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The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) and the Edo
Edo
bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.[1] The head of government was the shōgun,[2] and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan.[3] The Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
ruled from Edo
Edo
Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo
Edo
period.[4] This time is also called the Tokugawa period[1] or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世)).[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Government

2.1 Shogunate
Shogunate
and domains 2.2 Relations with the Emperor 2.3 Shogun and foreign trade 2.4 Shogun and Christianity

3 Institutions of the shogunate

3.1 Rōjū and wakadoshiyori 3.2 Ōmetsuke and metsuke 3.3 San-bugyō 3.4 Tenryō, gundai and daikan 3.5 Gaikoku bugyō

4 Late Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
(1853–1867) 5 List of Tokugawa shōguns 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] See also: Bakumatsu Following the Sengoku period
Sengoku period
("warring states period"), the central government had been largely re-established by Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara
Battle of Sekigahara
in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu.[1] Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was supposedly based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The daimyō (lords) were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers, artisans, and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country, particularly smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, and samurai might act as local rulers. Otherwise, the largely inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion (“flight”) lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate.[6] In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration. The Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" (王政復古, Ōsei fukko) of imperial rule. Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. Government[edit] Shogunate
Shogunate
and domains[edit] The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo
Edo
period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals held inherited lands and provided military service and homage to their lords. The bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo
Edo
and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, who was responsible for foreign relations and national security. The shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies, policies, and territories. The shōgun also administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa. Each level of government administered its own system of taxation.

Edo
Edo
Castle, 17th century

The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; this was invested in the shōgun. The shogunate had the power to discard, annex, and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was also required that they leave family as hostages until their return. The huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō
Fudai daimyō
were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama ("outsiders") became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan ("relatives") were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo
Edo
period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least likely to be loyal; over time, strategic marriages and the entrenchment of the system made the tozama less likely to rebel. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, and to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate. These four states are called the Four Western Clans, or Satchotohi for short.[7] The number of han (roughly 250) fluctuated throughout the Edo
Edo
period. They were ranked by size, which was measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year. The minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku; the largest, apart from the shōgun, was a million. Relations with the Emperor[edit]

Social class during the Shogunate
Shogunate
with the Emperor as the nominal ruler

Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan.[8] The administration (体制, taisei) of Japan
Japan
was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Imperial Court in Kyoto
to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor officially had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had virtually no say in state affairs. The shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai
Kyoto Shoshidai
(Shogun's Representative in Kyoto), to deal with the Emperor, court and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, however, after centuries of the Emperor having very little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, and in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei
Emperor Kōmei
(r. 1846–1867), in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Imperial Court in Kyoto
began to enjoy increased political influence.[9] The Emperor would occasionally be consulted on various policies and the shogun even made a visit to Kyoto to visit the Emperor. Shogun and foreign trade[edit]

Dutch trading post in Dejima, c. 1805

Foreign affairs and trade were monopolized by the shogunate, yielding a huge profit. Foreign trade was also permitted to the Satsuma and the Tsushima domains. Rice
Rice
was the main trading product of Japan
Japan
during this time. Isolationism was the foreign policy of Japan
Japan
and trade was strictly controlled. Merchants were outsiders to the social hierarchy of Japan
Japan
and were thought to be greedy. The visits of the Nanban ships from Portugal
Portugal
were at first the main vector of trade exchanges, followed by the addition of Dutch, English and sometimes Spanish ships. From 1603 onward, Japan
Japan
started to participate actively in foreign trade. In 1615, an embassy and trade mission under Hasekura Tsunenaga was sent across the Pacific to Nueva España
Nueva España
(New Spain) on the Japanese-built galleon San Juan Bautista. Until 1635, the Shogun issued numerous permits for the so-called "red seal ships" destined for the Asian trade. After 1635 and the introduction of Seclusion laws, inbound ships were only allowed from China, Korea, and the Netherlands. Shogun and Christianity[edit] Main article: Kirishitan

