TOFU, also known as BEAN CURD, is a food cultivated by coagulating
soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
It is a component in East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines . Tofu
can be soft, firm, or extra firm.
Tofu-making was first recorded during the Chinese
The term tofu is used by extension for similarly textured curdled dishes that do not use soy products, such as "almond tofu" (almond jelly ), tamago-dōfu (ja) (egg), goma-dōfu (ja) (sesame), or peanut tofu (Chinese 落花生豆腐 luòhuāshēng dòufu and Okinawan jīmāmi-dōfu (ja)).
* 1 History
* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Three theories of origin * 1.3 In Asia * 1.4 In the West
* 2 Production
* 2.1 Salt coagulants * 2.2 Acid coagulants * 2.3 Enzyme coagulants * 2.4 Colour * 2.5 Flavour
* 3 Varieties
* 3.1 Fresh tofu
* 3.1.1 Extra soft tofu * 3.1.2 Soft or silken tofu * 3.1.3 Firm tofu * 3.1.4 Extra firm tofu
* 3.2 Processed tofu
* 3.2.1 Fermented * 3.2.2 Dried tofu * 3.2.3 Fried * 3.2.4 Frozen
* 3.3 By-products of tofu production
* 3.3.1 Tofu skin * 3.3.2 Okara
* 3.4 Other tofus
* 4 Preparation
* 4.1 Eastern methods
* 4.1.1 Lightly flavored * 4.1.2 Fried * 4.1.3 Soups, stews, and braised dishes * 4.1.4 Smoked * 4.1.5 Bacem * 4.1.6 As flavoring
* 4.2 Western methods
* 6 Allergies * 7 Chemistry of tofu
* 8 Gelation of tofu
* 8.1 Proteins
* 8.1.1 Denaturation of glycinin and Β-conglycinin
* 8.2 Storage
* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links
The English term "tofu" comes from Japanese tōfu (豆腐), borrowed from the original Chinese equivalent (豆腐 dòufu (pinyin ), literally "bean" (豆) + "curdled" or "fermented" (腐).
A reference to the word "towfu" exists in a letter dated 1770 from
the English merchant James Flint to United States statesman and
The term "bean curd(s)" for tofu has been used in the United States
since at least 1840. It is not frequently used, however, in the United
THREE THEORIES OF ORIGIN
The most commonly held of the three theories of tofu's origin
maintains that tofu was invented in northern
Another theory states that the production method for tofu was discovered accidentally when a slurry of boiled, ground soybeans was mixed with impure sea salt . Such sea salt would probably have contained calcium and magnesium salts, allowing the soy mixture to curdle and produce a tofu-like gel. Korean sundubu (soft tofu) and Okinawan tofu is still produced in a similar manner, traditionally using seawater as a coagulant. This may possibly have been the way tofu was discovered, since soy milk has been eaten as a savory soup in ancient as well as modern times. Its technical plausibility notwithstanding, there is little evidence to prove or disprove that tofu production originated in this way.
The last group of theories maintains that the ancient Chinese learned the method for curdling soy milk by emulating the milk curdling techniques of the Mongolians or East Indians . Despite their advanced culture, no technology or knowledge of culturing and processing milk products existed within ancient Chinese society. (They did not seek such technology, probably because of the Confucian taboo on fermented dairy products and other so-called "barbarian foodstuffs".) The primary evidence for this theory is the etymological similarity between the Chinese term for Mongolian fermented milk (rufu, which literally means "milk curdled") and the term doufu ("beans curdled") or tofu. Although intriguing and possible, there is no evidence to substantiate this theory beyond academic speculation.
A form of tofu may have been discovered during the
In China, tofu is traditionally used as a food offering when visiting
the graves of deceased relatives. It is claimed that the spirits (or
ghosts) have long lost their chins and jaws, so that only tofu is soft
enough for them to eat. Before refrigeration was available in China,
tofu was often only sold during wintertime, since tofu did not spoil
as easily in cold weather. During the warmer months, any leftover tofu
would be spoiled if left for more than a day. Chinese war hero Guan Yu
used to be a tofu maker before he enlisted in the army. Chinese
martial arts expert and hero
Yim Wing-chun was a celebrated tofu maker
in her village. (
The rise in acceptance of tofu likely coincided with that of Buddhism
, as it is an important source of proteins in that religion's
vegetarian diet. Since then, tofu has become a staple in many
In Southeast Asia, tofu was introduced to the region by Chinese
immigrants from sea-faring Fujian provinces, evident from the fact
that many countries in
IN THE WEST
tofu (soft, typical) NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)
ENERGY 291 kJ (70 kcal)
CARBOHYDRATES 1.5 g
FAT 3.5 g
SATURATED 0.5 g
PROTEIN 8 g
CALCIUM (13%) 130 mg
IRON (8%) 1.10 mg
SODIUM (0%) 4 mg
* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Regardless of the product or scale of the production, the production of tofu essentially consists of
* the preparation of soymilk * the coagulation of the soymilk to form curds * the pressing of the soybean curds to form tofu cakes.
