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Tobacco
Tobacco
is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana
Nicotiana
and of the Solanaceae
Solanaceae
(nightshade) family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is also used around the world. Tobacco
Tobacco
contains the alkaloid nicotine, which is a stimulant, and harmala alkaloids.[2] Dried tobacco leaves are mainly used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, and flavored shisha tobacco. They can also be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco
Tobacco
use is a risk factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver, and lungs, as well as many cancers. In 2008, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Traditional use 2.2 Popularization 2.3 Contemporary

3 Biology

3.1 Nicotiana 3.2 Types

4 Production

4.1 Cultivation 4.2 Curing 4.3 Global production

4.3.1 Trends 4.3.2 Major producers

4.3.2.1 China 4.3.2.2 India 4.3.2.3 Brazil

4.4 Problems in production

4.4.1 Child labor 4.4.2 Economy 4.4.3 Environment

4.5 Research 4.6 Genetic modification

4.6.1 Field trials 4.6.2 Production

5 Consumption 6 Impact

6.1 Social 6.2 Demographic 6.3 Harmful effects of tobacco and smoking 6.4 Economic 6.5 Advertising 6.6 Cinema

7 References

7.1 Further reading

8 External links

Etymology[edit] The English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan
Arawakan
language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves (according to Bartolomé de las Casas, 1552) or to tabago, a kind of Y-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke (according to Oviedo; with the leaves themselves being referred to as cohiba).[4][5] However, perhaps coincidentally, similar words in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq (also طُباق ṭubāq), a word reportedly dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs.[6][7] History[edit] Main article: History of tobacco See also: History of commercial tobacco in the United States

William Michael Harnett
William Michael Harnett
(American, 1848-1892), Still Life with Three Castles Tobacco, 1880, Brooklyn Museum

Traditional use[edit]

The earliest depiction of a European man smoking, from Tabacco by Anthony Chute, 1595

A man smoking Tabacco on Hukka in Darchula, Nepal

Tobacco
Tobacco
has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico
Mexico
dating back to 1400–1000 BC.[8] Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes historically carried tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both socially and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement.[9][10] In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator.[11] Popularization[edit]

An illustration from Frederick William Fairholt's Tobacco, its History and Association, 1859

Tobacco
Tobacco
plant and tobacco leaf from the Deli plantations in Sumatra, 1905

Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World
Old World
in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain. These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more specifically in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas (cigarras in Spanish). Before the development of lighter Virginia
Virginia
and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah (see thuốc lào for a modern continuance of this practice). The alleged benefits of tobacco also account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, and know not many grievous diseases, wherewithall we in England are often times afflicted." [12] Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700.[13][14] Tobacco
Tobacco
has been a major cash crop in Cuba
Cuba
and in other parts of the Caribbean
Caribbean
since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.[15] In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production. This increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century.[16][17] Contemporary[edit] See also: Tobacco control
Tobacco control
and Tobacco
Tobacco
in the United States Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, and eventually became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco
Tobacco
Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1. This strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.[citation needed] In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization[18] successfully rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco
Tobacco
Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco. This led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Biology[edit]

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Nicotiana[edit] Main article: Nicotiana See also: List of tobacco diseases

Nicotine
Nicotine
is the compound responsible for the addictive nature of tobacco use.

Tobacco
Tobacco
( Nicotiana
Nicotiana
rustica) flower, leaves, and buds

Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana. It is part of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, south west Africa, and the South Pacific.[19] Most nightshades contain varying amounts of nicotine, a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae
Solanaceae
species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are often poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[20] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana
Nicotiana
species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species due to its other attributes. For example, although the cabbage looper is a generalist pest, tobacco's gummosis and trichomes can harm early larvae survival.[21] As a result, some tobacco plants (chiefly N. glauca) have become established as invasive weeds in some places. Types[edit] Main article: Types of tobacco The types of tobacco include:

Aromatic fire-cured is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central Kentucky, and Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky
Kentucky
and Tennessee
Tennessee
is used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes, and as a condiment in pipe tobacco blends. Another fire-cured tobacco is Latakia, which is produced from oriental varieties of N. tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus
Cyprus
and Syria. Brightleaf tobacco is commonly known as " Virginia
Virginia
tobacco", often regardless of the state where it is planted. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. Sometime after the War of 1812, demand for a milder, lighter, more aromatic tobacco arose. Ohio, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland
all innovated with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. Farmers discovered that Bright leaf tobacco needs thin, starved soil, and those who could not grow other crops found that they could grow tobacco. Confederate soldiers traded it with each other and Union soldiers, and developed quite a taste for it. At the end of the war, the soldiers went home and a national market had developed for the local crop. Burley tobacco is an air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants are started from pelletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays floated on a bed of fertilized water in March or April. Cavendish is more a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco than a type. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced from any tobacco type, but is usually one of, or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and burley, and is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars. Criollo tobacco is primarily used in the making of cigars. It was, by most accounts, one of the original Cuban tobaccos that emerged around the time of Columbus. Dokha
Dokha
is a tobacco originally grown in Iran, mixed with leaves, bark, and herbs for smoking in a midwakh. Turkish tobacco
Turkish tobacco
is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety ( Nicotiana
Nicotiana
tabacum) grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, and Macedonia. Originally grown in regions historically part of the Ottoman Empire, it is also known as "oriental". Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Turkish tobacco; today, its main use is in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley, and Turkish). Perique was developed in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation of local tobacco by a farmer, Pierre Chenet. Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, it is used as a component in many blended pipe tobaccos, but is too strong to be smoked pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but none is now sold for this purpose. It is typically blended with pure Virginia
Virginia
to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend. Shade tobacco is cultivated in Connecticut
Connecticut
and Massachusetts. Early Connecticut
Connecticut
colonists acquired from the Native Americans the habit of smoking tobacco in pipes, and began cultivating the plant commercially, though the Puritans
Puritans
referred to it as the "evil weed". The Connecticut
Connecticut
shade industry has weathered some major catastrophes, including a devastating hailstorm in 1929, and an epidemic of brown spot fungus in 2000, but is now in danger of disappearing altogether, given the increase in the value of land. White burley air-cured leaf was found to be more mild than other types of tobacco. In 1865, George Webb of Brown County, Ohio
Ohio
planted red burley seeds he had purchased, and found a few of the seedlings had a whitish, sickly look, which became white burley. Wild tobacco is native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of South America. Its botanical name is Nicotiana
Nicotiana
rustica. Y1 is a strain of tobacco cross-bred by Brown & Williamson in the 1970s to obtain an unusually high nicotine content. In the 1990s, the United States
United States
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
used it as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.[22]

Production[edit]

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Cultivation[edit] Main article: Cultivation of tobacco

Tobacco
Tobacco
plants growing in a field in Intercourse, Pennsylvania.