Christian prisoners in Edo, 17th century

Followers of Christianity
Christianity
first began appearing in Japan
Japan
during the 16th century. Oda Nobunaga
Oda Nobunaga
embraced Christianity
Christianity
and the Western technology that was imported with it, such as the musket. He also saw it as a tool he could use to suppress Buddhist forces.[10] Though Christianity
Christianity
was allowed to grow until the 1610s, Tokugawa Ieyasu soon began to see it as a growing threat to the stability of the shogunate. As Ōgosho ("Cloistered Shōgun"),[11] he influenced the implementation of laws that banned the practice of Christianity. His successors followed suit, compounding upon Ieyasu's laws. The ban of Christianity
Christianity
is often linked with the creation of the Seclusion laws, or Sakoku, in the 1630s.[12] Institutions of the shogunate[edit] Rōjū and wakadoshiyori[edit] The rōjū (老中) were the senior members of the shogunate. They supervised the ōmetsuke, machi-bugyō, ongokubugyō (ja:遠国奉行) and other officials, oversaw relations with the Imperial Court in Kyoto, kuge (members of the nobility), daimyō, Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, and attended to matters like divisions of fiefs. Normally, four or five men held the office, and one was on duty for a month at a time on a rotating basis. They conferred on especially important matters. In the administrative reforms of 1867 (Keiō Reforms), the office was eliminated in favor of a bureaucratic system with ministers for the interior, finance, foreign relations, army, and navy.

Sakuradamon Gate of Edo
Edo
Castle where Ii Naosuke
Ii Naosuke
was assassinated in 1860

In principle, the requirements for appointment to the office of rōjū were to be a fudai daimyō and to have a fief assessed at 7004500000000000000♠50000 koku or more. However, there were exceptions to both criteria. Many appointees came from the offices close to the shōgun, such as soba yōnin (ja:側用人), Kyoto Shoshidai, and Osaka jōdai. Irregularly, the shōguns appointed a rōjū to the position of tairō (great elder). The office was limited to members of the Ii, Sakai, Doi, and Hotta clans, but Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
was given the status of tairō as well. Among the most famous was Ii Naosuke, who was assassinated in 1860 outside the Sakuradamon Gate of Edo
Edo
Castle (Sakuradamon incident). The wakadoshiyori were next in status below the rōjū. An outgrowth of the early six-man rokuninshū (六人衆, 1633–1649), the office took its name and final form in 1662, but with four members. Their primary responsibility was management of the affairs of the hatamoto and gokenin, the direct vassals of the shōgun. Some shōguns appointed a soba yōnin. This person acted as a liaison between the shōgun and the rōjū. The soba yōnin increased in importance during the time of the fifth shōgun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, when a wakadoshiyori, Inaba Masayasu, assassinated Hotta Masatoshi, the tairō. Fearing for his personal safety, Tsunayoshi moved the rōjū to a more distant part of the castle. Some of the most famous soba yōnin were Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
and Tanuma Okitsugu. Ōmetsuke and metsuke[edit] The ōmetsuke and metsuke were officials who reported to the rōjū and wakadoshiyori. The five ōmetsuke were in charge of monitoring the affairs of the daimyōs, kuge and imperial court. They were in charge of discovering any threat of rebellion. Early in the Edo
Edo
period, daimyōs such as Yagyū Munefuyu held the office. Soon, however, it fell to hatamoto with rankings of 5,000 koku or more. To give them authority in their dealings with daimyōs, they were often ranked at 10,000 koku and given the title of kami (an ancient title, typically signifying the governor of a province) such as Bizen-no-kami. As time progressed, the function of the ōmetsuke evolved into one of passing orders from the shogunate to the daimyōs, and of administering to ceremonies within Edo
Edo
Castle. They also took on additional responsibilities such as supervising religious affairs and controlling firearms. The metsuke, reporting to the wakadoshiyori, oversaw the affairs of the vassals of the shōgun. They were the police force for the thousands of hatamoto and gokenin who were concentrated in Edo. Individual han had their own metsuke who similarly policed their samurai. San-bugyō[edit] The san-bugyō ("three administrators") were the jisha, kanjō, and machi-bugyō, which oversaw temples and shrines, accounting, and the cities, respectively. The jisha-bugyō had the highest status of the three. They oversaw the administration of Buddhist temples (ji) and Shinto shrines (sha), many of which held fiefs. Also, they heard lawsuits from several land holdings outside the eight Kantō provinces. The appointments normally went to daimyōs; Ōoka Tadasuke was an exception, though he later became a daimyō. The kanjō-bugyō were next in status. The four holders of this office reported to the rōjū. They were responsible for the finances of the shogunate.[13] The machi-bugyō were the chief city administrators of Edo
Edo
and other cities. Their roles included mayor, chief of the police (and, later, also of the fire department), and judge in criminal and civil matters not involving samurai. Two (briefly, three) men, normally hatamoto, held the office, and alternated by month. Three Edo
Edo
machi bugyō have become famous through jidaigeki (period films): Ōoka Tadasuke and Tōyama Kagemoto
Tōyama Kagemoto
(Kinshirō) as heroes, and Torii Yōzō (ja:鳥居耀蔵) as a villain. Tenryō, gundai and daikan[edit] The san-bugyō together sat on a council called the hyōjōsho. In this capacity, they were responsible for administering the tenryō, supervising the gundai (郡代), the daikan (代官) and the kura bugyō (蔵奉行), as well as hearing cases involving samurai. The shogun directly held lands in various parts of Japan. These were known as shihaisho (支配所); since the Meiji period, the term tenryō (天領, "Emperor's land") has become synonymous.[14] In addition to the territory that Ieyasu held prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, this included lands he gained in that battle and lands gained as a result of the Summer and Winter Sieges of Osaka. By the end of the seventeenth century, the shogun's landholdings had reached four million koku. Such major cities as Nagasaki and Osaka, and mines, including the Sado gold mine, also fell into this category. Gaikoku bugyō[edit] The gaikoku bugyō were administrators appointed between 1858 and 1868. They were charged with overseeing trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries, and were based in the treaty ports of Nagasaki and Kanagawa (Yokohama). Late Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
(1853–1867)[edit] Main article: Bakumatsu

