The Info List - Titanium Isopropoxide

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TITANIUM ISOPROPOXIDE, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4. This alkoxide of titanium(IV) is used in organic synthesis and materials science . It is a diamagnetic tetrahedral molecule.

The structures of the titanium alkoxides are often complex. Crystalline titanium methoxide is tetrameric with the molecular formula Ti4(OCH3)16. Alkoxides derived from bulkier alcohols such as isopropanol aggregate less. Titanium
isopropoxide is mainly a monomer in nonpolar solvents.


* 1 Preparation * 2 Properties * 3 Naming * 4 References * 5 External links


It is prepared by treating titanium tetrachloride with isopropanol . Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen chloride
is formed as a coproduct: TiCl4 + 4 (CH3)2CHOH → Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4 + 4 HCl


isopropoxide reacts with water to deposit titanium dioxide : Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4 + 2 H2O → TiO2 + 4 (CH3)2CHOH

This reaction is employed in the sol-gel synthesis of TiO2-based materials in the form of powders or thin films. Typically water is added in excess to a solution of the alkoxide in an alcohol. The composition, crystallinity and morphology of the inorganic product are determined by the presence of additives (e.g. acetic acid ), the amount of water (hydrolysis ratio), and reaction conditions.

isopropoxide is a component of the Sharpless epoxidation , a method for the synthesis of chiral epoxides. The compound is also used as a catalyst for the preparation of certain cyclopropanes in the Kulinkovich reaction . Prochiral thioethers are oxidized enantioselectively using a catalyst derived from Ti(O-i-Pr)4.


Titanium(IV) isopropoxide is a widely used item of commerce and has acquired many names in addition to those listed in the table. A sampling of the names include: titanium(IV) i-propoxide, isopropyl titanate, tetraisopropyl titanate, tetraisopropyl orthotitanate, titanium tetraisopropylate, orthotitanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, Isopropyl titanate(IV), titanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, isopropyltitanate, titanium(IV) isopropoxide, titanium tetraisopropoxide, iso-propyl titanate, titanium tetraisopropanolate, tetraisopropoxytitanium(IV), tetraisopropanolatotitanium, tetrakis(isopropoxy) titanium, tetrakis(isopropanolato) titanium, titanic acid isopropyl ester, titanic acid tetraisopropyl ester, titanium isopropoxide, titanium isopropylate, tetrakis(1-methylethoxy)titanium.


* ^ Wright, D. A.; Williams, D. A. (1968). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Titanium
Tetramethoxide". Acta Crystallographica B . 24 (8): 1107–1114. doi :10.1107/S0567740868003766 . * ^ A B Bradley, Don C. ; Mehrotra, Ram C. ; Rothwell, Ian P.; Singh, A. (2001). Alkoxo and Aryloxo Derivatives of Metals. San Diego: Academic Press . ISBN 978-0-08-048832-5 . * ^ A B Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Chironi, Ilkay; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Triani, Gerry; Sorrell, Charles C. (2012). "Single and Mixed Phase TiO2 Powders Prepared by Excess Hydrolysis of Titanium
Alkoxide". Advances in Applied Ceramics . 111 (3): 149–158. doi :10.1179/1743676111Y.0000000059 . * ^ Zhao, S. H.; Samuel, O.; Kagan, H. B. (1987). "Asymmetric Oxidation of Sulfides Mediated by Chiral Titanium
Complexes: Mechanistic and Synthetic Aspects". Tetrahedron . 43 (21): 5135–5144. doi :10.1016/S0040-4020(01)87689-4 . * ^ Zhao, S. H.; Samuel, O.; Kagan, H. B. (1990). "Enantioelective Oxidation of a Sulfide: (S)-(−)-Methyl p-Tolyl Sulfoxide". Org. Synth. 68: 49. doi :10.15227/orgsyn.068.0049 . ; Coll. Vol., 8, p. 464