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The Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
(徳川氏、德川氏, Tokugawa-shi or Tokugawa-uji) was a powerful daimyō family of Japan. They nominally descended from Emperor Seiwa
Emperor Seiwa
(850–880) and were a branch of the Minamoto clan
Minamoto clan
(Seiwa Genji) by the Nitta clan. The early history of this clan remains a mystery.[1] Members of the clan ruled Japan
Japan
as shōguns from 1603 to 1867.

Contents

1 History 2 Simplified genealogy, showing complete lines of descent 3 Crest 4 Family members 5 Retainers

5.1 Clans 5.2 Important retainers

6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Minamoto no Yoshishige (1135–1202), grandson of Minamoto no Yoshiie (1041–1108), was the first to take the name of Nitta. He sided with his cousin Minamoto no Yoritomo
Minamoto no Yoritomo
against the Taira clan
Taira clan
(1180) and accompanied him to Kamakura. Nitta Yoshisue, 4th son of Yoshishige, settled at Tokugawa (Kozuke province) and took the name of that place. Their provincial history book did not mention Minamoto clan
Minamoto clan
or Nitta clan.[2] The nominal originator of the Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
was reportedly Matsudaira Chikauji, who was originally a poor Buddhist monk.[1][3] He reportedly descended from Nitta Yoshisue in the 8th generation and witnessed the ruin of the Nitta in their war against the Ashikaga. He settled at Matsudaira (Mikawa province) and was adopted by his wife's family. Their provincial history book claimed that this original clan was Ariwara clan.[2] Because this place is said to have been reclaimed by Nobumori Ariwara, one theory holds that Matsudaira clan
Matsudaira clan
was related to Ariwara no Narihira.[4] Matsudaira Nobumitsu (15th century), son of Chikauji, was in charge of Okazaki Castle, and strengthened the authority of his family in the Mikawa province. Nobumitsu's great-great-grandson Matsudaira Kiyoyasu made his clan strong, but was assassinated. In 1567, his grandson Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(then known as Matsudaira Motonobu) (1542–1616) obtained from the Emperor permission to revive the name Tokugawa. In so doing, he claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. The clan rose to power at the end of the Sengoku period, and to the end of the Edo period
Edo period
they ruled Japan
Japan
as shōguns. There were fifteen Tokugawa shōguns. Their dominance was so strong that some history books use the term "Tokugawa era" instead of "Edo period". In addition, the heads of the gosanke (the three branches with fiefs in Owari, Kishū, and Mito) bore the Tokugawa surname. Additional branches became the gosankyō: the Tayasu, Hitotsubashi, and Shimizu Tokugawa clans. Many daimyōs with the Matsudaira surname descended from the Tokugawa. Examples include the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu. Members of the Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
intermarried with prominent daimyo and the Imperial family. Their principal family shrine is the Tōshō-gū in Nikkō, and principal temple is at Kan'ei-ji
Kan'ei-ji
in Tokyo. Heirlooms of the clan are partly administered by the Tokugawa Memorial Foundation. Simplified genealogy, showing complete lines of descent[edit]

I. Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1st Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1543–1616; r. 1603–1605)

II. Tokugawa Hidetada, 2nd Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1579–1632; r. 1605–1623)

III. Tokugawa Iemitsu, 3rd Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1604–1651; r. 1623–1651)

IV. Tokugawa Ietsuna, 4th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1641–1680; r. 1651–1680) Tokugawa Tsunashige, daimyō of Kōfu (1644–1678)

VI. Tokugawa Ienobu, 6th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1662–1712; r. 1709–1712)

VII. Tokugawa Ietsugu, 7th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1709–1716; r. 1712–1716)

V. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 5th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1646–1709; r. 1680–1709)

Tokugawa Yoshinao, 1st daimyō of Owari (1601–1650) Tokugawa Yorinobu, 1st daimyō of Kishū (1602–1671)

Tokugawa Mitsusada, 2nd daimyō of Kishū (1627–1705)