Samurai
Samurai
of the Shimazu clan

The late Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
(Japanese: 幕末 Bakumatsu) was the period between 1853 and 1867, during which Japan
Japan
ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. It is at the end of the Edo
Edo
period and preceded the Meiji era. The major ideological and political factions during this period were divided into the pro-imperialist Ishin Shishi (nationalist patriots) and the shogunate forces, including the elite shinsengumi ("newly selected corps") swordsmen. Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of the Bakumatsu
Bakumatsu
era to seize personal power.[15] Furthermore, there were two other main driving forces for dissent; first, growing resentment of tozama daimyōs, and second, growing anti-Western sentiment following the arrival of Matthew C. Perry. The first related to those lords who had fought against Tokugawa forces at Sekigahara
Sekigahara
(in 1600) and had from that point on been exiled permanently from all powerful positions within the shogunate. The second was to be expressed in the phrase sonnō jōi ("revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians"). The turning points of the Bakumatsu
Bakumatsu
were the Boshin War
Boshin War
and the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, when pro-shogunate forces were defeated.[16] List of Tokugawa shōguns[edit]

# Picture Name (Born-Died) Shōgun
Shōgun
From Shōgun
Shōgun
Until

1

Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616) 1603 1605

2

Tokugawa Hidetada (1579–1632) 1605 1623

3

Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604–1651) 1623 1651

4

Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641–1680) 1651 1680

5

Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646–1709) 1680 1709

6

Tokugawa Ienobu (1662–1712) 1709 1712

7

Tokugawa Ietsugu (1709–1716) 1713 1716

8

Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684–1751) 1716 1745

9

Tokugawa Ieshige (1712–1761) 1745 1760

10

Tokugawa Ieharu (1737–1786) 1760 1786

11

Tokugawa Ienari (1773–1841) 1787 1837

12

Tokugawa Ieyoshi (1793–1853) 1837 1853

13

Tokugawa Iesada (1824–1858) 1853 1858

14

Tokugawa Iemochi (1846–1866) 1858 1866

15

Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837–1913) 1866 1867

Over the course of the Edo
Edo
period, influential relatives of the shogun included:

Tokugawa Mitsukuni
Tokugawa Mitsukuni
of the Mito Domain[17] Tokugawa Nariaki
Tokugawa Nariaki
of the Mito Domain[18] Tokugawa Mochiharu
Tokugawa Mochiharu
of the Hitotsubashi branch Tokugawa Munetake of the Tayasu branch.[19] Matsudaira Katamori
Matsudaira Katamori
of the Aizu
Aizu
branch.[20] Matsudaira Sadanobu, born into the Tayasu branch, adopted into the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira of Shirakawa.[21]

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tokugawa shogunate.

Keian Uprising

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tokugawa-jidai" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 978. ^ Nussbaum, "Shogun" at pp. 878–879. ^ Nussbaum, "Tokugawa" at p. 976. ^ Nussbaum, "Edo-jidai" at p. 167. ^ Nussbaum, "Kinsei" at p. 525. ^ Paik, Christopher; Steele, Abbey; Tanaka, Seiki. "Constraining the Samurai: Rebellion and Taxation
Taxation
in Early Modern Japan". International Studies Quarterly. doi:10.1093/isq/sqx008 (inactive 2017-08-11).  ^ Nussbaum, "Satchotohi", pp. 826–827. ^ Jansen 2002, pp. 144–148. ^ Keene, Donald Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912 (2005, Columbia University Press) p. 62 ^ Chie Nakane and Shinzaburou Oishi (1990). Tokugawa Japan
Japan
- The Social and Economic Antecedents of Modern Japan. University of Tokyo Press. pp.12. ^ Nussbaum, "Ogosho" at p. 738. ^ Chie Nakane and Shinzaburou Oishi (1990). Tokugawa Japan: The Social and Economic Antecedents of Modern Japan. University of Tokyo Press. pp.24–28. ^ Nussbaum, "Kanjō bugyō" at p. 473. ^ Nussbaum, "Tenryō", p. 961. ^ Shinsengumi, The Shogun's Last Samurai
Samurai
Corps, Romulus, Hillsborough, Tuttle Publishing, 2005 ^ Ravina, Mark (2004).Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. John Wiley & Sons, 2004 ^ Nussbaum, "Tokugawa Mitsukuni" at p. 979. ^ Nussbaum, "Tokugawa Nariaki" at p. 979. ^ Nussbaum, "Tayasu" at p. 954. ^ Nussbaum, "Matsudaira Katamori" at p. 616. ^ Nussbaum, "Matsudaira Sadanobu" at p. 617.

References[edit]

Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 48943301

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Further reading[edit]

Bolitho, Harold. (1974). Treasures Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0; OCLC 185685588 Totman, Conrad. The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862–1868. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1980. Totman, Conrad. Politics in the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1600–1843. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967. Waswo, Ann Modern Japanese Society 1868–1994 The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies Meiji Japan
Japan
Through Contemporary Sources, Volume Two 1844–1882

External links[edit]

Japan Tokugawa Political System SengokuDaimyo.com The website of Samurai
Samurai
Author and Historian Anthony J. Bryant

v t e

Tokugawa Shogunate
Shogunate
family tree

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ieyasu(1)

Hidetada(2)

Yorinobu

Iemitsu(3)

Mitsusada

Ietsuna(4)

Tsunayoshi(5)

Tsunashige

Yoshimune(8)

Ienobu(6)

Ieshige(9)

Ietsugu(7)

Ieharu(10)

Ienari(11)

Ieyoshi(12)

Iesada(13)

Iemochi(14)

Yoshinobu(15)

Notes

All Tokugawa shōguns claim descent from Ieyasu, who is recognized as the dynasty's founder. The broken lines indicate adoptions within the shogunal clan.

v t e

Timeline and paternities of the Tokugawa Shogunate

  Lifespan   Reign

v t e

Tokugawa bureaucracy organization chart

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ōmetsuke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metsuke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rōjū

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jisha-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tairō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rōjū-kaku

 

 

 

 

Edo
Edo
machi-bugyō

 