Tobacco
Tobacco
is cultivated similarly to other agricultural products. Seeds were at first quickly scattered onto the soil. However, young plants came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris or E. pubescens), which caused destruction of half the tobacco crops in United States
United States
in 1876. By 1890, successful experiments were conducted that placed the plant in a frame covered by thin cotton fabric. Today, tobacco is sown in cold frames or hotbeds, as their germination is activated by light.[citation needed] In the United States, tobacco is often fertilized with the mineral apatite, which partially starves the plant of nitrogen, to produce a more desired flavor. After the plants are about 8 inches (20 cm) tall, they are transplanted into the fields. Farmers used to have to wait for rainy weather to plant. A hole is created in the tilled earth with a tobacco peg, either a curved wooden tool or deer antler. After making two holes to the right and left, the planter would move forward two feet, select plants from his/her bag, and repeat. Various mechanical tobacco planters like Bemis, New Idea Setter, and New Holland Transplanter were invented in the late 19th and 20th centuries to automate the process: making the hole, watering it, guiding the plant in — all in one motion.[23] Tobacco
Tobacco
is cultivated annually, and can be harvested in several ways. In the oldest method still used today, the entire plant is harvested at once by cutting off the stalk at the ground with a tobacco knife. It is then speared onto sticks, four to six plants a stick and hung in a curing barn. In the 19th century, bright tobacco began to be harvested by pulling individual leaves off the stalk as they ripened. The leaves ripen from the ground upwards, so a field of tobacco harvested in this manner involves the serial harvest of a number of "primings", beginning with the volado leaves near the ground, working to the seco leaves in the middle of the plant, and finishing with the potent ligero leaves at the top. Before this, the crop must be topped when the pink flowers develop. Topping always refers to the removal of the tobacco flower before the leaves are systematically removed, and eventually, entirely harvested. As the industrial revolution took hold, harvesting wagons used to transport leaves were equipped with man-powered stringers, an apparatus that used twine to attach leaves to a pole. In modern times, large fields are harvested mechanically, although topping the flower and in some cases the plucking of immature leaves is still done by hand. Most tobacco in the U.S. is grown in North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia.[24] Curing[edit] Main article: Curing of tobacco

Tobacco
Tobacco
barn in Simsbury, Connecticut
Connecticut
used for air curing of shade tobacco

Sun-cured tobacco, Bastam, Iran

Curing and subsequent aging allow for the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves, and gives a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavor that contributes to the "smoothness" of the smoke. Starch is converted to sugar, which glycates protein, and is oxidized into advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a caramelization process that also adds flavor. Inhalation of these AGEs in tobacco smoke contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer.[25] Levels of AGEs are dependent on the curing method used. Tobacco
Tobacco
can be cured through several methods, including:

Air-cured tobacco is hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed to dry over a period of four to eight weeks. Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar
Cigar
and burley tobaccos are 'dark' air-cured.[26] Fire-cured tobacco is hung in large barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on continuous or intermittent low smoulder, and takes between three days and ten weeks, depending on the process and the tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco low in sugar and high in nicotine. Pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff are fire-cured. Flue-cured tobacco was originally strung onto tobacco sticks, which were hung from tier-poles in curing barns (Aus: kilns, also traditionally called 'oasts'). These barns have flues run from externally fed fire boxes, heat-curing the tobacco without exposing it to smoke, slowly raising the temperature over the course of the curing. The process generally takes about a week. This method produces cigarette tobacco that is high in sugar and has medium to high levels of nicotine. Most cigarettes incorporate flue-cured tobacco, which produces a milder, more inhalable smoke. Sun-cured tobacco dries uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece, and other Mediterranean countries to produce oriental tobacco. Sun-cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.

Some tobaccos go through a second stage of curing, known as fermenting or sweating.[27] Cavendish undergoes fermentation pressed in a casing solution containing sugar and/or flavoring.[28] Global production[edit] Trends[edit]

Tobacco
Tobacco
production in Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
in the 1930s

Production of tobacco leaf increased by 40% between 1971, when 4.2 million tons of leaf were produced, and 1997, when 5.9 million tons of leaf were produced.[29] According to the Food and Agriculture organization of the UN, tobacco leaf production was expected to hit 7.1 million tons by 2010. This number is a bit lower than the record-high production of 1992, when 7.5 million tons of leaf were produced.[30] The production growth was almost entirely due to increased productivity by developing nations, where production increased by 128%.[31] During that same time, production in developed countries actually decreased.[30] China's increase in tobacco production was the single biggest factor in the increase in world production. China's share of the world market increased from 17% in 1971 to 47% in 1997.[29] This growth can be partially explained by the existence of a high import tariff on foreign tobacco entering China. While this tariff has been reduced from 64% in 1999 to 10% in 2004,[32] it still has led to local, Chinese cigarettes being preferred over foreign cigarettes because of their lower cost. Major producers[edit]

Top tobacco producers, 2014[33]

Country Production (tonnes) Note

 China 2,995,400

 Brazil 862,396

 India 720,725

 United States 397,535

 Indonesia 196,300

 Pakistan 129,878

 Malawi 126,348

 Argentina 119,434

 Zambia 112,049

 Mozambique 97,075

 World 5,755,140 A

No note = official figure, F = FAO Estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semiofficial or estimates).

Every year, about 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world. The top producers of tobacco are China
China
(39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil
Brazil
(7.0%) and the United States
United States
(4.6%).[34] China[edit] Around the peak of global tobacco production, 20 million rural Chinese households were producing tobacco on 2.1 million hectares of land.[35] While it is the major crop for millions of Chinese farmers, growing tobacco is not as profitable as cotton or sugarcane, because the Chinese government sets the market price. While this price is guaranteed, it is lower than the natural market price, because of the lack of market risk. To further control tobacco in their borders, China
China
founded a State Tobacco Monopoly Administration
State Tobacco Monopoly Administration
(STMA) in 1982. The STMA controls tobacco production, marketing, imports, and exports, and contributes 12% to the nation's national income.[36] As noted above, despite the income generated for the state by profits from state-owned tobacco companies and the taxes paid by companies and retailers, China's government has acted to reduce tobacco use.[37] India[edit] India's Tobacco
Tobacco
Board is headquartered in Guntur
Guntur
in the state of Andhra Pradesh.[38] India
India
has 96,865 registered tobacco farmers[39] and many more who are not registered. In 2010, 3,120 tobacco product manufacturing facilities were operating in all of India.[40] Around 0.25% of India's cultivated land is used for tobacco production.[41] Since 1947, the Indian government
Indian government
has supported growth in the tobacco industry. India
India
has seven tobacco research centers, located in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Mysore, and West Bengal
West Bengal
houses the core research institute. Brazil[edit] In Brazil, around 135,000 family farmers cite tobacco production as their main economic activity.[35] Tobacco
Tobacco
has never exceeded 0.7% of the country's total cultivated area.[42] In the southern regions of Brazil, Virginia, and Amarelinho, flue-cured tobacco, as well as burley and Galpão Comum air-cured tobacco, are produced. These types of tobacco are used for cigarettes. In the northeast, darker, air- and sun-cured tobacco is grown. These types of tobacco are used for cigars, twists, and dark cigarettes.[42] Brazil's government has made attempts to reduce the production of tobacco, but has not had a successful systematic antitobacco farming initiative. Brazil's government, however, provides small loans for family farms, including those that grow tobacco, through the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar.[43]