The typical tofu making procedures are cleaning, soaking, grinding beans in water, filtering, boiling, coagulation, and pressing.
Coagulation of the protein and oil (emulsion ) suspended in the boiled soy milk is the most important step in the production of tofu. This process is accomplished with the aid of coagulants. In the case of salts, the positively charged ion in the particular salt reacts with the various protein in the milk causing the proteins to precipitate with the oil to form a curd. Coagulation of the soymilk is the most important step in tofu making process but is complicated as the process depends on complex interactions many variables including the variety and percentage of protein in the soybeans used, slurry cooking temperature, coagulation temperature, and more factors relating to the processing.
Two types of coagulants (salts and acids) are used commercially.
* CALCIUM SULFATE (gypsum ): The traditional and most widely used
coagulant to produce Chinese-style tofu, it produces a tofu that is
tender but slightly brittle in texture. The coagulant itself has no
perceivable taste. Also known as gypsum , calcium sulfate is quarried
from geological deposits and no chemical processing or refining is
needed, making it the cheapest coagulant used in tofu production. When
used in production, the coagulation reaction is slower due to its low
solubility, forming a smooth, more gelatinous network with relatively
high water content and soft texture. Use of this coagulant also makes
a tofu that is rich in calcium . As such, many tofu manufacturers
choose to use this coagulant to be able to market their tofu as a good
source of dietary calcium.
Nigari salts or Lushui ( Traditional: 鹵水,
滷水; Simplified: 卤水, lǔshuǐ) –
* GLUCONO DELTA-LACTONE (GDL): A naturally occurring organic acid also used in cheese making , this coagulant produces a very fine textured tofu that is almost jelly-like. It is used especially for "silken" and softer tofus, and confers an almost imperceptible sour taste to the finished product. It is commonly used together with calcium sulfate to give soft tofu a smooth tender texture. * Other edible acids: Though they can affect the taste of the tofu more, and vary in density and texture, acids such as acetic acid (vinegar ) and citric acid (such as lemon juice), can also be used to coagulate soy milk and produce tofu.
* Among enzymes that have been shown to produce tofu are papain , and alkaline and neutral proteases from microorganisms. In the case of papain, the enzyme-to-substrate ratio, by weight, was held constant at 1:400. An aliquot of 1% crude papain was added to "uncooked" soy milk at room temperature and heated to 90–100 °C (194–212 °F). Papain, moreover, has been studied as a gelling agent to produce "instant tofu" from soy protein isolate and soy glycinin (11S) protein.
Contemporary tofu manufacturers may choose to use one or more of these coagulants, since each plays a role in producing a desired texture in the finished tofu. Different textures result from different pore sizes and other microscopic features in tofu produced using each coagulant. The coagulant mixture is dissolved into water, and the solution is then stirred into boiled soy milk until the mixture curdles into a soft gel .
Coagulants are typically added at concentrations between 1.5 and 5.0
g/kg. In all coagulants consisting of calcium or magnesium salts, the
positive double bonded ions of the calcium or magnesium are
responsible for the coagulating soy proteins and become part of the
tofu thereby enhancing it’s nutritional value. Only 1 part per 1000
of the tofu eaten is coagulant, most react with soy protein and are
broken down into ions and the nonreactive portion dissolve in the whey
The curds are processed differently depending on the form of tofu that is being manufactured. For soft silken tofu (嫩豆腐; nèn dòufu) or tofu flower (豆花, dòuhuā) the soy milk is curdled directly in the tofu's selling package. For standard firm Asian tofu, the soy curd is cut and strained of excess liquid using cheese cloth or muslin and then lightly pressed to produce a soft cake. Firmer tofus, such as Asian dry tofu (豆干) or Western types of tofu, are further pressed to remove even more liquid. In Vietnam, the curd is strained and molded in a square mold, and the end product is called đậu khuôn (molded bean) or đậu phụ (one of the Vietnamese ways to pronounce the Chinese dòufu). The tofu curds are allowed to cool and become firm. The finished tofu can then be cut into pieces, flavored or further processed.