 

 

Kita-machi-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shōgun

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sobayōnin

 

 

 

 

Gaikoku-bugyō

 

 

 

 

Minami-machi-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wakadoshiyori

 

 

 

 

Gunkan-bugyō

 

 

 

 

Honjo machi-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daimyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gusoku-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hakodate bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Haneda bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gundai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyōgo bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daikan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kanagawa bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kinza (gold monopoly)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kane-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kanjō bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ginza (silver monopoly)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kura-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kinzan-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dōza (copper monopoly)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kyoto shoshidai

 

 

 

Kyoto machi-bugyō

 

 

 

Shuza (cinnabar monopoly)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nagasaki bugyō

 

 

 

 

Fushimi bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Niigata bugyō

 

 

 

 

Nara bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nikkō bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osaka machi-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Osaka jōdai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sakai bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rōya-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sado bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sakuji-bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shimada bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunpu jōdai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uraga bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yamada bugyō

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes

This bureaucracy evolved in an ad hoc manner, responding to perceived needs.

v t e

Officials of the Tokugawa shogunate

Shōgun

Ieyasu (1603–1605) Hidetada (1605–1623) Iemitsu (1623–1651) Ietsuna (1651–1680) Tsunayoshi (1680–1709) Ienobu (1709–1712) Ietsugu (1713–1716) Yoshimune (1716–1745) Ieshige (1745–1760) Ieharu (1760–1786) Ienari (1787–1837) Ieyoshi (1837–1853) Iesada (1853–1858) Iemochi (1858–1866) Yoshinobu (1867–1868)

Tairō

Sakai Tadayo
Sakai Tadayo
(1636) Doi Toshikatsu
Doi Toshikatsu
(1638–1644) Sakai Tadakatsu
Sakai Tadakatsu
(1638–1656) Sakai Tadakiyo
Sakai Tadakiyo
(1666–1680) Ii Naozumi (1668–1676) Hotta Masatoshi (1681–1684) Ii Naooki (1696–1700, 1711–1714) Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu
(1706–1709) Ii Naoyuki (1784–1787) Ii Naoaki (1835–1841) Ii Naosuke
Ii Naosuke
(1858–1860) Sakai Tadashige (1865)