VIII. Tokugawa Yoshimune, 8th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1684–1751; 5th daimyō of Kishū: 1705–1716; 8th Tokugawa Shōgun: 1716–1745)

IX. Tokugawa Ieshige, 9th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1712–1761; r. 1745–1760)

X. Tokugawa Ieharu, 10th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1737–1786; r. 1760–1786).

Tokugawa Munetada, 1st Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family head (1721–1765; Hitotsubashi family head: 1735–1764)

Tokugawa Harusada, 2nd Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family head (1751–1827; Hitotsubashi family head: 1764–1799)

XI. Tokugawa Ienari, 11th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1773–1841; r. 1786–1837)

XII. Tokugawa Ieyoshi, 12th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1793–1853; r. 1837–1853)

XIII. Tokugawa Iesada, 13th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1824–1858; r. 1853–1858)

Tokugawa Nariyuki, 11th daimyō of Kishū (1801–1846)

XIV. Tokugawa Iemochi, 14th Tokugawa Shōgun
Shōgun
(1846–1866; r. 1858–1866)

Tokugawa Narimasa, 3rd Tayasu-Tokugawa family head (1779–1848)

Tokugawa Yoshiyori, 5th Tayasu-Tokugawa family head (1828–1876)

Tokugawa Iesato, 1st Prince Tokugawa, 16th Tokugawa family head, 6th Tayasu-Tokugawa family head (1863–1940; 6th Tayasu-Tokugawa head: 1865–1868, 16th Tokugawa family head: 1868–1940, 1st Prince Tokugawa: cr. 1884)

Iemasa Tokugawa, 2nd Prince Tokugawa, 17th Tokugawa family head (1884–1963; 17th Tokugawa family head: 1940–1963, 2nd Prince Tokugawa: 1940–1947)

Tokugawa Yorifusa, 1st daimyō of Mito (1603–1661)

Matsudaira Yorishige, 1st daimyō of Takamatsu (1622–1695)

Matsudaira Yoriyuki (1661–1687)

Matsudaira Yoritoyo, 3rd daimyō of Takamatsu (1680–1735)

Tokugawa Munetaka, 4th daimyō of Mito (1705–1730)

Tokugawa Munemoto, 5th daimyō of Mito (1728–1766)

Tokugawa Harumori, 6th daimyō of Mito (1751–1805)

Tokugawa Harutoshi, 7th daimyō of Mito (1773–1816)

Tokugawa Nariaki, 9th daimyō of Mito (1800–1860)

XV. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th Tokugawa Shōgun, 1st Head and 1st Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line (1837–1913; Shōgun: 1866–1867, 1st Head of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line: 1868–1913, 1st Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line: 1902–1913)

Yoshihisa Tokugawa, 2nd Head and 2nd Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu line (1884–1922; 2nd head and 2nd Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu line: 1913–1922)

Yoshimitsu Tokugawa, 3rd Head and 3rd Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu line (1913–1993; 3rd Head of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line: 1922–1993, 3rd Prince of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line: 1922–1947)

Yoshitomo Tokugawa, 4th Head of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line (1950–2017; 4th Head of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu
Tokugawa Yoshinobu
line: 1993–2017)

Yoshitaka Tokugawa (b. 1981)

Matsudaira Yoshinari, 9th daimyō of Takasu (1776–1832)

Matsudaira Yoshitatsu, 10th daimyō of Takasu (1800–1862)

Matsudaira Katamori, 9th daimyō of Aizu
Aizu
(1836–1893)

Tsuneo Matsudaira (1877–1949)

Ichirō Matsudaira (1907–1992)

Tsunenari Tokugawa, 18th Tokugawa family head (b. 1940; 18th Tokugawa family head: 1963–present)

Iehiro Tokugawa
Iehiro Tokugawa
(b. 1965)