Although tartness is sometimes desired in dessert tofu, the acid used in flavoring is usually not the primary coagulant, since concentration sufficiently high to induce coagulation negatively affects the flavor or texture of the resulting tofu. A sour taste in tofu and a slight cloudiness in its storing liquid is also usually an indication of bacterial growth and, hence, spoilage.
The whiteness of tofu is ultimately determined by the soybean variety, soybean protein composition and degree of aggregation of the tofu gel network. The yellowish beige color of soybeans is due to the color compounds including anthocyanin, isoflavones and polyphenol compounds therefore the soybean variety used can predict the color of the final tofu product. Ways to reduce the yellow color include reducing isoflavone content by changing the pH of the soymilk solution used in the production of tofu so that they precipitate out and are removed during the extraction of okara. The opacity of tofu gel and off-white color typical of standard uncooked firm tofu is due to the scattering of light by the colloidal particles of the tofu. The addition of higher levels of calcium salts and high protein content contributes to forming a denser and more aggregated gel network which disperses more light resulting a tofu with a whiter gel appearance.
Coagulation of the protein and oil (emulsion ) suspended in the boiled soy milk is the most important step in the production of tofu. This process is accomplished with the aid of coagulants. Two types of coagulants (salts and acids) are used commercially.
A wide variety of tofu is available in both Western and Eastern markets. Despite the range of options, tofu products can be split into two main categories: 'fresh tofu', which is produced directly from soy milk , and 'processed tofu', which is produced from fresh tofu. Tofu production also creates important by-products that are used in various cuisines.
Depending on the amount of water that is extracted from the tofu curds, fresh tofu can be divided into four main varieties: extra soft, soft (or silken), firm, and extra firm. Fresh tofu is usually sold completely immersed in water to maintain its moisture content.
Extra Soft Tofu
Extra soft tofu
LITERAL MEANING mild tofu
REVISED ROMANIZATION sun-dubu
Extra soft tofu, called sundubu (순두부; "mild tofu") in Korean , is softer than other types of tofu and is usually sold in tubes. It is the main ingredient in sundubu-jjigae (순두부찌개; "soft tofu stew"). Although sun in sundubu doesn't have Sino-Korean origin , sundubu is often translated into Chinese and Japanese using the Chinese character 純, whose Korean pronunciation is sun and the meaning is "pure". Thus in China, sundubu is called chún dòufu (純豆腐; "pure tofu"), and in Japan, it is called jun tōfu (純豆腐) or sundubu (スンドゥブ).
Sundubu (extra soft tofu) packed in a tube *
Boiled sundubu (extra soft tofu) in ttukbaegi
Soft Or Silken Tofu
LITERAL MEANING "soft tofu"
HANYU PINYIN nèn-dòufu
ALTERNATIVE CHINESE NAME
LITERAL MEANING "smooth tofu"
HANYU PINYIN huá-dòufu
LITERAL MEANING "soft tofu"
REVISED ROMANIZATION yeon-dubu
REVISED HEPBURN kinugoshi-dōfu
Soft/silken tofu, called nèn dòufu (嫩豆腐; "soft tofu") or huá
dòufu (滑豆腐, "smooth tofu") in Chinese , kinugoshi tōfu
(絹漉し豆腐; "silk-filtered tofu") in Japanese , and yeondubu
(연두부; 軟豆腐; "soft tofu") in Korean , is undrained,
unpressed tofu that contains the high moisture content. Silken tofu
is produced by coagulating soy milk without curdling it. Silken tofu
is available in several consistencies, including "soft" and "firm",
but all silken tofu is more delicate than regular firm tofu (pressed
tofu) and it has different culinary uses. In
Douhua (豆花, dòuhuā or 豆腐花, dòufuhuā in Chinese), or tofu brain (豆腐腦 or 豆腐脑, dòufunaǒ in Chinese) is often eaten as a dessert, but sometimes salty pickles or hot sauce are added instead. This is a type of soft tofu with an even higher moisture content. Because it is very difficult to pick up with chopsticks , it is generally eaten with a spoon. With the addition of flavorings such as finely chopped spring onions , dried shrimp , soy sauce , or chilli sauce , douhua is a popular breakfast dish across China. In Malaysia, douhua is usually served warm with white or dark (palm) sugar syrup, or served cold with longans .