Rōjū

Ōkubo Tadachika (1593–1614) Ōkubo Nagayasu (1600–1613) Honda Masanobu
Honda Masanobu
(1600–1615) Naruse Masanari (1600–1616) Andō Naotsugu (1600–1616) Honda Masazumi (1600–1622) Naitō Kiyonari (1601–1606) Aoyama Tadanari (1601–1606) Aoyama Narishige (1608–1613) Sakai Tadatoshi
Sakai Tadatoshi
(1609–1627) Sakai Tadayo
Sakai Tadayo
(1610–1634) Doi Toshikatsu
Doi Toshikatsu
(1610–1638) Andō Shigenobu (1611–1621) Naitō Kiyotsugu (1616–1617) Aoyama Tadatoshi (1616–1623) Inoue Masanari (1617–1628) Nagai Naomasa (1622–1633) Abe Masatsugu (1623–1626) Inaba Masakatsu (1623–1634) Naitō Tadashige (1623–1633) Sakai Tadakatsu
Sakai Tadakatsu
(1624–1638) Morikawa Shigetoshi (1628–1632) Aoyama Yukinari (1628–1633) Matsudaira Nobutsuna (1632–1662) Abe Tadaaki (1633–1666) Hotta Masamori (1635–1651) Abe Shigetsugu (1638–1651) Matsudaira Norinaga (1642–1654) Sakai Tadakiyo
Sakai Tadakiyo
(1653–1666) Inaba Masanori
Inaba Masanori
(1657–1681) Kuze Hiroyuki (1663–1679) Itakura Shigenori
Itakura Shigenori
(1665–1668, 1670–1673) Tsuchiya Kazunao (1665–1679) Abe Masayoshi (1673–1676) Ōkubo Tadatomo (1677–1698) Hotta Masatoshi (1679–1681) Doi Toshifusa (1679–1681) Itakura Shigetane (1680–1681) Toda Tadamasa (1681–1699) Abe Masatake (1681–1704) Matsudaira Nobuyuki (1685–1686) Tsuchiya Masanao (1687–1718) Ogasawara Nagashige
Ogasawara Nagashige
(1697–1705, 1709–1710) Akimoto Takatomo (1699–1707) Inaba Masamichi (1701–1707) Honda Masanaga (1704–1711) Ōkubo Tadamasu (1705–1713) Inoue Masamine (1705–1722) Abe Masataka (1711–1717) Kuze Shigeyuki (1713–1720) Matsudaira Nobutsune (1714–1716) Toda Tadazane (1714–1729) Mizuno Tadayuki (1717–1730) Andō Nobutomo (1722–1732) Matsudaira Norisato (1723–1745) Matsudaira Tadachika (1724–1728) Ōkubo Tsuneharu (1728) Sakai Tadaoto (1728–1735) Matsudaira Nobutoki (1730–1744) Matsudaira Terusada (1730–1745) Kuroda Naokuni (1732–1735) Honda Tadanaga (1734–1746) Toki Yoritoshi
Toki Yoritoshi
(1742–1744) Sakai Tadazumi (1744–1749) Matsudaira Norikata
Matsudaira Norikata
(1745–1746) Hotta Masasuke (1745–1761) Nishio Tadanao (1746–1760) Honda Masayoshi (1746–1758) Matsudaira Takechika (1746–1779) Sakai Tadayori (1749–1764) Matsudaira Terutaka (1758–1781) Inoue Masatsune (1760–1763) Akimoto Sumitomo (1747–1764, 1765–1767) Abe Masahiro
Abe Masahiro
(1837-1857) Doi Toshitsura
Doi Toshitsura
(1838–1844) Inoue Masaharu (1840–1843) Andō Nobumasa
Andō Nobumasa
(1860–1862) Itakura Katsukiyo
Itakura Katsukiyo
(1862–1864, 1865–1868) Inoue Masanao
Inoue Masanao
(1862–1864) Mizuno Tadakiyo
Mizuno Tadakiyo
(1862–1866) Sakai Tadashige (1863–1864) Arima Michizumi (1863–1864) Makino Tadayuki
Makino Tadayuki
(1863–1865) Matsumae Takahiro
Matsumae Takahiro
(1864–1865) Abe Masato (1864–1865) Suwa Tadamasa (1864–1865) Inaba Masakuni
Inaba Masakuni
(1864–1865, 1866–1868) Matsudaira Munehide
Matsudaira Munehide
(1864–1866) Inoue Masanao
Inoue Masanao
(1865–1867) Matsudaira Yasuhide (1865–1868) Mizuno Tadanobu (1866) Matsudaira Norikata
Matsudaira Norikata
(1866–1868) Inaba Masami (1866–1868) Matsudaira Sadaaki
Matsudaira Sadaaki
(1867) Ōkōchi Masatada (1867–1868) Sakai Tadatō (1867–1868) Tachibana Taneyuki (1868)

Wakadoshiyori

Nagai Naoyuki
Nagai Naoyuki
(1867–1868)