Tobacco
Tobacco
plantation, Pinar del Río, Cuba

Problems in production[edit] Child labor[edit] Main article: Child labor The International Labour Office reported that the most child-laborers work in agriculture, which is one of the most hazardous types of work.[44][not in citation given (See discussion.)] The tobacco industry houses some of these working children. Use of children is widespread on farms in Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe.[45] While some of these children work with their families on small, family-owned farms, others work on large plantations. In late 2009, reports were released by the London-based human-rights group Plan International, claiming that child labor was common on Malawi
Malawi
(producer of 1.8% of the world's tobacco[29]) tobacco farms. The organization interviewed 44 teens, who worked full-time on farms during the 2007-8 growing season. The child-laborers complained of low pay and long hours, as well as physical and sexual abuse by their supervisors.[46] They also reported suffering from Green tobacco sickness, a form of nicotine poisoning. When wet leaves are handled, nicotine from the leaves gets absorbed in the skin and causes nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Children were exposed to 50-cigarettes-worth of nicotine through direct contact with tobacco leaves. This level of nicotine in children can permanently alter brain structure and function.[44][not in citation given (See discussion.)] Economy[edit]

Tobacco
Tobacco
harvesting, Viñales Valley, Cuba

Major tobacco companies have encouraged global tobacco production. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco
Japan Tobacco
each own or lease tobacco-manufacturing facilities in at least 50 countries and buy crude tobacco leaf from at least 12 more countries.[47] This encouragement, along with government subsidies, has led to a glut in the tobacco market. This surplus has resulted in lower prices, which are devastating to small-scale tobacco farmers. According to the World Bank, between 1985 and 2000, the inflation-adjusted price of tobacco dropped 37%.[48] Tobacco
Tobacco
is the most widely smuggled legal product.[49] Environment[edit] Tobacco
Tobacco
production requires the use of large amounts of pesticides. Tobacco
Tobacco
companies recommend up to 16 separate applications of pesticides just in the period between planting the seeds in greenhouses and transplanting the young plants to the field.[50] Pesticide
Pesticide
use has been worsened by the desire to produce larger crops in less time because of the decreasing market value of tobacco. Pesticides often harm tobacco farmers because they are unaware of the health effects and the proper safety protocol for working with pesticides. These pesticides, as well as fertilizers, end up in the soil, waterways, and the food chain.[51] Coupled with child labor, pesticides pose an even greater threat. Early exposure to pesticides may increase a child's lifelong cancer risk, as well as harm his or her nervous and immune systems.[52] Tobacco
Tobacco
crops extract nutrients (such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium) from soil, decreasing its fertility.[53] Furthermore, the wood used to cure tobacco in some places leads to deforestation. While some big tobacco producers such as China
China
and the United States
United States
have access to petroleum, coal, and natural gas, which can be used as alternatives to wood, most developing countries still rely on wood in the curing process.[53] Brazil
Brazil
alone uses the wood of 60 million trees per year for curing, packaging, and rolling cigarettes.[50] In 2017 WHO released a study on the environmental effects of tobacco.[54] Research[edit] Several tobacco plants have been used as model organisms in genetics. Tobacco
Tobacco
BY-2 cells, derived from N. tabacum cultivar 'Bright Yellow-2', are among the most important research tools in plant cytology.[55] Tobacco
Tobacco
has played a pioneering role in callus culture research and the elucidation of the mechanism by which kinetin works, laying the groundwork for modern agricultural biotechnology. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant.[56] This research laid the groundwork for all genetically modified crops.[57] Genetic modification[edit] Because of its importance as a research tool, transgenic tobacco was the first GM crop to be tested in field trials, in the United States and France in 1986; China
China
became the first country in the world to approve commercial planting of a GM crop in 1993, which was tobacco.[58] Field trials[edit] Many varieties of transgenic tobacco have been intensively tested in field trials. Agronomic traits such as resistance to pathogens (viruses, particularly to the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV); fungi; bacteria and nematodes); weed management via herbicide tolerance; resistance against insect pests; resistance to drought and cold; and production of useful products such as pharmaceuticals; and use of GM plants for bioremediation, have all been tested in over 400 field trials using tobacco.[59] Production[edit] Currently, only the US is producing GM tobacco.[58][59] The Chinese virus-resistant tobacco was withdrawn from the market in China
China
in 1997.[60]:3 In the US, cigarettes made with GM tobacco with reduced nicotine content are available under the market name Quest.[59] Consumption[edit] Further information: Tobacco
Tobacco
products Tobacco
Tobacco
is consumed in many forms and through a number of different methods. Some examples are:

Beedi
Beedi
are thin, often flavoured cigarettes from India
India
made of tobacco wrapped in a tendu leaf, and secured with coloured thread at one end. Chewing tobacco
Chewing tobacco
is the oldest way of consuming tobacco leaves. It is consumed orally, in two forms: through sweetened strands, or in a shredded form. When consuming the long, sweetened strands, the tobacco is lightly chewed and compacted into a ball. When consuming the shredded tobacco, small amounts are placed at the bottom lip, between the gum and the teeth, where it is gently compacted, thus it can often be called dipping tobacco. Both methods stimulate the salivary glands, which led to the development of the spittoon. Cigars are tightly rolled bundles of dried and fermented tobacco, which are ignited so their smoke may be drawn into the smokers' mouths. Cigarettes are a product consumed through inhalation of smoke and manufactured from cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives, then rolled into a paper cylinder. Creamy snuff is tobacco paste, consisting of tobacco, clove oil, glycerin, spearmint, menthol, and camphor, and sold in a toothpaste tube. It is marketed mainly to women in India, and is known by the brand names Ipco (made by Asha Industries), Denobac, Tona, and Ganesh. It is locally known as mishri in some parts of Maharashtra. Dipping tobaccos are a form of smokeless tobacco. Dip is occasionally referred to as "chew", and because of this, it is commonly confused with chewing tobacco, which encompasses a wider range of products. A small clump of dip is 'pinched' out of the tin and placed between the lower or upper lip and gums. Some brands, as with snus, are portioned in small, porous pouches for less mess. Gutka
Gutka
is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, and sweet or savory flavorings. It is manufactured in India
India
and exported to a few other countries. A mild stimulant, it is sold across India
India
in small, individual-sized packets. Heat-not-burn tobacco products heat rather than burn tobacco to generate an aerosol that contains nicotine. Dokha
Dokha
is a middle eastern tobacco with high nicotine levels grown in parts of Oman and Hatta, which is smoked through a thin pipe called a medwakh. It is a form of tobacco which is dried up and ground and contains little to no additives excluding spices, fruits, or flowers to enhance smell and flavor. Hookah
Hookah
is a single- or multistemmed (often glass-based) water pipe for smoking. Hookahs were first used in India
India
and Persia;[61] the hookah has gained immense popularity, especially in the Middle East. A hookah operates by water filtration and indirect heat. It can be used for smoking herbal fruits or moassel, a mixture of tobacco, flavouring, and honey or glycerin. Kreteks
Kreteks
are cigarettes made with a complex blend of tobacco, cloves, and a flavoring "sauce". They were first introduced in the 1880s in Kudus, Java, to deliver the medicinal eugenol of cloves to the lungs. Roll-your-own, often called 'rollies' or 'roll-ups', are relatively popular in some European countries. These are prepared from loose tobacco, cigarette papers, and filters all bought separately. They are usually cheaper to make. A tobacco pipe typically consists of a small chamber (the bowl) for the combustion of the tobacco to be smoked and a thin stem (shank) that ends in a mouthpiece (the bit). Shredded pieces of tobacco are placed into the chamber and ignited. Snuff is a ground smokeless tobacco product, inhaled or "snuffed" through the nose. If referring specifically to the orally consumed moist snuff, see dipping tobacco. Snus
Snus
is a steam-pasteurized moist powdered tobacco product that is not fermented, and induces minimal salivation. It is consumed by placing it (loose or in little pouches) against the upper gums for an extended period of time. It is somewhat similar to dipping tobacco but does not require spitting and is significantly lower in TSNAs. Tobacco
Tobacco
edibles, often in the form of an infusion or a spice, have gained popularity in recent years. Topical tobacco paste is sometimes used as a treatment for wasp, hornet, fire ant, scorpion, and bee stings.[62] An amount equivalent to the contents of a cigarette is mashed in a cup with about a half a teaspoon of water to make a paste that is then applied to the affected area. Tobacco water is a traditional organic insecticide used in domestic gardening. Tobacco
Tobacco
dust can be used similarly. It is produced by boiling strong tobacco in water, or by steeping the tobacco in water for a longer period. When cooled, the mixture can be applied as a spray, or 'painted' on to the leaves of garden plants, where it kills insects. Tobacco
Tobacco
is, however, banned from use as pesticide in certified organic production by the USDA's National Organic Program.[63]

Impact[edit] Social[edit] Smoking in public was, for a long time, reserved for men, and when done by women was sometimes associated with promiscuity; in Japan, during the Edo period, prostitutes and their clients often approached one another under the guise of offering a smoke. The same was true in 19th-century Europe.[64] Following the American Civil War, the use of tobacco, primarily in cigars, became associated with masculinity and power. Today, tobacco use is often stigmatized; this has spawned quitting associations and antismoking campaigns.[65][66] Bhutan
Bhutan
is the only country in the world where tobacco sales are illegal.[67] Due to its propensity for causing detumescence and erectile dysfunction, some studies have described tobacco as an anaphrodisiacal substance.[68] Demographic[edit] Main article: Prevalence of tobacco consumption Research on tobacco use is limited mainly to smoking, which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption. An estimated 1.1 billion people, and up to one-third of the adult population, use tobacco in some form.[69] Smoking is more prevalent among men[70] (however, the gender gap declines with age),[71][72] the poor, and in transitional or developing countries[73] Rates of smoking continue to rise in developing countries, but have leveled off or declined in developed countries.[74] Smoking rates in the United States
United States
have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006, falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.[75] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[76] Harmful effects of tobacco and smoking[edit] Main article: Health effects of tobacco See also: List of additives in cigarettes Tobacco smoking
Tobacco smoking
poses a risk to health due to the inhalation of poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke such as carbon monoxide, cyanide, and carcinogens which have been proven to cause heart and lung diseases and Cancer. According to the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally.[77] The WHO estimates that tobacco caused 5.4 million deaths in 2004[78] and 100 million deaths over the course of the 20th century.[79] Similarly, the United States
United States
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describe tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide."[80] The harms caused by inhalation of poisonous chemicals such as carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke include diseases affecting the heart and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema), and cancer (particularly lung cancer, cancers of the larynx and mouth, and pancreatic cancers). Cancer
Cancer
is caused by inhaling carcinogenic substances present in tobacco smoke. Inhaling secondhand tobacco smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. In the United States, about 3,000 adults die each year due to lung cancer from secondhand smoke exposure. Heart
Heart
disease caused by secondhand smoke kills around 46,000 nonsmokers every year.[81] The addictive alkaloid nicotine is a stimulant, and popularly known as the most characteristic constituent of tobacco. Nicotine
Nicotine
is known to produce conditioned place preference, a sign of enforcement value.[82] Nicotine
Nicotine
scores almost as highly as opioids on drug effect questionnaire liking scales, which are a rough indicator of addictive potential.[83] Users may develop tolerance and dependence.[84][85] Thousands of different substances in cigarette smoke, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and phenols contribute to the harmful effects of smoking.[86] Tobacco's overall harm to user and self score as determined by a multi-criteria decision analysis was determined at 3 percent below cocaine, and 13 percent above amphetamines, ranking 6th most harmful of the 20 drugs assessed.[87] Polonium 210 is a natural contaminant of tobacco, providing additional evidence for the link between smoking and bronchial cancer.[88] It is also extremely toxic, with one microgram being enough to kill the average adult (250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide by weight).[89] Thinkers such as Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
often describe tobacco as the second most lethal substance consumed by humans, the most lethal being sugar. This is primarily due to their long term impact on general health, the abundance in which they are consumed, and their legality which facilitates and promotes consumption.[90] Economic[edit]

This section needs expansion with: discussion of the impact on the poor, taxation, and so forth. You can help by adding to it. (January 2009)

Tobacco
Tobacco
has a significant economic impact. The global tobacco market has been approximated to be US$760 billion (excluding China).[91] Statistica estimates that in the U.S. alone the tobacco industry has a market of US$121 billion[92] despite the fact the CDC reports that US smoking rates are declining steadily.[93] In the US, the decline in the number of smokers, the end of the Tobacco
Tobacco
Transition Payment Program in 2014, and competition from growers in other countries, made tobacco farming economics more challenging.[94] "Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable to tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor", and of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing or transitional economies.[73] Smoking of tobacco is practised worldwide by over one billion people. However, while smoking prevalence has declined in many developed countries, it remains high in others and is increasing among women and in developing countries. Between one-fifth and two-thirds of men in most populations smoke. Women's smoking rates vary more widely but rarely equal male rates.[95] In Indonesia, the lowest income group spends 15% of its total expenditures on tobacco. In Egypt, more than 10% of households' expenditure in low-income homes is on tobacco. The poorest 20% of households in Mexico
Mexico
spend 11% of their income on tobacco.[96] Advertising[edit] Main article: Tobacco
Tobacco
advertising Tobacco advertising
Tobacco advertising
of tobacco products by the tobacco industry is through a variety of media, including sponsorship, particularly of sporting events. It is now one of the most highly regulated forms of marketing. Some or all forms of tobacco advertising are banned in many countries. Cinema[edit]