[5] Crest[edit] The Tokugawa's clan crest, known in Japanese as a "mon", the "triple hollyhock" (although commonly, but mistakenly identified as "hollyhock", the "aoi" actually belongs to the birthwort family and translates as "wild ginger"—Asarum), has been a readily recognized icon in Japan, symbolizing in equal parts the Tokugawa clan
Tokugawa clan
and the last shogunate. The crest derives from a mythical clan, the Kamo clan, which legendarily descended from Yatagarasu.[6] Matsudaira village was located in Higashikamo District, Aichi Prefecture. Although Emperor Go-Yōzei offered a new crest, Ieyasu continued to use the crest, which was not related to Minamoto clan.[7] In jidaigeki, the crest is often shown to locate the story in the Edo period. And in works set in during the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
movement, the crest is used to show the bearer's allegiance to the shogunate—as opposed to the royalists, whose cause is symbolized by the Imperial throne's chrysanthemum crest. Compare with the red and white rose iconography of English Wars of the Roses, as imagined by Walter Scott earlier in the 19th century, in Anne of Geierstein
Anne of Geierstein
(1829). Family members[edit]

Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Hidetada Matsudaira Nobuyasu Yūki Hideyasu Matsudaira Ietada Matsudaira Tadaaki Matsudaira Tadanao Tokuhime Tokugawa Komatsu Tokugawa Iemitsu Senhime Tokugawa Mitsukuni Tokugawa Iesada Tsunenari Tokugawa Muneyoshi Tokugawa

Retainers[edit] Clans[edit]

Abe clan of Mikawa Province Gosankyō Baba clan Honda clan Ii clan Ishikawa clan Ōkubo clan Sakai clan Toda clan

Important retainers[edit]

Abe Masakatsu Akamatsu Norifusa Akaza Naoyasu Amano Yasukage Ando Naotsugu Ando Shigenobu Aoyama Tadanari Ariyama Toyouji Asano Nagaakira Baba Nobushige Fukushima Masanori Fukushima Masayori Furuta Shigekatsu Hattori Hanzō Hattori Masanari Hiraiwa Chikayoshi

Hirose Kagefusa Hisamatsu Sadakatsu Honda Hirotaka Honda Masanobu Honda Masazumi Honda Narishige Honda Shigetsugu Honda Tadakatsu Honda Tadamasa Honda Tadatoki Honda Tadatsugu Honda Tadazumi Honda Yasushige Honda Yasutoshi Hoshina Masamitsu Hoshina Masanao

Hoshina Masatoshi Ii Naomasa Ii Naotaka Ii Naotsugu Ina Tadatsugu Ishikawa Kazumasa Ishin Sūden Kikkawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Hideaki Kōriki Kiyonaga Kutsuki Mototsuna Mizuno Nobumoto Naitō Ienaga Naitō Nobunari Natsume Yoshinobu Ogasawara Ujisuke

Ogawa Suketada Ōkubo Tadayo Ōkubo Tadasuke Ōkubo Tadachika Ōkubo Nagayasu Okudaira Sadamasa Sakai Tadatsugu Sakakibara Yasumasa Suganuma Sadamitsu Torii Tadayoshi Torii Mototada Uemura Masakatsu Wakisaka Yasuharu Watanabe Moritsuna

References[edit]

^ a b 徳川家康展 (in Japanese). Aichi Prefectural Library. Archived from the original on 2005-04-19. Retrieved 2008-12-28.  ^ a b 十四松平の城・寺・墓を訪ねて (in Japanese). Okazaki. 2000. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2008-12-27.  ^ Ryōtarō Shiba
Ryōtarō Shiba
(1962). "Ieyasu Tokugawa" (in Japanese). Shinchosha. Retrieved 2008-12-29.  ^ (in Japanese) Kazue Tanaka. 古代史の謎を解き明かす「モード・タ」. Google Books. via Bungeisha. 2000. 101. ^ "徳川(德川)氏(将軍家)". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 19 April 2014.  (in Japanese) ^ 賀茂別雷神社 (in Japanese). Kyoto sightseeing taxi. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  ^ (in Japanese) Ryu Miura. 戦国武将・闇に消されたミステリー. Google Books. via PHP Kenkyusho. 2005. 283.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tokugawa clan.

Tokugawa memoria

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