Kyoto shoshidai

Okudaira Nobumasa
Okudaira Nobumasa
(1600–1601) Itakura Katsushige
Itakura Katsushige
(1601–1619) Makino Chikashige (1654–1668) Itakura Shigenori
Itakura Shigenori
(1668–1670) Nagai Naotsune (1670–1678) Toda Tadamasa (1678–1681) Inaba Masamichi (1681–1685) Tsuchiya Masanao (1685–1687) Naitō Shigeyori (1687–1690) Matsudaira Nobuoki (1690–1691) Ogasawara Nagashige
Ogasawara Nagashige
(1691–1697) Matsudaira Nobutsune (1697–1714) Mizuno Tadayuki (1714–1717) Matsudaira Tadachika(1717–1724) Makino Hideshige (1724–1734) Toki Yoritoshi
Toki Yoritoshi
1734–1742) Makino Sadamichi
Makino Sadamichi
(1742–1749) Matsudaira Sukekuni (1749–1752) Sakai Tadamochi
Sakai Tadamochi
(1752–1756) Matsudaira Terutaka(1756–1758) Inoue Masatsune (1758–1760) Abe Masasuke (1760–1764) Abe Masachika (1764–1768) Doi Toshisato (1769–1777) Kuze Hiroakira (1777–1781) Makino Sadanaga
Makino Sadanaga
(1781–1784) Toda Tadatō (1784–1789) Ōta Sukeyoshi (1789–1782) Hotta Masanari (1792–1798) Makino Tadakiyo (1798–1801) Doi Toshiatsu (1801–1802) Aoyama Tadayasu (1802–1804) Inaba Masanobu (1804–1806) Abe Masayoshi (1806–1808) Sakai Tadayuki
Sakai Tadayuki
(1808–1815) Ōkubo Tadazane
Ōkubo Tadazane
(1815–1818) Matsudaira Norihiro (1818–1823) Naitō Nobuatsu
Naitō Nobuatsu
(1823–1825) Matsudaira Yasutō (1825–1826) Mizuno Tadakuni
Mizuno Tadakuni
(1826–1828) Matsudaira Muneakira (1828–1832) Ōta Sukemoto (1832–1834) Matsudaira Nobuyori (1834–1837) Doi Toshitsura
Doi Toshitsura
(1837–1838) Manabe Akikatsu
Manabe Akikatsu
(1838–1840) Makino Tadamasa (1840–1843) Sakai Tadaaki
Sakai Tadaaki
(1843–1850) Naitō Nobuchika (1850–1851) Wakisaka Yasuori (1851–1857) Honda Tadamoto
Honda Tadamoto
(1857–1858) Sakai Tadaaki
Sakai Tadaaki
(1858–1862) Matsudaira Munehide
Matsudaira Munehide
(1862) Makino Tadayuki
Makino Tadayuki
(1862–1863) Inaba Masakuni
Inaba Masakuni
(1863–1864) Matsudaira Sadaaki
Matsudaira Sadaaki
(1864–1867)

Bugyō

Bugu-bugyō (post-1863) Edo
Edo
machi-bugyō Fushimi bugyō Gaikoku-bugyō (post-1858) Gunkan-bugyō (post-1859) Gusoku-bugyō Hakodate bugyō Haneda bugyō (post-1853) Hyōgo bugyō (post-1864) Jisha-bugyō Kanagawa bugyō (post-1859) Kanjō-bugyō (post-1787) Kinzan-bugyō Kyoto machi-bugyō Nara bugyō Machi-bugyō Nagasaki bugyō Niigata bugyō Nikkō bugyō Osaka jōdai Osaka machi-bugyō Rōya-bugyō Sado bugyō Sakai bugyō Sakuji-bugyō (post-1632) Shimoda bugyō Sunpu jōdai Uraga bugyō Yamada bugyō

Ōmetsuke

Yagyū Munenori
Yagyū Munenori
(1632–1636) Mizuno Morinobu (1632–1636) Akiyama Masashige 1632–1640) Inoue Masashige (1632–1658) Kagazume Tadazumi (1640–1650) Nakane Masamori (1650) Hōjō Ujinaga (1655–1670) Ōoka Tadatane (1670) Nakayama Naomori (1684) Sengoku Hisanao (1695–1719) Shōda Yasutoshi (1699–1701) Sakakibara Tadayuki (1836–1837) Atobe Yoshisuke (1839–1841, 1855–1856) Tōyama Kagemoto
Tōyama Kagemoto
(1844) Ido Hiromichi 1853–1855) Tsutsui Masanori (1854–1857) Ōkubo Tadahiro (1862) Matsudaira Yasuhide (1864) Nagai Naoyuki
Nagai Naoyuki
(1864–1865, 1865–1867) Yamaoka Takayuki (1868) Oda Nobushige (1868)

Kyoto Shugoshoku

Matsudaira Katamori
Matsudaira Katamori
(1862–1864) Matsudaira Yoshinaga
Matsudaira Yoshinaga
(1864) Matsudaira Kata

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