Thank You for Smoking The Insider

References[edit]

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Tobacco
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Tobacco
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Leaf
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Growers' Association (n.d.). Tobacco farming: sustainable alternatives? Volume 2 (PDF). East Sussex: ITGA. ISBN 1872854028.  ^ High Level Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor. "Report from South America." 2006. ^ a b ILO. International Hazard Datasheets on Occupations: Field Crop Worker ^ UNICEF, The State of the World's Children 1997 (Oxford, 1997); US Department of Agriculture By the Sweat and Toil of Children Volume II: The Use of Child Labor in US Agricultural Imports & Forced and Bonded Child Labor (Washington, 1995); ILO Bitter Harvest: Child Labour in Agriculture (Geneva, 1997); ILO Child Labour on Commercial Agriculture in Africa
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(Geneva 1997) ^ Plan International. Malawi
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Tobacco
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Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-11. Retrieved 2009-01-01.  ^ "Who Fact Sheet: Tobacco". Who.int. 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  ^ " Cigarette
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(2008). WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2008: The MPOWER Package (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-159628-7.  page 20

Further reading[edit]

"WHO REPORT on the global TOBACCO epidemic" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-01.  "The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-01.  G. Emmanuel Guindon; David Boisclair (2003). "Past, current and future trends in tobacco use" (PDF). Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved 2008-01-02.  The World Health Organization, and the Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (2001). "Women and the Tobacco
Tobacco
Epidemic: Challenges for the 21st Century" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2009-01-02. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) "Surgeon General's Report — Women and Smoking". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-03.  Richard Peto; Alan D Lopez; Jillian Boreham; Michael Thun (2006). "Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000: indirect estimates from national vital statistics" (PDF). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-01-03.  Gilman, Sander L.; Zhou, Xun (2004). Smoke: A Global History of Smoking. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-200-3. Retrieved 2009-01-01.  " Cancer
Cancer
Facts & Figures 2015". American Cancer
Cancer
Society. Retrieved February 23, 2015.  Paul Lichtenstein; Niels V. Holm; Pia K. Verkasalo; Anastasia Iliadou; Jaakko Kaprio; Markku Koskenvuo; Eero Pukkala; Axel Skytthe; Kari Hemminki (2000). Environmental and Heritable Factors in the Causation of Cancer
Cancer
— Analyses of Cohorts of Twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. 343. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved 2009-01-21.  Montesano, R.; Hall, J. (2001). "Environmental causes of human cancers". European Journal of Cancer. Retrieved 2009-01-21.  Janet E. Ash; Maryadele J. O'Neil; Ann Smith; Joanne F. Kinneary (June 1997) [1996]. The Merck Index (12 ed.). Merk and Co. ISBN 0-412-75940-3.  Benedict, Carol. Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco
Tobacco
in China, 1550-2010 (2011) Brandt, Allan. The Cigarette
Cigarette
Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America (2007) Breen, T. H. (1985). Tobacco
Tobacco
Culture. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00596-6. Source on tobacco culture in 18th-century Virginia
Virginia
pp. 46–55 Burns, Eric. The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007. Collins, W.K. and S.N. Hawks. "Principles of Flue-Cured Tobacco Production" 1st Edition, 1993 Cosner, Charlotte. The Golden Leaf: How Tobacco
Tobacco
Shaped Cuba
Cuba
and the Atlantic World (Vanderbilt University Press; 2015) Fuller, R. Reese (Spring 2003). Perique, the Native Crop. Louisiana Life. Gately, Iain. Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization. Grove Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8021-3960-4. Goodman, Jordan. Tobacco
Tobacco
in History:The Cultures of Dependence (1993), A scholarly history worldwide. Graves, John. " Tobacco
Tobacco
that is not Smoked" in From a Limestone Ledge (the sections on snuff and chewing tobacco) ISBN 0-394-51238-3 Grehan, James. Smoking and "Early Modern" Sociability: The Great Tobacco
Tobacco
Debate in the Ottoman Middle East (Seventeenth to Eighteenth Centuries). The American Historical Review, Vol. III, Issue 5. 2006. 22 March 2008 online Hahn, Barbara. Making Tobacco
Tobacco
Bright: Creating an American Commodity, 1617-1937 (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2011) 248 pages; examines how marketing, technology, and demand figured in the rise of Bright Flue-Cured Tobacco, a variety first grown in the inland Piedmont region of the Virginia-North Carolina border. Killebrew, J. B. and Myrick, Herbert (1909). Tobacco
Tobacco
Leaf: Its Culture and Cure, Marketing and Manufacture. Orange Judd Company. Source for flea beetle typology (p. 243) Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette
Cigarette
War (1996), Pulitzer Prize Murphey, Rhoads. Studies on Ottoman Society and Culture: 16th-18th Centuries. Burlington, VT: Ashgate: Variorum, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7546-5931-0 ISBN 0-7546-5931-3 Neuburger, Mary, 2012. Balkan Smoke: tobacco and the making of modern Bulgaria. Cornell University Press. 0801450845, 9780801450846 Poche, L. Aristee (2002). Perique tobacco: Mystery and history. Price, Jacob M. "The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake tobacco trade, 1707-1775." William and Mary Quarterly (1954) pp: 179-199. in JSTOR Tilley, Nannie May The Bright Tobacco
Tobacco
Industry 1860–1929 ISBN 0-405-04728-2. Schoolcraft, Henry R. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States
United States
(Philadelphia, 1851–57) Shechter, Relli. Smoking, Culture and Economy in the Middle East: The Egyptian Tobacco
Tobacco
Market 1850–2000. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2006 ISBN 1-84511-137-0

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tobacco.