Some variation exists among soft tofus. Black douhua (黑豆花,
hēidòuhuā) is a type of silken tofu made from black soybeans, which
is usually made into dòuhuā (豆花) rather than firm or dry tofu.
The texture of black bean tofu is slightly more gelatinous than
regular douhua and the color is greyish in tone. This type of tofu is
eaten for its earthy "black bean taste."
Japanese-style "silken tofu" with soy sauce and a decorative carrot slice *
Chinese soft tofu dish, pidan doufu
LITERAL MEANING "old tofu"
HANYU PINYIN lǎo-dòufu
LITERAL MEANING "block tofu"
REVISED ROMANIZATION mo-dubu
REVISED HEPBURN momen-dōfu
Firm tofu (called 老豆腐 lǎo dòufu in Chinese; 木綿豆腐, momen-dōfu in Japanese, "cotton tofu"; 모두부, modubu in Korean): Although drained and pressed, this form of fresh tofu still contains a great amount of moisture. It has the firmness of raw meat and bounces back readily when pressed. The texture of the inside of the tofu is similar to that of a firm custard. The skin of this form of tofu has the pattern of the muslin used to drain it and the outside is slightly more resistant to damage than the inside. It can be picked up easily with chopsticks.
In some places in Japan, a very firm type of momen-dōfu is eaten,
called ishi-dōfu (石豆腐, "stone tofu") in parts of Ishikawa , or
iwa-dōfu (岩豆腐, "rock tofu") in
Gokayama in the Toyama
Prefecture and in Iya in the prefecture of
Firm tofu *
Roasted modubu (firm tofu) with seasoned soy sauce
Extra Firm Tofu
Extra firm tofu
LITERAL MEANING "dry tofu"
HANYU PINYIN dòugān
LITERAL MEANING "dry tofu"
REVISED ROMANIZATION geon-dubu
Dòu gān (豆干, literally "dry tofu" in Chinese) is an extra firm variety of tofu where a large amount of liquid has been pressed out. Dòu gān contains the least amount of moisture of all fresh tofu and has the firmness of fully cooked meat and a somewhat rubbery feel similar to that of paneer . When sliced thinly, this tofu can be crumbled easily. The skin of this form of tofu has the pattern of the muslin used to drain and press it. Western firm tofu is milled and reformed after pressing and sometimes lacks the skin with its cloth patterning. One variety of dried tofu is pressed especially flat and sliced into long strings with a cross section smaller than 2 mm × 2 mm. Shredded dried tofu (豆干絲, dòugānsī in Chinese, or simply 干絲, gānsī), which looks like loose cooked noodles , can be served cold, stir-fried, or similar in style to Japanese aburaage .
Dòufu gān (dried tofu) *
Prepared "dried" tofu threads (干絲, gānsī)
Many forms of processed tofu exist, due to the varied ways in which fresh tofu can be used. Some of these techniques probably originate from the need to preserve tofu before the days of refrigeration, or to increase its shelf life and longevity. Other production techniques are employed to create tofus with unique textures and flavors.
chòu dòufu is a very pungent type of tofu
* PICKLED TOFU (豆腐乳 in Chinese, pinyin : dòufurǔ, or 腐乳
fŭrŭ; chao in Vietnamese): Also called "preserved tofu" or
"fermented tofu", consists of cubes of dried tofu that have been
allowed to fully air-dry under hay and slowly ferment with the help of
aerial bacteria. The dry fermented tofu is then soaked in salt water,
Chinese wine, vinegar, and minced chiles , or in a unique mixture of
whole rice, bean paste, and soybeans. In the case of red pickled tofu
(紅豆腐乳 in Chinese, Pinyin: hóng dòufurǔ), red yeast rice
Monascus purpureus ) is added for color. In Japan,
pickled tofu with miso paste is called "tofu no misodzuke," which is a
traditional preserved food in
Kumamoto . In
Two kinds of dried tofu are produced in Japan. They are usually rehydrated by being soaked in water prior to consumption. In their dehydrated state they do not require refrigeration.
* Koya tofu (also known as shimidofu) is made using nigari . * Kori tofu (literally "frozen tofu") is freeze-dried .
