The TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE, also known as the TOKUGAWA BAKUFU
(徳川幕府) and the EDO BAKUFU (江戸幕府), was the last feudal
Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
The head of government was the shogun , and each was a member of the
Tokugawa clan . The
* 1 History
* 2 Government
* 3 Institutions of the shogunate
* 4 Late Tokugawa Shogunate (1853–1867) * 5 List of Tokugawa shoguns * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
See also: Late Tokugawa shogunate
Sengoku period ("warring states period"), the central
government had been largely re-established by
Society in the Tokugawa period , unlike in previous shogunates, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi . The daimyō (lords) were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai , with the farmers, artisans, and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country, particularly smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, and samurai might act as local rulers. Otherwise, the largely inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers.
A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion (“flight”) lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate.
In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful
daimyō, along with the titular Emperor , succeeded in overthrowing
the shogunate after the
SHOGUNATE AND DOMAINS
The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in
Vassals held inherited lands and provided military service and homage
to their lords. The bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the
The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; this was invested in the shogun. The shogunate had the power to discard, annex, and transform domains. The sankin kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was also required that they leave family as hostages until their return. The huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shogun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage.
Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a
dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the Shogun.
Fudai daimyō were
hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama
("outsiders") became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara.
Shinpan ("relatives") were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in
The number of han (roughly 250) fluctuated throughout the
RELATIONS WITH THE EMPEROR
Social class during the Shogunate with the Emperor as the nominal ruler
Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shoguns of the
Tokugawa family controlled Japan. The administration (体制, taisei)
Towards the end of the shogunate, however, after centuries of the Emperor having very little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace , and in the wake of the reigning shogun, Tokugawa Iemochi , marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei (r. 1846–1867), in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto began to enjoy increased political influence. The Emperor would occasionally be consulted on various policies and the shogun even made a visit to Kyoto to visit the Emperor.
SHOGUN AND FOREIGN TRADE
A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship
Foreign affairs and trade were monopolized by the shogunate, yielding
a huge profit. Foreign trade was also permitted to the Satsuma and the
Tsushima domains .
The visits of the Nanban ships from
From 1603 onward,
SHOGUN AND CHRISTIANITY
Main article: Kirishitan
INSTITUTIONS OF THE SHOGUNATE
RōJū AND WAKADOSHIYORI
Sakurada Gate at
The rōjū (老中) were the senior members of the shogunate. They supervised the ōmetsuke , machi-bugyō , ongokubugyō (ja:遠国奉行) and other officials, oversaw relations with the Imperial Court in Kyoto , kuge (members of the nobility), daimyō, Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines , and attended to matters like divisions of fiefs . Normally, four or five men held the office, and one was on duty for a month at a time on a rotating basis. They conferred on especially important matters. In the administrative reforms of 1867 ( Keiō Reforms ), the office was eliminated in favor of a bureaucratic system with ministers for the interior, finance, foreign relations, army, and navy.
In principle, the requirements for appointment to the office of rōjū were to be a fudai daimyō and to have a fief assessed at 50 000 koku or more. However, there were exceptions to both criteria. Many appointees came from the offices close to the shogun, such as soba yōnin (ja:側用人), Kyoto Shoshidai , and Osaka jōdai .
Irregularly, the shoguns appointed a rōjū to the position of tairō
(great elder). The office was limited to members of the Ii , Sakai ,
Doi , and Hotta clans , but
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu was given the status
of tairō as well. Among the most famous was
The wakadoshiyori were next in status below the rōjū. An outgrowth of the early six-man rokuninshū (六人衆, 1633–1649), the office took its name and final form in 1662, but with four members. Their primary responsibility was management of the affairs of the hatamoto and gokenin , the direct vassals of the shogun.
Some shoguns appointed a soba yōnin. This person acted as a liaison between the shogun and the rōjū. The soba yōnin increased in importance during the time of the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi , when a wakadoshiyori, Inaba Masayasu , assassinated Hotta Masatoshi , the tairō. Fearing for his personal safety, Tsunayoshi moved the rōjū to a more distant part of the castle. Some of the most famous soba yōnin were Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu and Tanuma Okitsugu .