International Tobacco
Tobacco
Growers' Association Natural Resources Conservation Service Plant Sheet - Wild tobacco Ottoman Back Archives and Research Centre Questions on European Union partial ban on some smokeless tobacco products (i.e. snus) Timeline of tobacco history The European tobacco growers website The Legacy Tobacco
Tobacco
Documents Library UCSF Tobacco
Tobacco
Industry Videos Collection CDC - Smoking and Tobacco
Tobacco
Use Fact Sheet TobReg - WHO Study Group on Tobacco
Tobacco
Product Regulation - Statistics and general information about the effects of secondhand-smoke Scientists Search for Healthy Uses for Tobacco Charlton A (2004). "Medicinal uses of tobacco in history". J R Soc Med. 97: 292–6. doi:10.1258/jrsm.97.6.292. PMC 1079499 . PMID 15173337. 

v t e

Plantation agriculture in the Southeastern United States

The plantation

Plantations in the American South Plantation economy Plantation complexes in the Southeastern United States

Cash crops

Cotton Indigo Rice Sugarcane Tobacco

Slavery

Slavery in the United States Slave breeding in the United States Atlantic slave trade Internal slave trade Interregional slave trade Fugitive slave laws

Other labor

Sharecropping Convict leasing

Lists of plantations

List of plantations in the United States List of plantations in Alabama Category:Plantations in Florida List of plantations in Georgia List of plantations in Louisiana List of plantations in Mississippi List of plantations in North Carolina List of plantations in South Carolina List of plantations in Virginia List of plantations in West Virginia

v t e

Psychoactive substance-related disorder (F10–F19, 291–292; 303–305)

General

SID

Substance intoxication / Drug overdose Withdrawal Substance-induced psychosis

SUD

Substance abuse
Substance abuse
/ Substance use disorder
Substance use disorder
/ Substance-related disorders Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / Substance dependence

Alcohol

SID

Neurological disorders

Alcoholic hallucinosis Alcohol withdrawal Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
(FASD) Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome
(FAS) Korsakoff's syndrome Korsakoff's psychosis Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome Wernicke's encephalopathy

Digestive system

Alcoholic hepatitis Alcoholic liver disease Auto-brewery syndrome

Nervous system

Alcohol-related dementia Alcoholic hallucinosis Hangover

Cardiovascular system

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy Alcohol flush reaction

SUD

Alcoholism
Alcoholism
(alcohol use disorder) Binge drinking

Caffeine

SID

Effect of caffeine on memory Caffeine-induced sleep disorder

SUD

Caffeine
Caffeine
dependence

Cannabis

SID

Effects of cannabis Long-term effects of cannabis

SUD

Cannabis
Cannabis
dependence

Cocaine

SID

Cocaine
Cocaine
intoxication

SUD

Cocaine
Cocaine
dependence

Hallucinogen

SID

Hallucinogen
Hallucinogen
persisting perception disorder

Opioids

SID

Opioid
Opioid
overdose

SUD

Opioid
Opioid
use disorder

Sedative / hypnotic

benzodiazepine: SID

Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepine
overdose Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepine
withdrawal

SUD

Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepine
use disorder Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepine
dependence

barbiturate: SID

Barbiturate
Barbiturate
overdose

SUD

Barbiturate
Barbiturate
dependence

Stimulants

SID

Stimulant
Stimulant
psychosis

SUD

Amphetamine
Amphetamine
dependence

Tobacco

SID

Nicotine
Nicotine
poisoning Nicotine
Nicotine
withdrawal

SUD

Nicotine
Nicotine
dependence

Volatile solvent

Inhalant
Inhalant
abuse: Toluene toxicity

Poly drug use

SID

Combined drug intoxication

SUD

Polysubstance dependence

v t e

Recreational drug use

Major recreational drugs

Depressants

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants

Medical

Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner

Other

Freon

Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones

Opioids

Buprenorphine

Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine

Krokodil

Dextropropoxyphene

Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine

Heroin

Hydrocodone Hydromorphone

Dilaudid

Methadone Mitragyna speciosa

Kratom

Morphine

Opium

Oxycodone

/paracetamol

Tramadol

Stimulants

Amphetamine Arecoline

Areca

Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea

Cathinone

Khat

Cocaine

Coca Crack

Ephedrine

Ephedra

MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine

Tobacco

Theobromine

Cocoa Chocolate

Entactogens

2C series 6-APB

Benzofury

AMT MDA MDMA

Ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin

Psychoactive toads Vilca Yopo

DMT

Ayahuasca

LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
/ Psilocin

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms

Dissociatives

DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Deliriants

Atropine
Atropine
and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine

Cannabinoids

JWH-018 THC

Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana

Oneirogens

Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers

Drug culture

Cannabis
Cannabis
culture

420 Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivation Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana
Marijuana
Policy Project Medical cannabis NORML Cannabis
Cannabis
and religion Stoner film

Coffee
Coffee
culture

Coffee
Coffee
break Coffeehouse Latte art Tea
Tea
house

Drinking culture

Bartending Beer
Beer
culture Beer
Beer
festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub
Pub
crawl Sommelier Sports bar Tailgate party Wine
Wine
bar Wine
Wine
tasting

Psychedelia

Psychonautics Art Drug Era Experience Literature Music Microdosing Therapy

Smoking culture

Cigarette
Cigarette
card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking fetishism Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking

Other

Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance party Drug paraphernalia Drug tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

Coca
Coca
production in Colombia Drug precursors Opium
Opium
production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab

Drug trade

Illegal drug trade

Colombia

Darknet market Drug distribution

Beer
Beer
shop Cannabis
Cannabis
shop Liquor store Liquor license

Issues with drug use

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness

Effects of cannabis

Addiction Dependence

Prevention Opioid
Opioid
replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use

Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking

of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use

International

1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

State level

Drug policy

Decriminalization Prohibition Supply reduction

Policy reform

Demand reduction Drug Policy Alliance Harm reduction Law Enforcement Action Partnership Liberalization

Latin America

Students for Sensible Drug Policy Transform Drug Policy Foundation

Drug policy by country

Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Soviet Union Sweden Switzerland United States

Just Say No Office of National Drug Control Policy School district drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia

Other

Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug court Drug possession Drug test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on Drugs

Mexican Drug War Plan Colombia Philippine Drug War

Zero tolerance

Lists of countries by...

Alcohol legality

Alcohol consumption

Anabolic steroid legality Cannabis
Cannabis
legality

Annual use Lifetime use

Cigarette
Cigarette
consumption Cocaine
Cocaine
legality

Cocaine
Cocaine
use

Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
legality Opiates use Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms legality Salvia legality

v t e

Cigarettes

Types

Fashion Fire safe Kretek Lights Menthol Beedi

Components

Tobacco Rolling paper Filter Additives

Peripherals

Ashtray Case Holder Lighter Pack Receptacles Vending machine

Culture

Cigarette
Cigarette
card Cigarette
Cigarette
smoking among college students Loosie Smoking fetishism Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking

Health issues

Chain smoking Cigarette
Cigarette
smoking for weight loss Nicotine
Nicotine
poisoning Passive smoking Third-hand smoke Schizophrenia and smoking Sidestream smoke Smoking cessation Tobacco
Tobacco
harm reduction

Related products

Electronic cigarette Candy cigarette Herbal cigarette Heat-not-burn tobacco product Nicotine
Nicotine
patch Nicotine
Nicotine
gum Nicotine
Nicotine
inhaler Nicotine
Nicotine
lozenge