* With the exception of the softest tofus, all forms of tofu can be fried. Thin and soft varieties of tofu are deep fried in oil until they are light and airy in their core 豆泡 dòupào, 豆腐泡 dòufupào, 油豆腐 yóudòufu, or 豆卜 dòubǔ in Chinese, literally "bean bubble," describing the shape of the fried tofu as a bubble. * Tofus such as firm Asian and dòu gān (Chinese dry tofu), with their lower moisture content, are cut into bite-sized cubes or triangles and deep fried until they develop a golden-brown, crispy surface (炸豆腐 in Chinese, zhádòufu, lit. "fried tofu"). These may be eaten on their own or with a light sauce, or further cooked in liquids; they are also added to hot pot dishes or included as part of the vegetarian dish called luohan zhai . This deep fried tofu is also called Atsuage (厚揚げ) or Namaage (生揚げ) in Japan. The thinner variety, called Aburaage (油揚げ), develops a tofu pouch often used for Inari-sushi .
Thawed and sliced frozen tofu
* THOUSAND LAYER TOFU (千葉豆腐, qiānyè dòufu, literally "thousand layer tofu," or 凍豆腐 dòngdòufu, 冰豆腐 bīngdòufu in Chinese, both meaning "frozen tofu"): When tofu is frozen, the large ice crystals that develop within it result in the formation of large cavities that appear to be layered. Frozen tofu takes on a yellowish hue in the freezing process. Thousand layer tofu is commonly made at home from Asian soft tofu, although it is also commercially sold as a specialty in parts of Taiwan. This tofu is defrosted and sometimes pressed to remove moisture prior to use.
Koya-dofu after soaking in water.
* KOYA-DOFU (kōya-dōfu, 高野豆腐 in Japanese): The name comes
Mount Kōya , a center of Japanese
BY-PRODUCTS OF TOFU PRODUCTION
Tofu skin is commonly sold in the form of dried leaves or sheets
Tofu skin is produced when soy milk is boiled in an open, shallow pan, thus producing a film or skin composed primarily of a soy protein-lipid complex on the liquid surface. The films are collected and dried into yellowish sheets known as SOY MILK SKIN (腐皮, fǔpí in Chinese; 湯葉, yuba in Japanese). Its approximate composition is: 50–55% protein, 24–26% lipids (fat), 12% carbohydrate, 3% ash, and 9% moisture.
The skin can also be bunched up into a stick form and dried into a product known as "tofu bamboo" (腐竹, fǔ zhú in Chinese; phù trúc in Vietnamese; kusatake, Japanese), or into myriad other forms. Since tofu skin has a soft yet rubbery texture, it is folded or shaped into different forms and cooked further to imitate meat in vegan cuisine.
Some factories dedicate their production to tofu skin and other soy membrane products.
Okara (from the Japanese , おから, okara; known as 雪花菜, xuěhuācài, in Chinese , lit. "snowflake vegetable"; 豆腐渣, dòufuzhā, also Chinese , lit. "tofu sediment/residue"; and 콩비지, kongbiji, in Korean ), is a tofu by-product sometimes known in the west as "soy pulp" or "tofu lees", consisting of the fiber, protein, and starch left over when soy milk has been extracted from ground soaked soybeans. Although it is mainly used as animal feed in most tofu producing cultures, it is sometimes used in Japanese and Korean cuisines, such as in the Korean stew kongbiji jjigae (콩비지찌개). It is also an ingredient for the vegetarian burgers produced in many Western nations.
Due to their Asian origins and their textures, many food items are
called "tofu" even though their production processes are not
technically similar. For instance, many sweet almond tofus are
actually gelatinous desserts hardened using agar or gelatin . Some
foods, such as Burmese tofu, are not coagulated from the "milk" of the
legume but rather set in a manner similar to soft polenta , Korean muk
, or the jidou liangfen of
Almond "tofu", which is not made of soy milk but rather from gelatin or agarose
" Almond tofu " (Chinese: 杏仁豆腐 xìngrén dòufu; Japanese: annindōfu) is a milky white and gelatinous resembling tofu, but it does not use soy products or soy milk and is hardened with agar . A similar dessert made with coconut milk or mango juices may occasionally be referred to as "coconut tofu" or "mango tofu", although such names are also given to hot dishes that use soy tofu and coconut or mango in the recipe.
Egg tofu (ja) (Japanese: 玉子豆腐, 卵豆腐, tamagodōfu)
(Chinese: 蛋豆腐, dàn dòufu; often called 日本豆腐, rìbĕn
dòufu, lit. "
The tofu known as goma-dōfu (ja) is made by grinding sesame into a smooth paste, combining it with liquid and kudzu starch, and heating it until curdling occurs. It is often served chilled as hiyayakko .
