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The Info List - Titanium Isopropoxide


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Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula Ti OCH(CH3)2 4. This alkoxide of titanium(IV) is used in organic synthesis and materials science. It is a diamagnetic tetrahedral molecule. Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide is a component of the Sharpless epoxidation, a Nobel-Prize-winning method for the synthesis of chiral epoxides.[1][2] The structures of the titanium alkoxides are often complex. Crystalline titanium methoxide is tetrameric with the molecular formula Ti4(OCH3)16.[3] Alkoxides derived from bulkier alcohols such as isopropanol aggregate less. Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide is mainly a monomer in nonpolar solvents.[4]

Contents

1 Preparation 2 Properties 3 Naming 4 References 5 External links

Preparation[edit] It is prepared by treating titanium tetrachloride with isopropanol. Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen chloride
is formed as a coproduct:[4]

TiCl4 + 4 (CH3)2CHOH → Ti OCH(CH3)2 4 + 4 HCl

Properties[edit] Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide reacts with water to deposit titanium dioxide:[5]

Ti OCH(CH3)2 4 + 2 H2O → TiO2 + 4 (CH3)2CHOH

This reaction is employed in the sol-gel synthesis of TiO2-based materials in the form of powders or thin films. Typically water is added in excess to a solution of the alkoxide in an alcohol. The composition, crystallinity and morphology of the inorganic product are determined by the presence of additives (e.g. acetic acid), the amount of water (hydrolysis ratio), and reaction conditions.[5] The compound is also used as a catalyst in the preparation of certain cyclopropanes in the Kulinkovich reaction. Prochiral thioethers are oxidized enantioselectively using a catalyst derived from Ti(O-i-Pr)4.[6][7] Naming[edit] Titanium(IV) isopropoxide is a widely used item of commerce and has acquired many names in addition to those listed in the table. A sampling of the names include: titanium(IV) i-propoxide, isopropyl titanate, tetraisopropyl titanate, tetraisopropyl orthotitanate, titanium tetraisopropylate, orthotitanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, Isopropyl titanate(IV), titanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, isopropyltitanate, titanium(IV) isopropoxide, titanium tetraisopropoxide, iso-propyl titanate, titanium tetraisopropanolate, tetraisopropoxytitanium(IV), tetraisopropanolatotitanium, tetrakis(isopropoxy) titanium, tetrakis(isopropanolato) titanium, titanic acid isopropyl ester, titanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, titanium isopropoxide, titanium isopropylate, tetrakis(1-methylethoxy)titanium. References[edit]

^ Katsuki, T.; Sharpless, K. B. (1980). "The first practical method for asymmetric epoxidation". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102 (18): 5974. doi:10.1021/ja00538a077.  ^ Hill, J. G.; Sharpless, K. B.; Exon, C. M.; Regenye, R. (1985). "Enantioselective Epoxidation Of Allylic Alcohols: (2s,3s)-3-propyloxiranemethanol". Org. Syn. 63: 66. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.063.0066. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Wright, D. A.; Williams, D. A. (1968). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Titanium
Titanium
Tetramethoxide". Acta Crystallographica B. 24 (8): 1107–1114. doi:10.1107/S0567740868003766.  ^ a b Bradley, Don C.; Mehrotra, Ram C.; Rothwell, Ian P.; Singh, A. (2001). Alkoxo and Aryloxo Derivatives of Metals. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-08-048832-5.  ^ a b Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Chironi, Ilkay; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Triani, Gerry; Sorrell, Charles C. (2012). "Single and Mixed Phase TiO2 Powders Prepared by Excess Hydrolysis of Titanium
Titanium
Alkoxide". Advances in Applied Ceramics. 111 (3): 149–158. doi:10.1179/1743676111Y.0000000059.  ^ Zhao, S. H.; Samuel, O.; Kagan, H. B. (1987). "Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides Mediated by Chiral Titanium
Titanium
Complexes: Mechanistic and Synthetic Aspects". Tetrahedron. 43 (21): 5135–5144. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)87689-4.  ^ Zhao, S. H.; Samuel, O.; Kagan, H. B. (1990). "Enantioelective Oxidation of a Sulfide: (S)-(−)-Methyl p-Tolyl Sulfoxide". Organic Syntheses. 68: 49. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.068.0049. ; Collective Volume, 8, p. 464 

External links[edit]

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Titanium
Titanium
compounds

Titanium(II)

TiCl2 TiH2 TiO TiS TiSi2

Organotitanium(II) compounds

[(C5H5)2Ti(CO)2]

Titanium(III)

TiAl TiBr3 TiCl3 TiF3 TiI3 TiN TiP Ti2O3 Ti2S3

Organotitanium(III) compounds

[(C5H5)2TiCl]2

Titanium(IV)

TiB2 TiBr4 TiC TiCl4 Ti(ClO4)4 TiF4 H2TiF6 TiH4 TiI4 Ti(NMe2)4 Ti(NO3)4 TiO2 H4TiO4 Ti4(OCH2CH3)16 Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4 Ti(OCH2CH2CH2CH3)4 KTiOPO4 NiO·Sb2O3·20TiO2 TiS2 TiSe2 TiSi2

Titanate compounds

BaTiO3 Ba2TiO4 Bi4Ti3O12 CaTiO3 CaCu3Ti4O12 CaZrTi2O7 Cs2TiO3 Dy2Ti2O7 EuBaTiO4 FeTiO3 Ho2Ti2O7 Li2TiO3 MnTiO3 Na2Ti3O7 Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 NiTiO3 PbTiO3 Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 SrTiO3 ZnTiO3

Organotitanium(IV) compounds

[(C5H5)2TiCl2] [(C5H5)2Ti(CH3)2] [(C5H5)2TiS5] [(C5H5)2Ti(μ-Cl)(μ-CH2)Al(CH3)2] [(η5-C5H4-C

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