Tiwa Puebloans
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The Tiwa or Tigua are a group of related
Tanoan Tanoan , also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , L ...
Puebloans The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Colonial Spanis ...
in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
. They traditionally speak a
Tiwa language Tiwa (Spanish language, Spanish ''Tigua'', also ''E-nagh-magh'') is a group of two, possibly three, related Tanoan languages spoken by the Tiwa people, Tiwa Puebloan peoples, Pueblo, and possibly Piro Pueblo, in the United States, U.S. state of N ...
(although some speakers have switched to Spanish and/or English), and are divided into the two Northern Tiwa groups, in
Taos
Taos
and Picuris, and the Southern Tiwa in
Isleta Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community and Tanoan pueblo in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States, originally established in the . The Southern Tiwa langu ...
and
Sandia"Sandía" is "watermelon" in Spanish. Sandia may also refer to: Places * Sandia, California, community in Imperial County * Sandia, Texas, town in the USA * Sandia, Peru, town in the Puno region of Peru, capital of ** Sandia Province, province in th ...
, around what is now
Albuquerque
Albuquerque
, and in
Ysleta del Sur Ysleta del Sur Pueblo (also Tigua Pueblo) is a Puebloan Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribal entity in the Ysleta, El Paso, Texas, Ysleta section of El Paso, Texas. Its members are Southern Tiwa people who had been displaced ...
near
El Paso El Paso (; "the pass") is a city and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2019 population estimate for the city from the 2010 United States Census, U.S. Census was 681,728, making it ...

El Paso
,
Texas Texas (, ; : ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the region of the . At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, it is the second-largest by both (after ) and (after ). Texas shares borders ...

Texas
.


Name

''Tiwa'' is the English name for these peoples, which is derived from the Spanish term ''Tigua'' and put into use by
Frederick Webb HodgeFrederick Webb Hodge (October 28, 1864 – September 28, 1956) was an American editor, anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Soc ...
. The Spanish term has also been used in English writings although the term ''Tiwa'' now is dominant. In Spanish ''Tigua'' only was applied to the Southern Tiwa groups (in Tiguex territory). Spanish variants of ''Tigua'' include ''Cheguas'', ''Chiguas'', ''Téoas'', ''Tiguas'', ''Tigües'', ''Tiguesh'', ''Tigüex'', ''Tiguex'', ''Tigüez'', ''Tihuex'', ''Tioas'', ''Tziquis''. The names ''Atzigues'', ''Atziqui'', ''Tihues'', and ''Tziquis'' were originally applied to the Piro but later writers confused these terms for the Piro with the terms for the Southern Tiwa. A further confusion is with some of the terms for the
Tewa upright=1.25, Chaiwa, a Tewa girl with a butterfly whorl hairstyle, photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1922 The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo In the Southwestern United States, Pueblo (capitalized) refers to the Native tribes of ...
(''Tegua'', ''Tehuas'', ''Teoas'') being applied to both the Tewa and (Southern) Tiwa indiscriminately. The forms ''Tiguesh'', ''Tigüex'', and ''Tiguex'' are meant to represent a pronunciation of which is supposedly an Isletan term meaning "Isletan" according to
Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier (August 6, 1840March 18, 1914) was a Swiss-born American archaeologist who particularly explored the indigenous cultures of the American Southwest, Mexico, and South America. He immigrated to the United States with ...
. The term ''Tiguan'' is usually given instead Bandelier's ''Tigüex'' — this being a representation of the Isletan term for "Southern Tiwas" and recorded in modern times as ''Tíwan'' with the term ''Tiwáde'' for the singular "(a) Southern Tiwa" ( J. P. Harrington recorded the singular as ''Tiwa'' and said that ''Tiwa/Tiwan'' could also be used to refer to Northern Tiwas). The Spanish spelling of the name as ''Tihua'' is contemporarily accepted, though the anglicized form (''Tiwa'') is, perhaps, academically more prevalent. The Governor of the New Mexico Territory, LeBaron Bradford Prince, wrote about a difference between the Tehua pueblos and the Tihua nation.


History

The Tiwa are first mentioned by Coronado in 1540, and a pueblo (town) referred to by him as both Coofor and Tiguex was most likely the pueblo known since a Spanish map of 1602 as Santiago Pueblo (Bandelier's Puaray). Coronado fought the Tiguex War against 12 of the southern Tiwa pueblos around what is now
Albuquerque
Albuquerque
, which together with the diseases and consolidation of missions by the Catholic priests the Spanish brought, resulted in the abandonment of many of the villages. In February 1583, the merchant Antonio de Espejo came up the
Rio Grande The Rio Grande ( and ), known in Mexico as the Río Bravo del Norte and as the Río Bravo, is one of the principal river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another riv ...

Rio Grande
to Tiguex (Kuaua), and Puaray (Espejo's own statement). The everyday life of Tiwas Indians of
Isleta Pueblo Pueblo of Isleta or Isleta Pueblo ( tix, Shiewhibak , kjq, Dîiw'a'ane ; nv, Naatoohó ) is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail Cou ...
during the end of the 19th century is described in the book "The Padre of Isleta". reviewed at


See also

*
Tiwa languages Tiwa (Spanish language, Spanish ''Tigua'', also ''E-nagh-magh'') is a group of two, possibly three, related Tanoan languages spoken by the Tiwa people, Tiwa Puebloan peoples, Pueblo, and possibly Piro Pueblo, in the United States, U.S. state of N ...
*
Piro PuebloPiro Pueblo : The Piros (not to be confused with the Piros of the Ucayali basin in Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Sea ...
, a related Pueblo group


References

*
Cannon, Cornelia James
Cannon, Cornelia James
(1931) ''Lazaro in the pueblos: the story of Antonio de Espejo's expedition into New Mexico'' Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston
OCLC 1965297
* * Samuel Gance, ''Anton ou la trajectoire d'un père'', another story of Isleta's Padre Anton Docher. L'Harmattan, Paris, 2013, 208 p.


External links



* ttps://web.archive.org/web/20140122141011/http://news.msn.com/in-depth/disenrollment-leaves-natives-culturally-homeless* https://web.archive.org/web/20140122141011/http://news.msn.com/in-depth/disenrollment-leaves-natives-culturally-homeless {{DEFAULTSORT:Tiwa People Tiwa Puebloan peoples Southwest tribes Native American tribes in New Mexico