In Okinawa, Japan, jīmāmi-dōfu (ja) is made in a process similar to that used for sesame tofu. A peanut milk (made by crushing raw peanuts, adding water and straining) is combined with starch (usually sweet potato known locally as umukuji or umukashi (芋澱粉)) and heated until curdling occurs.
The Chinese equivalent is 落花生豆腐 luòhuāshēng dòufu.
Main article: Burmese tofu To hpu (Burmese tofu), in two forms: fresh and fritters
Burmese tofu (to hpu in Burmese ) is a legume product made from besan
(chana dal ) flour; the Shan variety uses yellow split pea flour
instead. Both types are yellow in color and generally found only in
A variety called hsan to hpu (or hsan ta hpo in Shan regions) is made from rice flour (called hsan hmont or mont hmont) and is white in color with the same consistency as yellow Burmese tofu when set. It is eaten as a salad in the same manner as yellow tofu.
In Asian cooking, tofu is eaten in a myriad of ways, including raw, stewed, stir-fried, in soup, cooked in sauce, or stuffed with fillings. The idea of using tofu as a meat substitute is not common in East Asia. Many Chinese tofu dishes such as jiācháng dòufu (家常豆腐) and mápó dòufú ( 麻婆豆腐 ) include meat.
In Vietnam, dòuhuā, pronounced đậu hủ, is a variety of soft tofu made and carried around in an earthenware jar. It is served by being scooped into a bowl with a very shallow and flat spoon, and it is eaten together with either powdered sugar and lime juice or a ginger-flavored syrup. It is generally eaten hot, also in summer.
Fried tofu in
A common cooking technique in many parts of East and Southeast Asia
involves deep frying tofu in vegetable oil , sunflower oil, or canola
oil with varied results. In Indonesia, it is usually fried in palm oil
. Although tofu is often sold preprocessed into fried items, pre-fried
tofu is seldom eaten directly and requires additional cooking.
Depending on the type of tofu used, the texture of deep fried tofu may
range from crispy on the outside and custardy on the inside, to puffed
up like a plain doughnut . The former is usually eaten plain in
In Japan, cubes of lightly coated and fried tofu topped with a kombu
dashi -based sauce are called agedashi-dofu (揚げ出し豆腐). Soft
tofu that has been thinly sliced and deep fried, known as aburage in
Soups, Stews, And Braised Dishes
Yudofu, or tofu in hot water
A spicy Sichuan preparation using firm Asian tofu is mápó dòufu (麻婆豆腐). It involves braised tofu in a beef , chili, and fermented bean paste sauce. A vegetarian version is known as málà dòufu (麻辣豆腐).
Dried tofu is usually not eaten raw but first stewed in a mixture of soy sauce and spices. Some types of dried tofu are pre-seasoned with special blends of spices, so that the tofu may either be called "five spice tofu" (五香豆腐 wǔxiāng dòufu) or "soy sauce stewed tofu" (鹵水豆腐 lǔshuǐ dòufu). Dried tofu is typically served thinly sliced with chopped green onions or with slices of meat for added flavor. Most dried tofu is sold after it has been fried or pre-stewed by tofu vendors.
Soft tofu can also be broken up or mashed and mixed with raw ingredients prior to being cooked. For example, Japanese ganmodoki is a mixture of chopped vegetables and mashed tofu. The mixture is bound together with starch and deep fried. Chinese families sometimes make a steamed meatloaf or meatball dish from equal parts of coarsely mashed tofu and ground pork. In India, tofu is also used as a low fat replacement for paneer , providing the same texture with similar taste.
Japanese 'miso soup ', stocks with miso paste , is frequently made with tofu.
Smoked tofu at The House of Confucius in
Bacem is a method of cooking tofu originating in
Pickled tofu is commonly used in small amounts together with its soaking liquid to flavor stir-fried or braised vegetable dishes (particularly leafy green vegetables like water spinach ). It is often eaten directly as a condiment with rice or congee .
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Generally, the firmer styles of tofu are used for kebabs , mock meats, and dishes requiring a consistency that holds together, while the softer styles can be used for desserts, soups, shakes, and sauces.