Tobacco
Tobacco
industry

Cultivation of tobacco Egyptian cigarette industry History of commercial tobacco in the United States Tobacco
Tobacco
advertising

Government and the law

Cigarette
Cigarette
smuggling Illicit cigarette trade Plain cigarette packaging Smoking age Smoking bans in private vehicles Tobacco control
Tobacco control
movement Tobacco
Tobacco
Master Settlement Agreement Tobacco
Tobacco
packaging warning messages Tobacco
Tobacco
politics WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco
Tobacco
Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco
Tobacco
Products

Lists

Cigarette
Cigarette
brands Cigarette
Cigarette
smoke carcinogens Countries by cigarette consumption per capita Rolling papers Smoking bans

Category Commons

Pharmacodynamics

v t e

Monoamine metabolism modulators

Non-specific

AAAD

Substrates→Products: L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(levodopa)→Dopamine 5-HTP→Serotonin L-Histidine→Histamine Phenylalanine→Phenethylamine L-Tyrosine→Tyramine Tryptophan→Tryptamine

Inhibitors: Benserazide Carbidopa DFMD Genistein Methyldopa

MAO

Substrates→Products (with ALDH/ALR): Epinephrine
Epinephrine
(adrenaline)→DHMA Metanephrine→MHPG/VMA Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
(noradrenaline)→DHMA Normetanephrine→MHPG/VMA Dopamine→DOPAC 3-Methoxytyramine→HVA Serotonin→5-HIAA

Inhibitors: Non-selective: Benmoxin Caroxazone Echinopsidine Furazolidone Guineesine Hydralazine Indantadol Iproclozide Iproniazid Isocarboxazid Isoniazid Linezolid Mebanazine Metfendrazine Nialamide Octamoxin Paraxazone Phenelzine Pheniprazine Phenoxypropazine Pivhydrazine Procarbazine Safrazine Tranylcypromine

Inhibitors: MAO-A-selective: Amiflamine Bazinaprine Befloxatone Brofaromine Cimoxatone Clorgiline CX157
CX157
(Tyrima) Eprobemide Esuprone Harmala alkaloids (e.g., harmine, harmaline, harman, norharman, tetrahydroharmine) Methylene blue Metralindole Minaprine Moclobemide Pirlindole Sercloremine Tetrindole Toloxatone

Inhibitors: MAO-B selective: Adarigiline Almoxatone D-Deprenyl Ethanol Ladostigil Lazabemide Milacemide Mofegiline Nicotine Pargyline‡ Rasagiline Safinamide Selegiline
Selegiline
(L-Deprenyl) Sembragiline

Phenethylamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine)

PAH

Substrates→Products: Phenylalanine→Tyrosine

Inhibitors: 3,4-Dihydroxystyrene

TH

Substrates→Products: Tyrosine→ L-DOPA
L-DOPA
(levodopa)

Inhibitors: 2-Hydroxyestradiol 2-Hydroxyestrone 3-Iodotyrosine Aquayamycin Bulbocapnine Metirosine Oudenone

DBH

Substrates→Products: Dopamine→ Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
(Noradrenaline)

Inhibitors: Bupicomide Disulfiram Dopastin Fusaric acid Nepicastat Phenopicolinic acid Tropolone

PNMT

Substrates→Products: Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
(noradrenaline)→Epinephrine (adrenaline)

Inhibitors: CGS-19281A SKF-64139 SKF-7698

COMT

Substrates→Products: Dopamine→3-Methoxytyramine DOPAC→Homovanillic acid Norepinephrine→Normetanephrine Epinephrine→Metanephrine DOPEG→MOPEG DOMA→VMA 2-Hydroxyestradiol→2-Methoxyestradiol 2-Hydroxyestrone→2-Methoxyestrone 4-Hydroxyestradiol→4-Methoxyestradiol 4-Hydroxyestrone→4-Methoxyestrone

Inhibitors: 2-Hydroxyestradiol 2-Hydroxyestrone Entacapone Nitecapone Opicapone Tolcapone

Tryptamines (serotonin, melatonin)

TPH

Substrates→Products: Tryptophan→5-HTP

Inhibitors: AGN-2979 Fenclonine
Fenclonine
(PCPA) Telotristat ethyl

AANAT

Substrates→Products: Serotonin→N-Acetylserotonin

ASMT

Substrates→Products: N-Acetylserotonin→Melatonin

Histamine

HDC

Substrates→Products: L-Histidine→Histamine

Inhibitors: Catechin Alpha-Fluoromethylhistidine Histidine methyl ester Meciadanol Naringenin Tritoqualine

HNMT

Substrates→Products: Histamine→N-Methylhistamine

Inhibitors: Amodiaquine Diphenhydramine Harmaline Metoprine Quinacrine SKF-91,488 Tacrine

DAO

Substrates→Products: Histamine→Imidazole acetic acid

Inhibitors: Pimagedine
Pimagedine
(aminoguanidine)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Monoamine releasing agents • Monoamine neurotoxins

v t e

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
modulators

nAChRs

Agonists (and PAMs)

5-HIAA A-84,543 A-366,833 A-582,941 A-867,744 ABT-202 ABT-418 ABT-560 ABT-894 Acetylcholine Altinicline Anabasine Anatoxin-a AR-R17779 Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate Butinoline Butyrylcholine Carbachol Choline Cotinine Cytisine Decamethonium Desformylflustrabromine Dianicline Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Epibatidine Epiboxidine Ethanol
Ethanol
(alcohol) Ethoxysebacylcholine EVP-4473 EVP-6124 Galantamine GTS-21 Ispronicline Ivermectin JNJ-39393406 Levamisole Lobeline MEM-63,908 (RG-3487) Morantel Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) NS-1738 PHA-543,613 PHA-709,829 PNU-120,596 PNU-282,987 Pozanicline Pyrantel Rivanicline RJR-2429 Sazetidine A SB-206553 Sebacylcholine SIB-1508Y SIB-1553A SSR-180,711 Suberyldicholine Suxamethonium
Suxamethonium
(succinylcholine) Suxethonium (succinyldicholine) TC-1698 TC-1734 TC-1827 TC-2216 TC-5214 TC-5619 TC-6683 Tebanicline Tribendimidine Tropisetron UB-165 Varenicline WAY-317,538 XY-4083

Antagonists (and NAMs)

