TOCANTINS (Portuguese pronunciation: A ) is one of the states of
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Climate * 1.2 Vegetation
* 2 History
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Largest cities
* 4 Economy
* 5 Education
* 5.1 Educational institutions
* 6 Infrastructure
* 6.1 Palmas Airport * 6.2 Federal highways
* 7 Protected areas * 8 Flag * 9 Cities * 10 Represented in popular culture * 11 Footnotes * 12 References * 13 External links
The "cerrado" landscape cover 87% of
The savanna formations are not homogenous. There is great variation between the amount of woody and herbaceous vegetation, forming a gradient from completely open "cerrado" — open fields dominated by grasses — to the closed, forest-like "cerrado" and the "cerradão " ("big cerrado"), a closed canopy forest. Intermediate forms include the dirty field, the "cerrado" field, and the "cerrado" sensu stricto, according to a growing density of trees.
The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves that are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.
As in many savannas in the world, the "cerrado" ecosystems have been coexisting with fire since ancient times. Initially they developed adaptations to natural fires caused by lightning or volcanic activity, and later to those caused by man.
Along the western boundary of the state is the floodplain of the
Araguaia River , which includes extensive wetlands and Amazon tropical
forest ecosystems. Bananal Island, formed by two branches of the
Araguaia, is said to be the largest river island in the world. It
consists mostly of marshlands and seasonally flooded savannas, with
gallery forest. Where the two branches meet again they form an inland
Cantão , a typical Amazonian igapó flooded forest. The
Araguaia is also one of the main links between the Amazonian lowlands
Portuguese Jesuit missionaries explored what is today
Before 1988 the area made up the northern two-fifths or one-third of
After the government levied heavy taxes on mining in 1809, local
residents began to organize a separatists movement. They made a minor
revolt which was quickly crushed by the army. In the 19th century, a
string of failed uprisings occurred in the north. Historically the
area was inhabited chiefly by
Amerindians in some intact indigenous
tribes and pardos of
In the 1970s, the population of northern
Since its establishment and investment by the government, as in the new capital of Palmas, Tocantins has been the fastest-growing Brazilian state. Its thriving economy is based on agriculture and agro-industry, attracting thousands of migrants from all over the country. The construction of the long-planned North-South Railway (Brazil) will probably boost economic growth even more.
According to the IBGE , as of 2014, there were 1,496,880 people residing in the state. The population density was 4.98 inh./km².
The last PNAD (National Survey of Households) census revealed the
following numbers: 948,000 Pardos (brown, Multiracial ) people
(68.9%), 330,000 White people (24.0%), 95,000 Black people (6.9%),
2,000 Asian or
* v * t * e
Largest cities or towns in Tocantins (2011 census of Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística )
MESOREGION POP. RANK
Palmas 1 Palmas Oriental 235315 11 Dianópolis Oriental 19110
4 Porto Nacional Oriental 49143 14 Taguatinga Oriental 15053
10 Miracema do Tocantins Ocidental 20692 20 Nova Olinda Ocidental 10686
The service sector is the largest component of
Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.4% (2005).
As with much of Brazil, Tocantins' economy is dependent on cattle
ranching. The state's pineapple plantations supply much of
Seeking to broaden Tocantins' economic base by funding the
construction of a hydroelectric dam in the state, the government
allowed a private company to construct a sizable five-turbine
hydroelectric dam, blocking the
Tocantins River to create a reservoir.
This construction displaced some indigenous inhabitants. The dam's
economic contribution to the state is large: one turbine provides
enough power for the entire state of Tocantins, and the remaining four
provide electricity that is sold to other parts of
Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
* Universidade Federal do
The facility occupies one of
The passenger terminal has 12.300 square meters of constructed area
and capacity to serve up to 370 thousand people a year. It has a food
court, cultural space, shops, panoramic deck, elevators, and air
conditioning. The runway can receive aircraft the size of a Boeing
767. Three taxiways and aprons are reserved for general aviation,
making operations more flexible. The airport's full infrastructure
includes a control tower and installations for the Air Navigation
Group, fire brigade, a covered equipment parking area, canteen and
training rooms, two aircraft fueling stations, a gate with electronic
entry control, guard booths, parking and flight protection buildings,
besides a 4 km (2.48 mi) access road linking the airport to the
* BR-153 (One of the two main highways of the state, also known as Belém- Brasília Highway ) * BR-226 (One of the two main highways of the state, also known as Belém- Brasília Highway ) * BR-010 * BR-230 (also known as Trans-Amazonian Highway) * BR-235 * BR-242
Araguaia National Park , established in 1959, is located on Bananal Island. It borders Cantão State Park , and together, these strictly protected areas form the core of the Araguaia Mosaic of Protected Areas , which consists of over four million hectares of state and federal protected areas and Indian lands along the Araguaia wetlands. The mosaic also extends into the neighboring states of Pará and Mato Grosso.
Nascentes do Rio Parnaiba National Park is located on the opposite
corner of the state, in the transition zone between the
In addition, the State of
The message of the flag is the phrase "where the sun rises for all". In the middle of the flag is the golden yellow sun, with its rays symbolically targeting to the future of the state. The sun is placed on a white band, where the white color represents peace. The blue in the upper left and the yellow in the bottom right represent the waters and the soil of the state. The colors date back to a flag used by the Autonomous Government of Palmas in the 19th century.
The flag was adopted with the state flag law (law no 094/89) of November 17, 1989.
REPRESENTED IN POPULAR CULTURE
A.^ The presented pronunciation is in the Brazilian Portuguese
variant spoken in
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Tocantins" (in Portuguese). Brasília, Brazil: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica. 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-14. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Tocantins" (in Portuguese). Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil: Governo do Tocantins. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Bananal Island". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Tocantins". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-28. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Goias/ State Brazil", _Encyclopædia Britannica_, 2015 * ^ "História" (in Portuguese). Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil: Governo do Tocantins. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-28. * ^ Source: PNAD. * ^ _Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007_ (PDF) (in Portuguese). Tocantins, Brazil: IBGE . 2007. ISBN 85-240-3919-1 . Retrieved 2007-07-18. * ^ "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 1º DE JULHO DE 2011" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for TOCANTINS _.