Firm Western tofu types can be barbecued, since they hold together on a barbecue grill. These types are usually marinated overnight as the marinade does not easily penetrate the entire block of tofu (techniques to increase penetration of marinades are stabbing repeatedly with a fork or freezing and thawing prior to marinating). Grated firm Western tofu is sometimes used in conjunction with TVP as a meat substitute. Softer tofus are sometimes used as a dairy-free or low-calorie filler. Silken tofu may be used to replace cheese in certain dishes (such as lasagna ).
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE CLAIMS
In Chinese traditional medicine, tofu is considered suitable for
those who are weak, malnourished, deficient in blood and qi; for the
elderly and slim; for those with high fat content in blood, high
cholesterol, overweight, and with hardened blood vessels; for people
with diabetes; for mothers with low breast milk supply; for children
and young adults; for those with an inflamed respiratory tract,
phlegm, coughing or asthma.
In 1995, a report from the
University of Kentucky , financed by Solae
, concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases
in serum cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein
The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." For reference, 100 grams of firm tofu coagulated with calcium sulfate contains 8.19 grams of soy protein. In January 2006, an American Heart Association review (in the journal Circulation) of a decade-long study of soy protein benefits showed only a minimal decrease in cholesterol levels, but it compared favorably against animal protein sources.
Because it is made of soy, individuals with allergies, particularly those allergic to legumes , should not consume tofu.
CHEMISTRY OF TOFU
All waters especially surface waters contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Coagulation and flocculation processes are used to separate the suspended solid portion from the water to form the curds which makes tofu. The suspended particles vary considerable in source, composition, and charge, particle size, shape and density. This affects the shape, firmness, and texture of the curds. The small particles are stabilized or kept in suspension by action of the physical forces on the particle themselves. One of the forces that play a dominant role in the stabilization results from the surface charge present on the particles. Most solids suspended in water present a negative charge and since they have the same type of surface charge, the particles repel each other when they come close together therefore they will remain in suspension rather than clump together and settle out of the water.
GELATION OF TOFU
The two main fractions of the soybean important in tofu making are the 11S component, containing glycinin and the 7S subunit, containing hemagglutinins, lipoxygenases, b-amylase, and β-conglycinin. The major soy protein components, in the two fractions that make up 65-85% of the proteins in soybeans include glycinin and β-conglycinin. The soybean protein consists of many different subunits which are sensitive to heat, pH and ionic strength and become unevenly distributed among soluble and particulate fractions due to hydrophilic and hydrophobic interaction due to the amino acid composition.
Denaturation Of Glycinin And Β-conglycinin
SOYMILK PARTICLE COMPOSITION (COOKING)
When talking about the particles in soymilk, researchers commonly refer to the particles in the soymilk system based on particle size and fractionation. The precipitated fraction refers to particulate protein particles that are >40 nm in size, the supernatant fraction contains soluble proteins
* v * t * e
Veganism and vegetarianism
* Economic vegetarianism * Environmental vegetarianism * History of vegetarianism * Lacto vegetarianism * Ovo vegetarianism * Ovo-lacto vegetarianism * Vegetarian cuisine * Vegetarian Diet Pyramid * Vegetarian ecofeminism * Vegetarian nutrition * Vegetarianism by country
Groups, events, companies
* American Vegan Society * Beauty Without Cruelty * Food Empowerment Project * Go Vegan * Movement for Compassionate Living * Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine * Plamil Foods * Vegan Awareness Foundation * Vegan flag * Vegan Ireland * Vegan Outreach * Vegan Prisoners Support Group * The Vegan Society * Veganz * World Vegan Day
* American Vegetarian Party * Boston Vegetarian Society * Christian Vegetarian Association * European Vegetarian Union * Hare Krishna Food for Life * International Vegetarian Union * Jewish Veg * Linda McCartney Foods
Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian (1903)
* The Benefits of
Diet for a Small Planet (1971)
Moosewood Cookbook (1977)
Fit for Life (1985)
Diet for a New America (1987)
Meet Your Meat (2002)
* Peaceable Kingdom (2004)
* Earthlings (2005)
A Sacred Duty (2007)
Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead (2010)
Forks Over Knives (2011)
* Live and Let Live (2013)
* Neal D. Barnard * T. Colin Campbell * Caldwell Esselstyn * Gary L. Francione * Joel Fuhrman * Michael Greger * Melanie Joy * Michael Klaper * John A. McDougall * Reed Mangels * Dean Ornish * Richard H. Schwartz
* GND : 4060337-4 * NDL