18-MAC 18-MC α-Neurotoxins (e.g., α-bungarotoxin, α-cobratoxin, α-conotoxin, many others) ABT-126 Alcuronium Allopregnanolone Amantadine Anatruxonium AQW051 Atracurium Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) BNC-210 Bungarotoxins (e.g., α-bungarotoxin, κ-bungarotoxin) Bupropion BW-A444 Candocuronium iodide
Candocuronium iodide
(chandonium iodide) Chlorisondamine Cisatracurium Coclaurine Coronaridine Curare Cyclopropane Dacuronium bromide Decamethonium Dehydronorketamine Desflurane Dextromethorphan Dextropropoxyphene Dextrorphan Diadonium DHβE Dihydrochandonium Dimethyltubocurarine
Dimethyltubocurarine
(metocurine) Dioscorine Dipyrandium Dizocilpine
Dizocilpine
(MK-801) Doxacurium Encenicline Enflurane Erythravine Esketamine Fazadinium Gallamine Gantacurium chloride Halothane Hexafluronium Hexamethonium
Hexamethonium
(benzohexonium) Hydroxybupropion Hydroxynorketamine Ibogaine Isoflurane Ketamine Kynurenic acid Laudanosine Laudexium
Laudexium
(laudolissin) Levacetylmethadol Levomethadone Malouetine ME-18-MC Mecamylamine Memantine Methadone Methorphan
Methorphan
(racemethorphan) Methyllycaconitine Metocurine Mivacurium Morphanol
Morphanol
(racemorphan) Neramexane Nitrous oxide Norketamine Pancuronium bromide Pempidine Pentamine Pentolinium Phencyclidine Pipecuronium bromide Progesterone Promegestone Radafaxine Rapacuronium bromide Reboxetine Rocuronium bromide Sevoflurane Stercuronium iodide Surugatoxin Thiocolchicoside Toxiferine Tramadol Trimetaphan camsilate
Trimetaphan camsilate
(trimethaphan camsylate) Tropeinium Tubocurarine Vanoxerine Vecuronium bromide Xenon

Precursors (and prodrugs)

Acetyl-coA Adafenoxate Choline
Choline
(lecithin) Citicoline Cyprodenate Dimethylethanolamine Glycerophosphocholine Meclofenoxate
Meclofenoxate
(centrophenoxine) Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphorylcholine Pirisudanol

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
metabolism/transport modulators

v t e

TRP channel modulators

TRPA

Activators

4-Hydroxynonenal 4-Oxo-2-nonenal 4,5-EET 12S-HpETE 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Acrolein Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
(mustard, radish, horseradish, wasabi) AM404 Bradykinin Cannabichromene
Cannabichromene
(cannabis) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cinnamaldehyde
Cinnamaldehyde
(cinnamon) CR gas
CR gas
(dibenzoxazepine; DBO) CS gas
CS gas
(2-chlorobenzal malononitrile) Curcumin
Curcumin
(turmeric) Dehydroligustilide (celery) Diallyl disulfide Dicentrine
Dicentrine
( Lindera
Lindera
spp.) Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid Formalin Gingerols (ginger) Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Hydrogen peroxide Icilin Isothiocyanate Ligustilide (celery, Angelica acutiloba) Linalool
Linalool
(Sichuan pepper, thyme) Methylglyoxal Methyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
(wintergreen) N-Methylmaleimide Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Oleocanthal
Oleocanthal
(olive oil) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) PF-4840154 Phenacyl chloride Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tear gases Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(cannabis) Thiopropanal S-oxide
Thiopropanal S-oxide
(onion) Umbellulone
Umbellulone
(Umbellularia californica) WIN 55,212-2

Blockers

Dehydroligustilide (celery) Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Ruthenium red

TRPC

Activators

Adhyperforin
Adhyperforin
(St John's wort) Diacyl glycerol GSK1702934A Hyperforin
Hyperforin
(St John's wort) Substance P

Blockers

DCDPC DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GSK417651A GSK2293017A Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate Progesterone Pyr3 Tolfenamic acid

TRPM

Activators

ADP-ribose BCTC Calcium
Calcium
(intracellular) Cold Coolact P Cooling Agent 10 CPS-369 Eucalyptol
Eucalyptol
(eucalyptus) Frescolat MGA Frescolat ML Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Icilin Linalool Menthol
Menthol
(mint) PMD 38 Pregnenolone sulfate Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Steviol glycosides (e.g., stevioside) (Stevia rebaudiana) Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly) Thio-BCTC WS-3 WS-12 WS-23

Blockers

Capsazepine Clotrimazole DCDPC Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid Nicotine
Nicotine
(tobacco) Niflumic acid Ruthenium red Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Tolfenamic acid TPPO

TRPML

Activators

MK6-83 PI(3,5)P2 SF-22

TRPP

Activators

Triptolide
Triptolide
(Tripterygium wilfordii)

Blockers

Ruthenium red

TRPV

Activators

2-APB 5',6'-EET 9-HODE 9-oxoODE 12S-HETE 12S-HpETE 13-HODE 13-oxoODE 20-HETE α- Sanshool
Sanshool
(ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Allicin
Allicin
(garlic) AM404 Anandamide Bisandrographolide (Andrographis paniculata) Camphor
Camphor
(camphor laurel, rosemary, camphorweed, African blue basil, camphor basil) Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(cannabis) Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(cannabis) Capsaicin
Capsaicin
(chili pepper) Carvacrol
Carvacrol
(oregano, thyme, pepperwort, wild bergamot, others) DHEA Diacyl glycerol Dihydrocapsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Estradiol Eugenol
Eugenol
(basil, clove) Evodiamine
Evodiamine
(Euodia ruticarpa) Gingerols (ginger) GSK1016790A Heat Hepoxilin A3 Hepoxilin B3 Homocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Homodihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Incensole
Incensole
(incense) Lysophosphatidic acid Low pH (acidic conditions) Menthol
Menthol
(mint) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine N-Oleoyldopamine N-Oleoylethanolamide Nonivamide
Nonivamide
(PAVA) (PAVA spray) Nordihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin
(chili pepper) Paclitaxel
Paclitaxel
(Pacific yew) Paracetamol
Paracetamol
(acetaminophen) Phorbol esters
Phorbol esters
(e.g., 4α-PDD) Piperine
Piperine
(black pepper, long pepper) Polygodial
Polygodial
(Dorrigo pepper) Probenecid Protons RhTx Rutamarin (Ruta graveolens) Resiniferatoxin
Resiniferatoxin
(RTX) (Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(cannabis) Thymol
Thymol
(thyme, oregano) Tinyatoxin
Tinyatoxin
(Euphorbia resinifera/pooissonii) Tramadol Vanillin
Vanillin
(vanilla) Zucapsaicin

Blockers

α- Spinasterol
Spinasterol
( Vernonia
Vernonia
tweediana) AMG-517 Asivatrep BCTC Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(cannabis) Cannabigerolic acid (cannabis) Cannabigerovarin (cannabis) Cannabinol
Cannabinol
(cannabis) Capsazepine DCDPC DHEA DHEA-S Flufenamic acid GRC-6211 HC-067047 Lanthanum Meclofenamic acid N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid NGD-8243 Niflumic acid Pregnenolone sulfate RN-1734 RN-9893 Ruthenium red SB-705498 Tivanisiran Tolfenamic acid

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion

.