central
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
at the time. Tolui supported the choice of the next Khagan by election, and Ögedei was chosen, fulfilling his father's wishes. Tolui campaigned with Ögedei in north China, serving as strategist and field commander in 1231–32. Two armies had been dispatched to Mongol siege of Kaifeng, besiege Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin. After most of the Jin's defences were breached, they returned north.


Death

According to ''The Secret History of the Mongols'', Tolui sacrificed himself in order to cure Ögödei from a very severe illness during a campaign in China. The shamans had determined that the root of Ögödei's illness were China's spirits of earth and water, who were upset that their subjects had been driven away and their land devastated. Offering land, animals, and people had only led to an aggravation of Ögödei's illness, but when they offered to sacrifice a family member, Ögödei got better immediately. Tolui volunteered and died directly after consuming a cursed drink. However, Ata-Malik Juvayni says he died from alcoholism.


Wives, concubines, and children

# Sorghaghtani Beki — daughter of Jakha Gambhu, the younger brother of the powerful Keraite leader Toghrul #* Möngke Khan: Great Khan (1251–1259) of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
. #* Kublai Khan: Great Khan (1260–1294) of the Mongol Empire and the Yuan dynasty #* Hulagu Khan: Khan (1256–1264) of the Ilkhanate dynasty that ruled Persia, Turkey, Georgia (country), Georgia and Armenia. #* Ariq Böke: Declared Great Khan (rivalling Kublai) for a short period in 1260; he fought Kublai in the Toluid Civil War and would eventually be captured by Kublai in 1264. # Lingqun khatun — daughter of Naimans, Naiman khan and Qara Khitai, Qara-Khitai ruler Kuchlug #* Qutuqtu — killed in battle against general Meng Yu (孟珙) during Mongol conquest of Song China #** Kelmish agha — married to Saljidai Küregen of Khongirad #*** Oljai Khatun — married to Mengu-Timur #*El-Temür — married to Bars Buqa, grandson of Qutuqa Beki # Saruq Khatun — nurse of Kublai Khan, Kublai, concubine from Naimans #* Jörike — married Bulga, granddaughter of Anchen of Khongirad, Khongirads, died in youth. #* Möge — died during Mongol conquest of Song China #** Chingtüm #** Ebügen # Mayiche — a concubine from Naimans #* Böchök — participated in Mongol invasion of Europe in 1236–41 and Möngke's election in 1250 # Nayan Khatun # Doquz Khatun —granddaughter of Keraite khan Toghrul, # Unknown wives #* Sögetei #* Sübügetei


Legacy

Perhaps more important than himself was the role of his family, the Toluids, in shaping the destinies of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
. Through his Nestorian Christian wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Tolui fathered Möngke, Kublai Khan, Kublai, Ariq Böke, and Hulagu Khan, Hulagu. The first three of these would all go on to claim the title of Great Khan, while Hulagu founded the Ilkhanate and Kublai the Yuan dynasty of China. It was the rivalry between Tolui's own sons, Kublai and Ariq Böke, that fragmented the power of the empire and set the western khanates against each other in the Toluid Civil War between 1260 and 1264. Rivalry between the Toluids and the sons of Ögedei and Jochi caused stagnation and infighting during the regency periods after the deaths of Ögedei and his son Güyük Khan, Güyük. Möngke posthumously awarded his father the title of Khagan in 1252.Weatherford, Jack. ''Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world'', p. 169. When Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, he had his father Tolui placed on the official record as Ruizong. Tolui's line ruled
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
and south Mongolia from 1251 to 1635, Mongolia until 1691, and Bukhara until 1920. He and his wife are honored beside Genghis Khan at Mausoleum of Genghis Khan, the mausoleum constructed in the 1950s by the Chinese Communist Party, Chinese Communists in Inner Mongolia.


Ancestry


See also

* Möngke Khan * Kublai Khan * Hulagu Khan * Yuan dynasty * Ilkhanate * Northern Yuan dynasty


Notes


References

{{Authority control 1191 births 1232 deaths Mongol Empire people Mongol khans Regents 13th-century viceregal rulers 13th-century Chinese monarchs