ŌMETSUKE AND METSUKE
The ōmetsuke and metsuke were officials who reported to the rōjū
and wakadoshiyori. The five ōmetsuke were in charge of monitoring the
affairs of the daimyō, kuge and imperial court. They were in charge
of discovering any threat of rebellion. Early in the
As time progressed, the function of the ōmetsuke evolved into one of
passing orders from the shogunate to the daimyō, and of administering
to ceremonies within
The san-bugyō ("three administrators") were the jisha, kanjō, and machi-bugyō , which oversaw temples and shrines , accounting, and the cities, respectively. The jisha-bugyō had the highest status of the three. They oversaw the administration of Buddhist temples (ji) and Shinto shrines (sha), many of which held fiefs. Also, they heard lawsuits from several land holdings outside the eight Kantō provinces. The appointments normally went to daimyō; Ōoka Tadasuke was an exception, though he later became a daimyō.
The kanjō-bugyō were next in status. The four holders of this office reported to the rōjū. They were responsible for the finances of the shogunate.
The machi-bugyō were the chief city administrators of
TENRYō, GUNDAI AND DAIKAN
The san-bugyō together sat on a council called the hyōjōsho . In this capacity, they were responsible for administering the tenryō , supervising the gundai (ja:郡代), the daikan (ja:代官) and the kura bugyō (ja:蔵奉行), as well as hearing cases involving samurai.
The shogun directly held lands in various parts of Japan. These were known as shihaisho (支配所) ; since the Meiji period, the term tenryō (ja:天領, "Emperor's land") has become synonymous. In addition to the territory that Ieyasu held prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, this included lands he gained in that battle and lands gained as a result of the Summer and Winter Sieges of Osaka . By the end of the seventeenth century, the shogun's landholdings had reached four million koku. Such major cities as Nagasaki and Osaka, and mines , including the Sado gold mine , also fell into this category.
The gaikoku bugyō were administrators appointed between 1858 and 1868. They were charged with overseeing trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries, and were based in the treaty ports of Nagasaki and Kanagawa (Yokohama).
LATE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE (1853–1867)
The Late Tokugawa
Shogunate (Japanese : 幕末 Bakumatsu) was the
period between 1853 and 1867, during which
Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other
factions attempted to use the chaos of the
LIST OF TOKUGAWA SHOGUNS
# PICTURE Name (Born-Died) SHOGUN FROM SHOGUN UNTIL
Tokugawa Hidetada (1579–1632) 1605 1623
Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604–1651) 1623 1651
Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641–1680) 1651 1680
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646–1709) 1680 1709
Tokugawa Ienobu (1662–1712) 1709 1712
Tokugawa Ietsugu (1709–1716) 1713 1716
Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684–1751) 1716 1745
Tokugawa Ieshige (1712–1761) 1745 1760
Tokugawa Ieharu (1737–1786) 1760 1786
Tokugawa Ienari (1773–1841) 1787 1837
Tokugawa Ieyoshi (1793–1853) 1837 1853
Tokugawa Iesada (1824–1858) 1853 1858
Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837–1913) 1866 1867
Over the course of the
* Tokugawa Mitsukuni of the Mito domain * Tokugawa Nariaki of the Mito domain * Tokugawa Mochiharu of the Hitotsubashi branch * Tokugawa Munetake of the Tayasu branch. * Matsudaira Katamori of the Aizu branch. * Matsudaira Sadanobu , born into the Tayasu branch, adopted into the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira of Shirakawa .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE .
* ^ A B C Nussbaum,
Louis-Frédéric . (2005). "Tokugawa-jidai" in
This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.
* Bolitho, Harold . (1974). Treasures Among Men: The Fudai
Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN
978-0-300-01655-0 ; OCLC 185685588
* Totman, Conrad. The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868.
Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1980.
* Totman, Conrad. Politics in the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1600-1843.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
* Waswo, Ann Modern Japanese Society 1868-1994
* The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies Meiji
* v * t * e
Tokugawa Shogunate family tree
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